Abstract

We analyze the sensitivity of the degree of linear polarization in the Sun's principal plane as a function of aerosol microphysical parameters: the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index, the median radius and geometric standard deviation of the bimodal size distribution (both fine and coarse modes), and the relative number weight of the fine mode at a wavelength of 675nm. We use Mie theory for single-scattering simulations and the doubling–adding method with the inclusion of polarization for multiple scattering. It is shown that the behavior of the degree of linear polarization is highly sensitive to both the small mode of the bimodal size distribution and the real part of the refractive index of aerosols, as well as to the aerosol optical thickness; whereas not all parameters influence the polarization equally. A classification of the importance of the input parameters is given. This sensitivity study is applied to an analysis of ground-based polarization measurements. For the passive remote sensing of microphysical and optical properties of aerosols, a ground-based spectral polarization measuring system was built, which aims to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U in the visible (from 410 to 789nm) and near-infrared (from 674 to 995nm) spectral range with a spectral resolution of 7nm in the visible and 2.4nm in the near infrared. We compare polarization measurements taken with radiative transfer simulations under both clear- and hazy-sky conditions in an urban area (Cabauw, The Netherlands, 51.58°  N, 4.56°  E). Conclusions about the microphysical properties of aerosol are drawn from the comparison.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2003 (4)

D. Rosenfeld and G. Feingold, "Explanation of discrepancies among satellite observations of the aerosol indirect effects," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1776, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, and L. Schueller, "Cloud microphysical and radiative properties for parameterization and satellite monitoring of the indirect effect of aerosol on climate," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8632, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Chamaillard, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, D. Ceburnis, and Y. J. Yoon, "Light backscattering and scattering by nonspherical sea-salt aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80, 577-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. B. A. Koelemeijer, J. F. de Haan, and P. Stammes, "A database of spectral surface reflectivity in the range 335-772 nm derived from 5.5 years of GOME observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4070, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. Ruhtz, E. Boesche, and J. Fischer, "Development of a new sensor module for hyperspectral polarimetric measurements," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement IV, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, W. G. Egan, and M. J. Duggin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4481, 242-246 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, "A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Lohmann and G. Lesins, "Stronger constraints on the anthropogenic indirect aerosol effect," Science 298, 1012-1016 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area, and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of Absorption and Optical Properties of Key Aerosol Types Observed in Worldwide Locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

P. Stammes and J. S. Henzing, "Multispectral aerosol optical thickness at De Bilt, 1997-1999," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 283-284, special issue EAC 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schueller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and Y. Fouquart, "Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus droplet concentration," J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 803-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Vermeulen, C. Devaux, and M. Herman, "Retrieval of the scattering and microphysical properties of aerosols from ground-based optical measurements including polarization. I. Method," Appl. Opt. 39, 6207-6220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, and L. D. Travis, "Research scanning polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 3754, 186-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ledley, E. T. Sundquist, S. E. Schwartz, D. K. Hall, J. D. Fellows, and T. L. Killeen, "Climate change and greenhouse gases," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 80, 453-458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Aben, F. Helderman, and P. Stammes, "Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Takashima, K. Masuda, S. Mukai, and I. Sano, "Detection of atmospheric aerosol over Lunar Lake, Nevada, using ground-based skylight polarization measurements," Adv. Space Res. 23, 1525-1528 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. A. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schulz, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, "Modeling the radiative transfer properties of media containing particles of moderately and highly elongated shape," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4481-4484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: Effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13543-13553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Zhao, Z. B. Gong, H. L. Hu, M. Tanaka, and T. Hayasaka, "Simultaneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light," Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Breon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Mukai, I. Sano, and T. Takashima, "Investigation of atmospheric aerosols based on polarization measurements and scattering simulations," Opt. Rev. 3, 487-491, 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Preusker, U. Böttger, and J. Fischer, "Spectral and bidirectional measurements of the Stokes vector in the O2A band and their interpretation," in Atmospheric Sensing and Modeling II, R. P. Santer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2582, 13-20 (1995).

1993 (1)

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, and M. Herman, "Analysis of the POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances) airborne instrument observations over land surfaces," Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 137-154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. E. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and J. D. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Beaglehole and G. G. Carter, "Antarctic skies 2. Characterization of the intensity and polarization of skylight in a high albedo environment," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2597-2600 (1992).

W. G. Egan, "Polarization in remote sensing" in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE 1747, 2-48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

W. A. de Rooij and C. C. A. H. van der Stap, "Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions," Astron. Astrophys. 131, 237-248 (1984).

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, and T. L. Wolfe, "An assessment of the impact of pollution on global cloud albedo," Tellus Ser. B 36, 356-366 (1984).

1977 (1)

B. Fitch and K. L. Couslon, "Polarizing radiometer measurements of skylight at South Pole Station, Antarctica," in Optical Polarimetry: Instrumentation and Applications, R. M. A. Azzam and D. L. Coffeen, eds., Proc. SPIE 112, 184-190 (1977).

1976 (1)

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, and J. A. Weinman, "The Delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452-2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aben, I.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, and P. Stammes, "Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P.

R. A. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnaba, F.

F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area, and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole and G. G. Carter, "Antarctic skies 2. Characterization of the intensity and polarization of skylight in a high albedo environment," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2597-2600 (1992).

Boesche, E.

T. Ruhtz, E. Boesche, and J. Fischer, "Development of a new sensor module for hyperspectral polarimetric measurements," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement IV, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, W. G. Egan, and M. J. Duggin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4481, 242-246 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Boesche, "Aufbau und Beschreibung eines Polarisations-Spektrometers fuer die Fernerkundung der Atmosphaere," in Radiation in Atmosphere and Ocean, Book 23, J.Fischer, ed. (Institute for Space Sciences, Free University of Berlin, 2003).

Böttger, U.

R. Preusker, U. Böttger, and J. Fischer, "Spectral and bidirectional measurements of the Stokes vector in the O2A band and their interpretation," in Atmospheric Sensing and Modeling II, R. P. Santer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2582, 13-20 (1995).

Boucher, O.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, "A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenguier, J.-L.

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, and L. Schueller, "Cloud microphysical and radiative properties for parameterization and satellite monitoring of the indirect effect of aerosol on climate," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8632, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schueller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and Y. Fouquart, "Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus droplet concentration," J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 803-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F.-M.

F.-M. Breon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, and M. Herman, "Analysis of the POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances) airborne instrument observations over land surfaces," Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 137-154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, and L. D. Travis, "Research scanning polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 3754, 186-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, and E. Russell, "An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements," in Proceedings of the Seventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Meeting, ARM-CONF-1997 (San Antonio, Tex. 1997), pp. 51-57.

Callander, B. A.

J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, eds., The Science of Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 1-572.

Carlson, B. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, and E. Russell, "An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements," in Proceedings of the Seventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Meeting, ARM-CONF-1997 (San Antonio, Tex. 1997), pp. 51-57.

Carter, G. G.

D. Beaglehole and G. G. Carter, "Antarctic skies 2. Characterization of the intensity and polarization of skylight in a high albedo environment," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2597-2600 (1992).

Ceburnis, D.

K. Chamaillard, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, D. Ceburnis, and Y. J. Yoon, "Light backscattering and scattering by nonspherical sea-salt aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80, 577-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. E. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and J. D. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamaillard, K.

K. Chamaillard, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, D. Ceburnis, and Y. J. Yoon, "Light backscattering and scattering by nonspherical sea-salt aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80, 577-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

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T. S. Ledley, E. T. Sundquist, S. E. Schwartz, D. K. Hall, J. D. Fellows, and T. L. Killeen, "Climate change and greenhouse gases," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 80, 453-458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. E. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and J. D. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Wiley, 1997).

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. A. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, eds. Atmospheric Aerosols-Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics, (Deepak, 1991).

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U. Press, 1962).

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of Absorption and Optical Properties of Key Aerosol Types Observed in Worldwide Locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of Absorption and Optical Properties of Key Aerosol Types Observed in Worldwide Locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stammes, P.

R. B. A. Koelemeijer, J. F. de Haan, and P. Stammes, "A database of spectral surface reflectivity in the range 335-772 nm derived from 5.5 years of GOME observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4070, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Stammes and J. S. Henzing, "Multispectral aerosol optical thickness at De Bilt, 1997-1999," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 283-284, special issue EAC 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Aben, F. Helderman, and P. Stammes, "Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Stammes, "Spectral radiance modelling in the UV-visible range," in IRS 2000: Current problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W.L.Smith and Y.M.Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak, 2001) pp. 385-388.

P. Stammes, "Light scattering properties of aerosol and the radiation inside a planetary atmosphere," Ph.D. dissertation (Free University of Amsterdam, 1989).

Stamnes, J. J.

F. M. Schulz, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, "Modeling the radiative transfer properties of media containing particles of moderately and highly elongated shape," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4481-4484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

F. M. Schulz, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, "Modeling the radiative transfer properties of media containing particles of moderately and highly elongated shape," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4481-4484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sundquist, E. T.

T. S. Ledley, E. T. Sundquist, S. E. Schwartz, D. K. Hall, J. D. Fellows, and T. L. Killeen, "Climate change and greenhouse gases," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 80, 453-458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, T.

T. Takashima, K. Masuda, S. Mukai, and I. Sano, "Detection of atmospheric aerosol over Lunar Lake, Nevada, using ground-based skylight polarization measurements," Adv. Space Res. 23, 1525-1528 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Mukai, I. Sano, and T. Takashima, "Investigation of atmospheric aerosols based on polarization measurements and scattering simulations," Opt. Rev. 3, 487-491, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Tanre, D.

F.-M. Breon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, "A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of Absorption and Optical Properties of Key Aerosol Types Observed in Worldwide Locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Torres, O.

O. Torres, R. Decae, J. P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "OMI aerosol retrieval algorithm," in OMI Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Volume III, Clouds, Aerosols, and Surface UV Irradiance, P.Stammes, ed., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1 August 2002, http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/for_scientists/atbd/.
[PubMed]

Travis, L. D.

B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, and L. D. Travis, "Research scanning polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 3754, 186-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: Effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13543-13553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S. A.

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, and T. L. Wolfe, "An assessment of the impact of pollution on global cloud albedo," Tellus Ser. B 36, 356-366 (1984).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

van der Linden, P. J.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds., "Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis" (Cambridge U. Press, 2001).

Van der Mee, C.

J. W. Hovenier, C. Van der Mee, and H. Domke, Transfer of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres (Kluwer, 2004).

van der Stap, C. C. A. H.

W. A. de Rooij and C. C. A. H. van der Stap, "Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions," Astron. Astrophys. 131, 237-248 (1984).

Veefkind, J. P.

O. Torres, R. Decae, J. P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "OMI aerosol retrieval algorithm," in OMI Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Volume III, Clouds, Aerosols, and Surface UV Irradiance, P.Stammes, ed., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1 August 2002, http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/for_scientists/atbd/.
[PubMed]

Vermeulen, A.

Vermote, E. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, and J. A. Weinman, "The Delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452-2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W. J.

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, and J. A. Weinman, "The Delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452-2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, T. L.

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, and T. L. Wolfe, "An assessment of the impact of pollution on global cloud albedo," Tellus Ser. B 36, 356-366 (1984).

Yoon, Y. J.

K. Chamaillard, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, D. Ceburnis, and Y. J. Yoon, "Light backscattering and scattering by nonspherical sea-salt aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80, 577-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. S.

Adv. Space Res. (1)

T. Takashima, K. Masuda, S. Mukai, and I. Sano, "Detection of atmospheric aerosol over Lunar Lake, Nevada, using ground-based skylight polarization measurements," Adv. Space Res. 23, 1525-1528 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

W. A. de Rooij and C. C. A. H. van der Stap, "Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions," Astron. Astrophys. 131, 237-248 (1984).

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

T. S. Ledley, E. T. Sundquist, S. E. Schwartz, D. K. Hall, J. D. Fellows, and T. L. Killeen, "Climate change and greenhouse gases," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 80, 453-458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

D. Rosenfeld and G. Feingold, "Explanation of discrepancies among satellite observations of the aerosol indirect effects," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1776, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schulz, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, "Modeling the radiative transfer properties of media containing particles of moderately and highly elongated shape," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4481-4484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Aben, F. Helderman, and P. Stammes, "Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

P. Stammes and J. S. Henzing, "Multispectral aerosol optical thickness at De Bilt, 1997-1999," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 283-284, special issue EAC 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (3)

J. H. Joseph, W. J. Wiscombe, and J. A. Weinman, "The Delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2452-2459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of Absorption and Optical Properties of Key Aerosol Types Observed in Worldwide Locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schueller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and Y. Fouquart, "Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus droplet concentration," J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 803-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, and L. Schueller, "Cloud microphysical and radiative properties for parameterization and satellite monitoring of the indirect effect of aerosol on climate," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8632, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: Effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13543-13553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area, and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Breon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. A. Koelemeijer, J. F. de Haan, and P. Stammes, "A database of spectral surface reflectivity in the range 335-772 nm derived from 5.5 years of GOME observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4070, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Beaglehole and G. G. Carter, "Antarctic skies 2. Characterization of the intensity and polarization of skylight in a high albedo environment," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2597-2600 (1992).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

K. Chamaillard, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, D. Ceburnis, and Y. J. Yoon, "Light backscattering and scattering by nonspherical sea-salt aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80, 577-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, "A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Rev. (1)

S. Mukai, I. Sano, and T. Takashima, "Investigation of atmospheric aerosols based on polarization measurements and scattering simulations," Opt. Rev. 3, 487-491, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

W. G. Egan, "Polarization in remote sensing" in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE 1747, 2-48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, and L. D. Travis, "Research scanning polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 3754, 186-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ruhtz, E. Boesche, and J. Fischer, "Development of a new sensor module for hyperspectral polarimetric measurements," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement IV, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, W. G. Egan, and M. J. Duggin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4481, 242-246 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Fitch and K. L. Couslon, "Polarizing radiometer measurements of skylight at South Pole Station, Antarctica," in Optical Polarimetry: Instrumentation and Applications, R. M. A. Azzam and D. L. Coffeen, eds., Proc. SPIE 112, 184-190 (1977).

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, and M. Herman, "Analysis of the POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances) airborne instrument observations over land surfaces," Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 137-154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

U. Lohmann and G. Lesins, "Stronger constraints on the anthropogenic indirect aerosol effect," Science 298, 1012-1016 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. E. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and J. D. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus (1)

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, and T. L. Wolfe, "An assessment of the impact of pollution on global cloud albedo," Tellus Ser. B 36, 356-366 (1984).

Other (18)

J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, eds., The Science of Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 1-572.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds., "Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis" (Cambridge U. Press, 2001).

A. A. Lacis and M. I. Mishchenko, "Climate forcing, climate sensitivity, and climate response: A radiative modelling perspective on atmospheric aerosols" in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R.J.Charlson and J.Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, 1995).

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, and E. Russell, "An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements," in Proceedings of the Seventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Meeting, ARM-CONF-1997 (San Antonio, Tex. 1997), pp. 51-57.

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation, 2nd ed., Vol. 84 of International Geophysics Series (Academic, 2002).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, 1960).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U. Press, 1962).

J. W. Hovenier, C. Van der Mee, and H. Domke, Transfer of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres (Kluwer, 2004).

P. Stammes, "Light scattering properties of aerosol and the radiation inside a planetary atmosphere," Ph.D. dissertation (Free University of Amsterdam, 1989).

R. Preusker, U. Böttger, and J. Fischer, "Spectral and bidirectional measurements of the Stokes vector in the O2A band and their interpretation," in Atmospheric Sensing and Modeling II, R. P. Santer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2582, 13-20 (1995).

O. Dubovik, "Optimization of numerical inversion in photopolarimetric remote sensing," in Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing, G.Videen, Y.Yatskiv, and M.Mishchenko, eds. (Kluwer, 2004), pp. 65-106.

E. Boesche, "Aufbau und Beschreibung eines Polarisations-Spektrometers fuer die Fernerkundung der Atmosphaere," in Radiation in Atmosphere and Ocean, Book 23, J.Fischer, ed. (Institute for Space Sciences, Free University of Berlin, 2003).

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Wiley, 1997).

O. Torres, R. Decae, J. P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "OMI aerosol retrieval algorithm," in OMI Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Volume III, Clouds, Aerosols, and Surface UV Irradiance, P.Stammes, ed., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1 August 2002, http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/for_scientists/atbd/.
[PubMed]

G. A. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, eds. Atmospheric Aerosols-Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics, (Deepak, 1991).

J. W. de Haan, "Effects of aerosols on the brightness and polarization of cloudless planetary atmospheres," Ph.D. dissertation (Free University of Amsterdam, 1987).

P. Stammes, "Spectral radiance modelling in the UV-visible range," in IRS 2000: Current problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W.L.Smith and Y.M.Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak, 2001) pp. 385-388.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering geometry in the principal plane. The viewing direction and the solar direction are, together with the local vertical, in one plane. Θ is the scattering angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mie simulations of the degree of linear polarization P s at λ = 675 nm as a function of the scattering angle and varied aerosol parameter. The Cabauw case was used as standard input and one parameter was varied, and the others remain unchanged (see Table 1). The varied parameters are (a), (b), the imaginary part of the refractive index and (c), (d), the real part of the refractive index. The left column shows the degree of linear polarization versus the varied input parameter and scattering angle. The color bar goes from red to yellow ( P s > 0 ) to white ( P s = 0 ) and from green to blue ( P s < 0 ) . In the right column, the corresponding xy plots show slice planes of the degree of linear polarization versus the scattering angle. The slice planes are indicated in the colored figures by dashed lines. For comparison, the Cabauw case is indicated by a solid black curve in the slice plane figures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as in Fig. 1, but for the median radius of (a), (b), the fine mode and (c), (d), the coarse mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as in Fig. 1, but for the standard deviation of (a), (b), the fine mode; the standard deviation of (c), (d), the coarse mode; (e), (f), the weighting factor of the fine mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multiple scattering simulations, using DAK, of the degree of linear polarization P s at λ = 675 nm as a function of the zenith and scattering angles in the principal plane at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 ° . Negative zenith angles refer to ϕ ϕ 0 = 0 ° , and positive zenith angles to ϕ ϕ 0 = 180 ° (see Subsection 2.C). The Cabauw case (solid curve) was used as standard input, and one parameter was varied, while the others remain unchanged (see Tables 1 and 2). The varied parameters are (a) the imaginary part of the refractive index, (b) the real part of the refractive index, (c) the median radius of the fine mode, (d) the median radius of the coarse mode, (e) the standard deviation of the fine mode, (f) the standard deviation of the coarse mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as in Fig. 5, but for the weighting factor of (a) the fine mode, (b) the aerosol altitude, (c) the aerosol optical thickness, (d) the surface albedo.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Setup of the polarization spectrometer FUBISS–POLAR. The instrument measures Stokes parameters I, Q, and U simultaneously at each scan angle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum degree of polarization as a function of wavelength as measured at Cabauw, The Netherlands on 11 October 2004 at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 ° and on 8 May 2003 at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 71 ° .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Degree of linear polarization P s at λ = 675 nm as a function of the viewing zenith and scattering angles in the principal plane at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 ° , as measured on 11 October 2004 at Cabauw, The Netherlands. (a) Comparison with multiple scattering calculations for a pure molecular atmosphere (maximum of P s = 82.2 % at θ = 25 ° ), as well as for aerosol loaded atmospheres. All the input parameters are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The best fit between measurement and model result is indicated by a solid curve. (b) Comparison with an improved model fit (see Table 3).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Degree of linear polarization P s at λ = 675 nm as a function of the zenith and scattering angles in the principal plane at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 71 ° as measured on 8 May 2003 at Cabauw, The Netherlands, compared with the best fit. For the pure molecular atmosphere we derive a maximum of P s = 81.1 % at θ = 19 ° . (b) Deviation between the measurement and the model fits. Dotted lines indicate a deviation of 1%.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mie Simulation Input Parameters a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Input Parameters for the DAK Multiple Scattering Simulations a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of the Aerosol Model Parameters for Clear (11 October 2004) and Hazy (8 May 2003) Sky Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 4 Classification of the Importance of the DAK and Mie Input Parameters a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Technical Data of the FUBISS–POLAR Polarization Spectrometer

Tables Icon

Table 6 Meteorological Conditions During the Measurements

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = ( I Q U V ) = ( I 0 ° + I 90 ° I 0 ° I 90 ° I 45 ° I 135 ° I + I ) ,
P = ( Q 2 + U 2 + V 2 ) 1 / 2 I ,
P l = ( Q 2 + U 2 ) 1 / 2 I ,
P c = V I ,
P s = Q I .
( I sca Q sca U sca V sca ) = [ F 11 F 12 0 0 F 12 F 22 0 0 0 0 F 33 F 34 0 0 F 34 F 44 ] ( I in Q in U in V in ) ,
1 2 0 1 F 11 ( Θ ) sin   Θ d Θ = 1 .
n N ( r ) = d N d r = w N f 2 π ln ( σ f ) 1 r exp { 1 2 [ ln ( r ) ln ( r f ) ln ( σ f ) ] 2 } + ( 1 w ) N c 2 π ln ( σ c ) × 1 r exp { 1 2 [ ln ( r ) ln ( r c ) ln ( σ c ) ] 2 } ,
r eff, i = r i ( 1 + v eff, i ) 2.5 , i = f , c ,
v eff, i = exp [ ln ( σ i ) 2 ] 1 , i = f , c .
ln ( r S , i ) = ln ( r N , i ) + 2 ln 2 ( σ N , i ) , i = f , c ,
ln ( r V , i ) = ln ( r N , i ) + 3 ln 2 ( σ N , i ) , i = f , c .
I α = 1 2 [ I + Q   cos   2 ( γ + α ) + U   sin   2 ( γ + α ) ] ,
δ = 0 θ c F 11 ( Θ ) d Ω F 11 ( Θ c ) 0 θ c d Ω .
σ s = σ s ( 1 δ ) ,
σ e = σ e ( 1 δ ω ) .
ω = ω 1 δ 1 δ ω .
τ = ( 1 δ ω ) τ .
F 11 ( Θ ) = 1 1 δ F 11 ( Θ ) .

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