Abstract

A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double- reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

T. Miura, K. Murakami, K. Suzuki, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohkubo, and T. Asami, "Nikon EUVL development progress summary," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 20-29 (2006).

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

F. E. Zocchi, E. Buratti, and V. Rigato, "Design and optimization of collectors for extreme ultraviolet lithography," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 61510T (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

H. Meiling, V. Banine, N. Harned, B. Blum, P. Kuerz, and H. Meijer, "Development of the ASML EUV alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 90-101 (2005).

H. Oizumi, Y. Tanaka, F. Kumasaka, I. Nishiyama, H. Kondo, M. Shiraishi, T. Oshino, K. Sugisaki, and K. Murakami, "Lithographic performance of high-numerical-aperture (NA = 0.3) EUV small-field exposure tool (HINA)," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 102-109 (2005).

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

D. W. Myers, I. V. Fomenkov, B. A. Hansson, B. C. Klene, and D. C. Brandt, "EUV source system development update: advancing along the path to HVM," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 248-259 (2005).

2004 (4)

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

G. Pareschi and V. Cotroneo, "Soft (0.1-10 keV) and hard (>10 keV) x-ray multilayer mirrors for the XEUS astronomical mission," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 53-64 (2004).

H. Tananbaum, N. E. White, K. Weaver, and R. Petre, "Constellation x-ray mission: recent developments for mission concept and technology development," in Proc. SPIE 5488, 492-504 (2004).

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

E. Spiller, "High performance multilayer coatings for EUV lithography," in Proc. SPIE 5193, 89-97 (2003).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, P. Kürz, B. Blum, G. J. Heerens, and N. Harned, "The EUV program at ASML: an update," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 24-35 (2003).

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

2001 (1)

V. Banine and R. Moors, "Extreme ultraviolet sources for lithography applications," in Proc. SPIE 4343, 203-214 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. C. Weisskopf, H. D. Tananbaum, V. Speybroeck, and S. L. O'Dell, "Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview," in Proc SPIE 4012, 2-16 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. Hudec, L. Pina, and A. Inneman, "Replicated grazing incidence x-ray optics: past, present, and future," in Proc. SPIE 3766, 62-71 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Bratt, "The Abbe sine condition and related imaging conditions in geometrical optics," in Proc. SPIE 3190, 59-64 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. de Chambure, R. Lainé, K. v. Katwijk, J. v. Casteren, and P. Glaude, "The status of x-ray mirror production for the ESA XMM spacecraft," in Proc. SPIE 2808, 362-375 (1996).

1995 (2)

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, T. Haga, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Ishii, "Evaluating of large area Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5027-5031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, and Y. Ishii, "Heat resistance of Mo/Si, MoSi2, and Mo5Si3/Si multilayers soft x-ray mirrors," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5227-5230 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

1993 (2)

R. Schlatmann, A. Keppel, Y. Xue, J. Verhoeven, and M. J. van der Wiel, "Enhanced reflectivity of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by reduction of Si atomic density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3297-3299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993); see also http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical-constants.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (2)

1985 (1)

1980 (1)

J. K. Silk, "A grazing incident microscope for x-ray imaging applications," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 342, 116-129 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, and T. Zehnpfennig, "Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy," Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3-57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1952 (2)

H. Wolter, "Mirror systems with glancing incidence as image-producing optics for x-rays," Ann. Phys. 10, 94-114 (1952).
[CrossRef]

H. Wolter, "Generalized Schwarzshild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays," Ann. Phys. 10, 286-295 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1873 (1)

E. Abbe, "Beiträge zur Theorie des Mikroskops und der Mikroskopischen Warrnehmung," Archiv fuer Mikroskopische Anatomie 9, 413-468 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Abbe, E.

E. Abbe, "Beiträge zur Theorie des Mikroskops und der Mikroskopischen Warrnehmung," Archiv fuer Mikroskopische Anatomie 9, 413-468 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, I.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Ames, A. J.

Apetz, R.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Arnaud, M.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Asami, T.

T. Miura, K. Murakami, K. Suzuki, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohkubo, and T. Asami, "Nikon EUVL development progress summary," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 20-29 (2006).

Aschenbach, A.

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

Aschenbach, B.

Ballard, W. P.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Banine, V.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, N. Harned, B. Blum, P. Kuerz, and H. Meijer, "Development of the ASML EUV alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 90-101 (2005).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, P. Kürz, B. Blum, G. J. Heerens, and N. Harned, "The EUV program at ASML: an update," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 24-35 (2003).

V. Banine and R. Moors, "Extreme ultraviolet sources for lithography applications," in Proc. SPIE 4343, 203-214 (2001).

V. Banine, "Next generation extreme ultraviolet sources for lithography applications," presented at the fourth Sematech EUVL Symposium, San Diego, Calif., 7-9 November 2005.

Barr, P. K.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Barthelmy, S. D.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Bernardez, L. J.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Bignami, G. F.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Blum, B.

H. Meiling, V. Banine, N. Harned, B. Blum, P. Kuerz, and H. Meijer, "Development of the ASML EUV alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 90-101 (2005).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, P. Kürz, B. Blum, G. J. Heerens, and N. Harned, "The EUV program at ASML: an update," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 24-35 (2003).

Bolshukhin, D.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Bonelli, G.

Brandt, D. C.

D. W. Myers, I. V. Fomenkov, B. A. Hansson, B. C. Klene, and D. C. Brandt, "EUV source system development update: advancing along the path to HVM," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 248-259 (2005).

Bratt, J.

J. Bratt, "The Abbe sine condition and related imaging conditions in geometrical optics," in Proc. SPIE 3190, 59-64 (1997).

Brauner, T.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Brauninger, H.

Briel, U. G.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Brudermann, J.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Buratti, E.

F. E. Zocchi, E. Buratti, and V. Rigato, "Design and optimization of collectors for extreme ultraviolet lithography," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 61510T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burkert, W.

Burrows, D. N.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campana, S.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Casteren, J. v.

D. de Chambure, R. Lainé, K. v. Katwijk, J. v. Casteren, and P. Glaude, "The status of x-ray mirror production for the ESA XMM spacecraft," in Proc. SPIE 2808, 362-375 (1996).

Chandhok, M.

M. Chandhok, "Scaling EUV lithography beyond 0.25 NA with applications to patterning contacts," presented at the fourth Sematech EUVL Symposium, San Diego, Calif., 7-9 November 2005.

Chapman, H. N.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Chase, R. C.

Chin, T. D.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Chincarini, G.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Citterio, O.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

O. Citterio, G. Bonelli, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, E. Santambrogio, B. Sacco, E. Lanzara, H. Brauninger, and W. Burkert, "Optics for the x-ray imaging concentrators aboard the x-ray astronomy satellite SAX," Appl. Opt. 27, 1470-1475 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cominsky, L. R.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G.

Cordier, B.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Cotroneo, V.

G. Pareschi and V. Cotroneo, "Soft (0.1-10 keV) and hard (>10 keV) x-ray multilayer mirrors for the XEUS astronomical mission," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 53-64 (2004).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993); see also http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical-constants.
[CrossRef]

de Bruijn, R.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

de Chambure, D.

D. de Chambure, R. Lainé, K. v. Katwijk, J. v. Casteren, and P. Glaude, "The status of x-ray mirror production for the ESA XMM spacecraft," in Proc. SPIE 2808, 362-375 (1996).

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

Derra, G.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Ferrando, P.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Fomenkov, I. V.

D. W. Myers, I. V. Fomenkov, B. A. Hansson, B. C. Klene, and D. C. Brandt, "EUV source system development update: advancing along the path to HVM," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 248-259 (2005).

Gabel, K.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Gehrels, N.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geier, A.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, and T. Zehnpfennig, "Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy," Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3-57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Giommi, P.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glaude, P.

D. de Chambure, R. Lainé, K. v. Katwijk, J. v. Casteren, and P. Glaude, "The status of x-ray mirror production for the ESA XMM spacecraft," in Proc. SPIE 2808, 362-375 (1996).

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Goldwurm, A.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Gondoin, Ph.

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

Gotze, S.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Groeneveld, R.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993); see also http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical-constants.
[CrossRef]

Haga, T.

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, T. Haga, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Ishii, "Evaluating of large area Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5027-5031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S. J.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Hansson, B. A.

D. W. Myers, I. V. Fomenkov, B. A. Hansson, B. C. Klene, and D. C. Brandt, "EUV source system development update: advancing along the path to HVM," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 248-259 (2005).

Harned, N.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, N. Harned, B. Blum, P. Kuerz, and H. Meijer, "Development of the ASML EUV alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 90-101 (2005).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, P. Kürz, B. Blum, G. J. Heerens, and N. Harned, "The EUV program at ASML: an update," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 24-35 (2003).

Hasinger, G.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Heerens, G. J.

H. Meiling, V. Banine, P. Kürz, B. Blum, G. J. Heerens, and N. Harned, "The EUV program at ASML: an update," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 24-35 (2003).

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993); see also http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical-constants.
[CrossRef]

Hergenhan, G.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Hernandez, R. F.

Hudec, R.

R. Hudec, L. Pina, and A. Inneman, "Replicated grazing incidence x-ray optics: past, present, and future," in Proc. SPIE 3766, 62-71 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, K. C.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inneman, A.

R. Hudec, L. Pina, and A. Inneman, "Replicated grazing incidence x-ray optics: past, present, and future," in Proc. SPIE 3766, 62-71 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, T. Haga, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Ishii, "Evaluating of large area Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5027-5031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, and Y. Ishii, "Heat resistance of Mo/Si, MoSi2, and Mo5Si3/Si multilayers soft x-ray mirrors," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5227-5230 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, M.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Jefferson, K. L.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Johnson, T. A.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Jonkers, J.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Katwijk, K. v.

D. de Chambure, R. Lainé, K. v. Katwijk, J. v. Casteren, and P. Glaude, "The status of x-ray mirror production for the ESA XMM spacecraft," in Proc. SPIE 2808, 362-375 (1996).

Kawamura, T.

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, T. Haga, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Ishii, "Evaluating of large area Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5027-5031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, and Y. Ishii, "Heat resistance of Mo/Si, MoSi2, and Mo5Si3/Si multilayers soft x-ray mirrors," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5227-5230 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keller, A.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Kendziorra, E.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Keppel, A.

R. Schlatmann, A. Keppel, Y. Xue, J. Verhoeven, and M. J. van der Wiel, "Enhanced reflectivity of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by reduction of Si atomic density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3297-3299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, H.

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, T. Haga, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Ishii, "Evaluating of large area Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5027-5031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klein, J.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Kleinschmidt, J.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Klene, B. C.

D. W. Myers, I. V. Fomenkov, B. A. Hansson, B. C. Klene, and D. C. Brandt, "EUV source system development update: advancing along the path to HVM," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 248-259 (2005).

Kletzine, Ph.

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

Kohama, Y.

T. Miura, K. Murakami, K. Suzuki, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohkubo, and T. Asami, "Nikon EUVL development progress summary," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 20-29 (2006).

Kondo, H.

H. Oizumi, Y. Tanaka, F. Kumasaka, I. Nishiyama, H. Kondo, M. Shiraishi, T. Oshino, K. Sugisaki, and K. Murakami, "Lithographic performance of high-numerical-aperture (NA = 0.3) EUV small-field exposure tool (HINA)," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 102-109 (2005).

Korobotchko, V.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Kruecken, T.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Kuerz, P.

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D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

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N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
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N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
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Meiling, H.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, N. Harned, B. Blum, P. Kuerz, and H. Meijer, "Development of the ASML EUV alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 90-101 (2005).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, P. Kürz, B. Blum, G. J. Heerens, and N. Harned, "The EUV program at ASML: an update," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 24-35 (2003).

Mertens, B.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

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H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

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N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
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Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

Strueder, L.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Sugisaki, K.

H. Oizumi, Y. Tanaka, F. Kumasaka, I. Nishiyama, H. Kondo, M. Shiraishi, T. Oshino, K. Sugisaki, and K. Murakami, "Lithographic performance of high-numerical-aperture (NA = 0.3) EUV small-field exposure tool (HINA)," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 102-109 (2005).

Suzuki, K.

T. Miura, K. Murakami, K. Suzuki, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohkubo, and T. Asami, "Nikon EUVL development progress summary," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 20-29 (2006).

Tagliaferri, G.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Takenaka, H.

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, T. Haga, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Ishii, "Evaluating of large area Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5027-5031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, and Y. Ishii, "Heat resistance of Mo/Si, MoSi2, and Mo5Si3/Si multilayers soft x-ray mirrors," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5227-5230 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

H. Oizumi, Y. Tanaka, F. Kumasaka, I. Nishiyama, H. Kondo, M. Shiraishi, T. Oshino, K. Sugisaki, and K. Murakami, "Lithographic performance of high-numerical-aperture (NA = 0.3) EUV small-field exposure tool (HINA)," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 102-109 (2005).

Tananbaum, H.

H. Tananbaum, N. E. White, K. Weaver, and R. Petre, "Constellation x-ray mission: recent developments for mission concept and technology development," in Proc. SPIE 5488, 492-504 (2004).

Tananbaum, H. D.

M. C. Weisskopf, H. D. Tananbaum, V. Speybroeck, and S. L. O'Dell, "Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview," in Proc SPIE 4012, 2-16 (2000).

Tichenor, D. A.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Turner, M. J.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

Vaiana, G. S.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, and T. Zehnpfennig, "Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy," Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3-57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

van Baars, G.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

van der Wiel, M. J.

R. Schlatmann, A. Keppel, Y. Xue, J. Verhoeven, and M. J. van der Wiel, "Enhanced reflectivity of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by reduction of Si atomic density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3297-3299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Katwijk, K.

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

VanSpeybroeck, L. P.

L. P. VanSpeybroeck and R. C. Chase, "Design parameters of paraboloid-hyperboloid telescopes for x-ray astronomy," Appl. Opt. 11, 440-448 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, and T. Zehnpfennig, "Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy," Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3-57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Vaudrevange, D.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Verhoeven, J.

R. Schlatmann, A. Keppel, Y. Xue, J. Verhoeven, and M. J. van der Wiel, "Enhanced reflectivity of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by reduction of Si atomic density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3297-3299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Voorma, H.-J.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

Wagemann, D.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Weaver, K.

H. Tananbaum, N. E. White, K. Weaver, and R. Petre, "Constellation x-ray mission: recent developments for mission concept and technology development," in Proc. SPIE 5488, 492-504 (2004).

Weber, A.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Weisskopf, M. C.

M. C. Weisskopf, H. D. Tananbaum, V. Speybroeck, and S. L. O'Dell, "Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview," in Proc SPIE 4012, 2-16 (2000).

Wells, A. A.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

White, N. E.

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Tananbaum, N. E. White, K. Weaver, and R. Petre, "Constellation x-ray mission: recent developments for mission concept and technology development," in Proc. SPIE 5488, 492-504 (2004).

Willingale, R.

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

Wolschrijn, B.

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, "Mirror systems with glancing incidence as image-producing optics for x-rays," Ann. Phys. 10, 94-114 (1952).
[CrossRef]

H. Wolter, "Generalized Schwarzshild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays," Ann. Phys. 10, 286-295 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, S.

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

Xue, Y.

R. Schlatmann, A. Keppel, Y. Xue, J. Verhoeven, and M. J. van der Wiel, "Enhanced reflectivity of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by reduction of Si atomic density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3297-3299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zehnpfennig, T.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, and T. Zehnpfennig, "Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy," Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3-57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ziener, C.

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

Zink, P.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Zitzen, O.

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

Zocchi, F. E.

F. E. Zocchi, E. Buratti, and V. Rigato, "Design and optimization of collectors for extreme ultraviolet lithography," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 61510T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. K. Silk, "A grazing incident microscope for x-ray imaging applications," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 342, 116-129 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (2)

H. Wolter, "Mirror systems with glancing incidence as image-producing optics for x-rays," Ann. Phys. 10, 94-114 (1952).
[CrossRef]

H. Wolter, "Generalized Schwarzshild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays," Ann. Phys. 10, 286-295 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Schlatmann, A. Keppel, Y. Xue, J. Verhoeven, and M. J. van der Wiel, "Enhanced reflectivity of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by reduction of Si atomic density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3297-3299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Archiv fuer Mikroskopische Anatomie (1)

E. Abbe, "Beiträge zur Theorie des Mikroskops und der Mikroskopischen Warrnehmung," Archiv fuer Mikroskopische Anatomie 9, 413-468 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

N. Gehrels, G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Meszaros, and P. W. A. Roming, "The SWIFT gamma ray burst mission," Astrophys. J. 611, 1005-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993); see also http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical-constants.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, and Y. Ishii, "Heat resistance of Mo/Si, MoSi2, and Mo5Si3/Si multilayers soft x-ray mirrors," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5227-5230 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Takenaka, T. Kawamura, T. Haga, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Ishii, "Evaluating of large area Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5027-5031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Hudec, L. Pina, and A. Inneman, "Replicated grazing incidence x-ray optics: past, present, and future," in Proc. SPIE 3766, 62-71 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Zocchi, E. Buratti, and V. Rigato, "Design and optimization of collectors for extreme ultraviolet lithography," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 61510T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, and T. Zehnpfennig, "Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy," Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3-57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

Ph. Gondoin, D. de Chambure, K. van Katwijk, Ph. Kletzine, and D. Stramaccioni, A. Aschenbach, O. Citterio, and R. Willingale, "The XMM mission," in Proc. SPIE 2279, 86-100 (1994).

M. C. Weisskopf, H. D. Tananbaum, V. Speybroeck, and S. L. O'Dell, "Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview," in Proc SPIE 4012, 2-16 (2000).

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, B. Cordier, A. Goldwurm, O. Limousin, J. Paul, J. L. Sauvageot, P. O. Petrucci, M. Mouchet, G. F. Bignami, O. Citterio, S. Campana, G. Pareschi, G. Tagliaferri, U. G. Briel, G. Hasinger, L. Strueder, P. Lechner, E. Kendziorra, and M. J. Turner, "SYMBOL-X: a new generation hard x-ray telescope," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 65-76 (2004).

G. Pareschi and V. Cotroneo, "Soft (0.1-10 keV) and hard (>10 keV) x-ray multilayer mirrors for the XEUS astronomical mission," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 53-64 (2004).

H. Tananbaum, N. E. White, K. Weaver, and R. Petre, "Constellation x-ray mission: recent developments for mission concept and technology development," in Proc. SPIE 5488, 492-504 (2004).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, N. Harned, B. Blum, P. Kuerz, and H. Meijer, "Development of the ASML EUV alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 90-101 (2005).

H. Meiling, H. Meijer, V. Banine, R. Moors, R. Groeneveld, H.-J. Voorma, U. Mickan, B. Wolschrijn, B. Mertens, G. van Baars, P. Kürz, and N. Harned, "First performance results of the ASML alpha demo tool," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 49-60 (2006).

H. Oizumi, Y. Tanaka, F. Kumasaka, I. Nishiyama, H. Kondo, M. Shiraishi, T. Oshino, K. Sugisaki, and K. Murakami, "Lithographic performance of high-numerical-aperture (NA = 0.3) EUV small-field exposure tool (HINA)," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 102-109 (2005).

T. Miura, K. Murakami, K. Suzuki, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohkubo, and T. Asami, "Nikon EUVL development progress summary," in Proc. SPIE 6151, 20-29 (2006).

U. Stamm, J. Kleinschmidt, K. Gabel, G. Hergenhan, C. Ziener, G. Schriever, I. Ahmad, D. Bolshukhin, J. Brudermann, R. de Bruijn, T. D. Chin, A. Geier, S. Gotze, A. Keller, V. Korobotchko, B. Mader, J. Ringling, and T. Brauner, "EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high-volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 236-247 (2005).

J. Pankert, R. Apetz, K. Bergmann, G. Derra, M. Janssen, J. Jonkers, J. Klein, T. Kruecken, A. List, M. Loeken, C. Metzmacher, W. Neff, S. Probst, R. Prummer, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, G. Siemons, D. Vaudrevange, D. Wagemann, A. Weber, P. Zink, and O. Zitzen, "Integrating Philips's extreme UV source in the alpha tools," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 260-271 (2005).

D. W. Myers, I. V. Fomenkov, B. A. Hansson, B. C. Klene, and D. C. Brandt, "EUV source system development update: advancing along the path to HVM," in Proc. SPIE 5751, 248-259 (2005).

V. Banine and R. Moors, "Extreme ultraviolet sources for lithography applications," in Proc. SPIE 4343, 203-214 (2001).

V. Banine, "Next generation extreme ultraviolet sources for lithography applications," presented at the fourth Sematech EUVL Symposium, San Diego, Calif., 7-9 November 2005.

E. Spiller, "High performance multilayer coatings for EUV lithography," in Proc. SPIE 5193, 89-97 (2003).

J. Bratt, "The Abbe sine condition and related imaging conditions in geometrical optics," in Proc. SPIE 3190, 59-64 (1997).

H. Meiling, V. Banine, P. Kürz, B. Blum, G. J. Heerens, and N. Harned, "The EUV program at ASML: an update," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 24-35 (2003).

D. J. O'Connell, S. H. Lee, W. P. Ballard, D. A. Tichenor, L. J. Bernardez, S. J. Haney, T. A. Johnson, P. K. Barr, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. C. Replogle, J. E. M. Goldsmith, H. N. Chapman, P. Naulleau, S. Wurm, and E. Panning, "Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand," in Proc. SPIE 5037, 83-94 (2003).

M. Chandhok, "Scaling EUV lithography beyond 0.25 NA with applications to patterning contacts," presented at the fourth Sematech EUVL Symposium, San Diego, Calif., 7-9 November 2005.

D. de Chambure, R. Lainé, K. v. Katwijk, J. v. Casteren, and P. Glaude, "The status of x-ray mirror production for the ESA XMM spacecraft," in Proc. SPIE 2808, 362-375 (1996).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual optical layout of a type I Wolter collector for EUV plasma sources. Cylindrical symmetry around the optical axis is assumed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical reflectivity of selected materials at 13.5   nm (Ref. 36).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry and conventions of the two-reflection mirror. Cylindrical symmetry around the optical axis is assumed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical layout of a nested collector based on the mirror design proposed in the paper.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total reflectivity experienced by each ray as a function of the emission angle for the design of Fig. 4 and for a type I Wolter design.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometry and conventions of the two-reflection mirror when the source focus is at infinity. Cylindrical symmetry around the optical axis is assumed.

Equations (34)

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ρ 1 u 1 + ρ 2 u 2 + ρ 3 u 3 = 2 c .
ρ 1 + ρ 2 + ρ 3 = 2 a .
d ( ρ 2 u 2 ) d t · ( u 2 u 3 ) = 0 ,
d ( ρ 1 u 1 ) d t + d ( ρ 2 u 2 ) d t + d ( ρ 3 u 3 ) d t = 0 ,
d ( ρ 1 u 1 ) d t · u 1 + d ( ρ 2 u 2 ) d t · u 2 + d ( ρ 3 u 3 ) d t · u 3 = 0 .
d ( ρ 1 u 1 ) d t · ( u 1 u 3 ) = 0 ,
θ 1 θ 3 = θ 3 θ 2 .
( ρ 2 d u 2 d t + u 2 d ρ 2 d t ) · ( u 2 u 3 ) = 0 ,
d ρ 2 d t ( 1 u 2 · u 3 ) = ρ 2 d u 2 d t · u 3 .
1 ρ 2 d ρ 2 d t = cot ( θ 3 θ 2 2 ) d θ 2 d t .
1 ρ 1 d ρ 1 d t = cot ( θ 3 θ 2 2 ) d θ 1 d t .
1 ρ 2 d ρ 2 d t = cot ( θ 2 θ 1 4 ) d θ 2 d t ,
1 ρ 1 d ρ 1 d t = cot ( θ 2 θ 1 4 ) d θ 1 d t .
d   ln ( ρ 1 ) d t + d   ln ( ρ 2 ) d t = cot ( θ 2 θ 1 4 ) d ( θ 2 θ 1 ) d t ,
ρ 2 ρ 1 = k sin - 4 ( θ 2 θ 1 4 ) ,
ρ 1 ( u 1 u 3 ) + ρ 2 ( u 2 u 3 ) + 2 a u 3 = 2 c .
ρ 1 ( u 1 · u 2 1 ) = 2 c · ( u 2 + u 3 ) 2 a ( u 2 · u 3 + 1 ) ,
ρ 2 ( u 1 · u 2 1 ) = 2 c · ( u 1 + u 3 ) 2 a ( u 2 · u 3 + 1 ) .
ρ 1 ρ 2 = 2 c cos   θ 2 cos   θ 1 cos ( θ 1 θ 2 ) 1 .
ρ 2 ρ 1 = k sin - 4 ( θ 2 θ 1 4 ) ,
ρ 1 ρ 2 = 2 c cos   θ 2 cos   θ 1 cos ( θ 1 θ 2 ) 1 ,
ρ 1  cos   θ 1 + ρ 2  cos   θ 2
+ ( 2 a ρ 1 ρ 2 ) cos ( θ 1 + θ 2 2 ) = 2 c .
a = ρ 1 , R + ρ 2 , R 2 ,
k = ρ 1 , R ρ 2 , R   sin 4 ( θ 2 , R θ 1 , R 4 ) .
η = θ 1 , R θ 1 , A R ( ψ 13 ) R ( ψ 23 ) sin   θ 1 d θ 1 = θ 1 , R θ 1 , A R 2 [ θ 1 θ 2 ( θ 1 ) 4 ] × sin θ 1 d θ 1 ,
ρ 1 + ρ 2 u 1 · u 2 + ρ 3 u 1 · u 3 = 2 c .
d ( ρ 2 u 2 + ρ 3 u 3 ) d t · ( u 1 u 3 ) = 0 ,
1 ρ 2 d ρ 2 d t = cot ( θ 2 4 ) d θ 2 d t ,
ρ 2 = k sin - 4 ( θ 2 4 ) .
ρ 1 + ρ 3 cos ( θ 2 / 2 ) = 2 c ρ 2 cos ( θ 2 ) ,
ρ 1 + ρ 3 = 2 a ρ 2 .
a = ρ 1 , R + ρ 2 , R 2 ,
k = ρ 2 , R sin 4 ( θ 2 , R 4 ) .

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