Abstract

The current ocean color data processing system for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) uses the Rayleigh lookup tables that were generated using the vector radiative transfer theory with inclusion of the polarization effects. The polarization effects, however, are not accounted for in the aerosol lookup tables for the ocean color data processing. I describe a study of the aerosol polarization effects on the atmospheric correction and aerosol retrieval algorithms in the ocean color remote sensing. Using an efficient method for the multiple vector radiative transfer computations, aerosol lookup tables that include polarization effects are generated. Simulations have been carried out to evaluate the aerosol polarization effects on the derived ocean color and aerosol products for all possible solar-sensor geometries and the various aerosol optical properties. Furthermore, the new aerosol lookup tables have been implemented in the SeaWiFS data processing system and extensively tested and evaluated with SeaWiFS regional and global measurements. Results show that in open oceans (maritime environment), the aerosol polarization effects on the ocean color and aerosol products are usually negligible, while there are some noticeable effects on the derived products in the coastal regions with nonmaritime aerosols.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  54. M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color optical property data derived from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner and the French polarization and directionality of the earth's Reflectances: a comparison study," Appl. Opt. 41, 974-990 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

H. R. Gordon, "Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 44, 241-248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, "A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure," Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13606-L13610, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Wang, "Extrapolation of the aerosol reflectance from the near-infrared to the visible: the single-scattering epsilon versus multiple-scattering epsilon method," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 3637-3650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res., Part I 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Wang, "An efficient method for multiple radiative transfer computations and the lookup table generation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 78, 471-480 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "Light scattering from spherical-shell atmosphere: Earth curvature effects measured by SeaWiFS," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, 529, 530, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared," Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color optical property data derived from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner and the French polarization and directionality of the earth's Reflectances: a comparison study," Appl. Opt. 41, 974-990 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, "Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters," Appl. Opt. 39, 897-912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, "Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Rem. Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919-24,935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607-18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209-17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081-17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,107-17,118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, "Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 36, 7887-7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Morel and G. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361-14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

1991

1989

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749-10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner," Appl. Opt. 27, 862-871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

1973

1954

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters," Vol. 22 of NASA Technical Memorandum 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003).

Bailey, S.

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209-17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner," Appl. Opt. 27, 862-871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cannizzaro, J. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, 1950), p. 393.

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209-17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, "Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery," Appl. Opt. 20, 4175-4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C.

Deschamps, P. Y.

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919-24,935 (1998).
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R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361-14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner," Appl. Opt. 27, 862-871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res., Part I 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," Report AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

Franz, B. A.

Fraser, R. S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,107-17,118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919-24,935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361-14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607-18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209-17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, G.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, "Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 44, 241-248 (2005).
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M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared," Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Rem. Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, "Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 36, 7887-7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209-17,217 (1997).
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H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081-17,106 (1997).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
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M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "A simple, moderately accurate, atmospheric correction algorithm for SeaWiFS," Remote Sens. Environ. 50, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh scattering component," Appl. Opt. 31, 4247-4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner," Appl. Opt. 27, 862-871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, "Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery," Appl. Opt. 20, 4175-4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, R. W.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters," Vol. 22 of NASA Technical Memorandum 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003).

Hale, G. M.

Halthore, R. N.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res., Part I 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Isaacman, A.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Maritorena, S.

Martinolich, P. M.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters," Vol. 22 of NASA Technical Memorandum 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003).

Mattoo, S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,107-17,118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res., Part I 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color optical property data derived from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner and the French polarization and directionality of the earth's Reflectances: a comparison study," Appl. Opt. 41, 974-990 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,107-17,118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. A.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
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J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, Y.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
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A. Morel and G. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).
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A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
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A. Morel and G. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution," Appl. Opt. 30, 4427-4438 (1991).
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A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749-10,768 (1988).
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Munk, W.

Nakajima, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O'Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
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Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
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Ovidio, F.

Peterson, A.

Pietras, C.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters," Vol. 22 of NASA Technical Memorandum 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003).

Rijkeboer, M.

Robinson, W.

Robinson, W. D.

Ruddick, K. G.

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schwindling, M.

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919-24,935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361-14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," Report AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

Shi, W.

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13606-L13610, doi: (2005).
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S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
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D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
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J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607-18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
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Smirnov, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
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Stumpf, R. P.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters," Vol. 22 of NASA Technical Memorandum 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003).

Subramaniam, A.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
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H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
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Toratani, M.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
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Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209-17,217 (1997).
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H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, 1980), p. 739.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981), p. 469.

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K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
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D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209-17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
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M. Wang, "Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance," Appl. Opt. 45, 4122-4128 (2006).
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M. Wang, "A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure," Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5663 (2005).
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M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13606-L13610, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
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M. Wang, "Extrapolation of the aerosol reflectance from the near-infrared to the visible: the single-scattering epsilon versus multiple-scattering epsilon method," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 3637-3650 (2004).
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M. Wang, "Light scattering from spherical-shell atmosphere: Earth curvature effects measured by SeaWiFS," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, 529, 530, 534 (2003).
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M. Wang, "An efficient method for multiple radiative transfer computations and the lookup table generation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 78, 471-480 (2003).
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M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared," Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color optical property data derived from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner and the French polarization and directionality of the earth's Reflectances: a comparison study," Appl. Opt. 41, 974-990 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aerosol reflectance difference Δ ρ A ( λ ) ( % ) at various wavelengths between using the scalar and vector radiative transfer theory as a function of the solar-zenith angle for the aerosol model of (a) the M90 and (b) the T90 with an aerosol optical thickness of 0.1 and for the sensor-zenith angle of 55° and relative azimuth angle of 90°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vector aerosol reflectance ρ A ( V ) ( λ ) as a function of the corresponding scalar aerosol single-scattering reflectance ρ a s ( S ) ( λ ) for various aerosol models with aerosol optical thicknesses from 0.02 to 0.8 and for the wavelength at (a) 412 and (b) 865 nm. This is for a case of the solar-zenith angle of 60°, sensor-zenith angle of 45.9°, and relative azimuth angle of 90°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Difference ( % ) in the atmospheric diffuse transmittance between using the scalar and vector radiative transfer calculations as a function of the wavelength for the M90 and the T90 aerosols with an aerosol optical thickness of 0.1 and (b) the vector diffuse transmittance as a function of aerosol optical thickness for cases of the M90 model with the solar or sensor-zenith angles of 20° and 60° and at wavelengths of 412 and 555   nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Algorithm performance comparisons in the derived normalized water-leaving reflectances and aerosol optical thickness as a function of the solar-zenith angle for (a) error Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N using the scalar aerosol lookup tables for the M80 model, (b) error Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N using the vector aerosol lookup tables for the M80 model, (c) error Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N comparisons for the T80 aerosols between using the scalar and vector aerosol lookup tables, and (d) accuracy in the derived aerosol optical thickness between using the scalar and vector aerosol lookup tables for the M80 and the T80 aerosol models.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Algorithm performance comparison for the M80 and the T80 models between using the scalar and vector aerosol lookup tables for (a)–(c) histograms as a function of error Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N in the normalized water-leaving reflectance for wavelengths at 412, 443, and 490 nm, respectively, and (d) histograms as a function of the ratio value (derived∕true) in the derived aerosol optical thickness at 865   nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Color images of the SeaWiFS results acquired on 14 July 2002 from regions around the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea for (a)–(d) Chl-a, [ L w ( 443 ) ] N , [ L w ( 555 ) ] N , and τ a ( 865 ) , respectively, which are derived using the vector aerosol lookup tables, and (e)–(h) the corresponding ratio values between using the vector and scalar aerosol lookup tables in retrieval of Chl-a, [ L w ( 443 ) ] N , [ L w ( 555 ) ] N , and τ a ( 865 ) , respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Global distributions of the SeaWiFS results acquired from eight-day global data of 12–19 July 2002 for (a)–(d) Chl-a, [ L w ( 443 ) ] N , [ L w ( 555 ) ] N , and τ a ( 865 ) , respectively, which are derived using the vector aerosol lookup tables, and (e)–(h) the corresponding ratio values between using the vector and scalar aerosol lookup tables in retrieval of Chl-a, [ L w ( 443 ) ] N , [ L w ( 555 ) ] N , and τ a ( 865 ) , respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Vicarious Gains for the SeaWiFS Eight Spectral Bands

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the SeaWiFS Ocean Color and Aerosol Products a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Results in Statistics between Using the Scalar and Vector Aerosol Lookup Tables from SeaWiFS Global Eight-Day Measurements

Equations (194)

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L t ( λ )
ρ t ( λ )
π L t / ( cos θ 0 F 0 )
F 0
θ 0
ρ t ( λ ) = ρ r ( λ ) + ρ A ( λ ) + t ( λ ) ρ w c ( λ ) + T ( λ ) ρ g ( λ ) + t ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) .
T ( λ )
t ( λ )
ρ g ( λ )
ρ w c ( λ )
ρ w ( λ )
ρ w ( λ )
ρ t ( λ )
ρ r ( λ )
ρ wc ( λ )
ρ g ( λ )
ρ A ( λ )
ρ w ( λ )
ρ A ( λ )
865   nm
869   nm
ρ w ( λ )
ρ w ( λ )
ρ A ( λ )
ρ w ( λ )
ρ w ( λ )
[ ρ w ( λ ) ] N = ρ w ( λ ) / t 0 ( λ )
[ L w ( λ ) ] N
[ L w ( λ ) ] N = L w ( λ ) / { cos θ 0 t 0 ( λ ) } = F 0 ( λ ) [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N / π ,
L w ( λ )
t 0 ( λ )
[ L w ( λ ) ] N
[ L w ( λ ) ] N Exact
[ L w ( λ ) ] N Exact = [ L w ( λ ) ] N { ( f / Q ) E f f } { ( 0 / ) } ,
( f / Q ) Eff
( 0 / )
( f / Q ) Eff
ρ A ( λ )
ρ A ( λ )
ρ A ( λ )
ρ A ( λ )
865   nm
Δ ρ A ( λ ) ( % )
ρ A ( λ )
Δ ρ A ( λ )
3 % 8 %
412   nm
± 1 %
865   nm
Δ ρ A ( λ )
3 % 5 %
412   nm
3 %
+ 4 %
865   nm
ρ A ( λ )
< 80 °
28 , 500
20 40
0.1 %
28 , 500
ρ A ( V ) ( λ )
ρ a s ( S ) ( λ )
865   nm
ρ A ( V ) ( λ )
ρ a s ( S ) ( λ )
ρ A ( V ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) = i = 0 4 a i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ ) × [ ρ as ( S ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) ] i ,
a i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
ρ A ( V ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
ρ as ( S ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
2 °
a i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
ρ a s ( S ) ( λ )
ρ A ( V ) ( λ )
ρ as ( S ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) = i = 0 4 b i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ ) ×  [ ρ A ( V ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) ] i ,
b i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
ρ as ( S ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
ρ A ( V ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
865   nm
ρ as ( S ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
28 ,500
a i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
b i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
2 °
a i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
b i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
ρ A ( V ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
ρ as ( S ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
ρ A ( V ) ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a )
0.05 %
412 865   nm
a i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
b i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ )
28 , 500
0.3 %
0.8 %
t ( λ , α , τ a ) = exp [ i = 0 2 c i ( λ , α ) τ a ( λ ) i ] ,
c i ( λ , α )
τ a ( λ )
555   nm
t ( λ , α , τ a )
c i ( λ , α )
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
865   nm
( > 60 ° )
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
0.001
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
( Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N < 0 )
< 40 °
> 40 °
( Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N > 0 )
[ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
± 0.002
τ a ( 865 )
θ 0 < 40 °
θ 0 > 40 °
τ a ( 865 )
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
ρ A ( λ )
τ a ( λ )
ρ A ( λ )
[ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
[ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
[ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
865   nm
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
490   nm
τ a ( 865 )
865   nm
[ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
( 865   nm )
100 × 100
[ L w ( λ ) ] N
865   nm
α ( 510 , 865 )
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
1 m W cm 2  μ m - 1 s r - 1
10   mg   cm 3
τ a ( 865 )
0.1   mg   cm 3
0.5   mg   cm 3
10 20   mg   cm 3
τ a ( 865 )
0.5   mg   cm 3
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
5 % 10 %
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
[ L w ( λ ) ] N
555   nm
τ a ( 865 )
0.1 %
0.2 % 0.5 %
Δ ρ A ( λ ) ( % )
ρ A ( V ) ( λ )
ρ a s ( S ) ( λ )
( % )
555   nm
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
Δ [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N
865   nm
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )
[ L w ( 443 ) ] N
[ L w ( 555 ) ] N
τ a ( 865 )

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