Abstract

The design of ultrafast monochromators using grazing-incidence gratings in the off-plane mount for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet femtosecond pulses in a broad spectral region is presented. Their application in the selection of high-order laser harmonics is analyzed in detail. The main advantage of the off-plane mount is a much higher efficiency than that of the classical mount. It is shown that two-grating configurations preserve the length of the optical paths of different diffracted rays, maintaining the extremely short time duration of the pulse. Configurations with plane or toroidal gratings are discussed. As a test case, the design of a monochromator for the 1761nm region with a time compensation better than 1 fs is presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006

2004

L. Poletto, "Time-compensated grazing-incidence monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. B 78, 1013-1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto and R. J. Thomas, "Stigmatic spectrometers for extended sources: design with toroidal varied-line-space (TVLS) gratings," Appl. Opt. 43, 2029-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Time-frequency analysis of single-shot high-order harmonic spectra," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, "Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, "High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868-2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Mumane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774-777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

1981

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, and R. F. Benjamin, "Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in CO2-laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649-2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. Werner and H. Visser, "X-ray monochromator designs based on extreme off-plane grating mountings," Appl. Opt. 20, 487-492 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1978

1977

1950

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Institute of Physics, 1992).

Balcou, Ph.

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774-777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, R. F.

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, and R. F. Benjamin, "Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in CO2-laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649-2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bonnemason, F.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonora, S.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brach, C.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carman, R. L.

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, and R. F. Benjamin, "Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in CO2-laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649-2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cash, W.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Cash, "Echelle spectrographs at grazing incidence," Appl. Opt. 21, 710-717 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cash and R. Kohnert, "Very high x-ray efficiency from a blazed grating," Appl. Opt. 21, 17-18 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J.-P.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Mumane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chirkin, A. S.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Institute of Physics, 1992).

Constant, E.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ederer, D. L.

J. A. R. Samson and D. L. Ederer, Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy II (Academic, 1998).

Elougal, L.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flamand, J.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, K. A.

Frueke, R.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

Gilchrist, J.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goray, L. I.

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haber, H.

Hansch, T.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilmann, R. K.

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G. E.

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, W. R.

Jaeglè, P.

P. Jaeglè, Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation (Springer, 2006).

Kan, C.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Mumane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

Kleinenberg, U.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohnert, R.

Koppitsch, R.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laming, J. M.

L'Huillier, A.

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774-777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahne, N.

Maystre, D.

McEntaffer, R.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mevel, E.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mumane, M. M.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Mumane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nannarone, S.

Neviere, M.

Nisoli, M.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterman, S.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pascolini, M.

Pohl, M.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pascolini, S. Bonora, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and L. Poletto, "Gratings in a conical diffraction mounting for an extreme-ultraviolet time-delay-compensated monochromator," Appl. Opt. 45, 3253-3262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, "Time-compensated grazing-incidence monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. B 78, 1013-1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto and R. J. Thomas, "Stigmatic spectrometers for extended sources: design with toroidal varied-line-space (TVLS) gratings," Appl. Opt. 43, 2029-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Time-frequency analysis of single-shot high-order harmonic spectra," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, "Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, "High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868-2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A. P.

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C. K.

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, and R. F. Benjamin, "Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in CO2-laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649-2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Mumane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson and D. L. Ederer, Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy II (Academic, 1998).

Sansone, G.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schattenburg, M. L.

Schnürer, M.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seely, J. F.

Sola, J.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streli, C.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

Tondello, G.

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, "High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868-2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, "Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Touzet, B.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Time-frequency analysis of single-shot high-order harmonic spectra," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, "High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868-2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, "Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses," Appl. Opt. 38, 6040-6049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, P.

Visser, H.

Vozzi, C.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, "Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of sub-10 fs pulse wavefront," Opt. Lett. 29, 207-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Institute of Physics, 1992).

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Mumane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Werner, W.

Wieland, M.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wobrauschek, P.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

P. Villoresi, "Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses," Appl. Opt. 38, 6040-6049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Werner, "X-ray efficiencies of blazed gratings in extreme off-plane mountings," Appl. Opt. 16, 2078-2080 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cash and R. Kohnert, "Very high x-ray efficiency from a blazed grating," Appl. Opt. 21, 17-18 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. M. Laming, G. E. Holland, K. A. Flanagan, R. K. Heilmann, C.-H. Chang, M. L. Schattenburg, and A. P. Rasmussen, "Efficiency of a grazing-incidence off-plane grating in the soft-x-ray region," Appl. Opt. 45, 1680-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cash, "Echelle spectrographs at grazing incidence," Appl. Opt. 21, 710-717 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, and D. Maystre, "X-ray efficiencies of gratings," Appl. Opt. 17, 843-845 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vincent, M. Neviere, and D. Maystre, "X-ray gratings: the GMS mount," Appl. Opt. 18, 1780-1783 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Werner and H. Visser, "X-ray monochromator designs based on extreme off-plane grating mountings," Appl. Opt. 20, 487-492 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pascolini, S. Bonora, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and L. Poletto, "Gratings in a conical diffraction mounting for an extreme-ultraviolet time-delay-compensated monochromator," Appl. Opt. 45, 3253-3262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto and R. J. Thomas, "Stigmatic spectrometers for extended sources: design with toroidal varied-line-space (TVLS) gratings," Appl. Opt. 43, 2029-2038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

L. Poletto, "Time-compensated grazing-incidence monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. B 78, 1013-1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, "Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nature

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Physics

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elougal, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nature Physics 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. L. Carman, C. K. Rhodes, and R. F. Benjamin, "Observation of harmonics in the visible and ultraviolet created in CO2-laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. A 24, 2649-2663 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774-777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Mumane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, "Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Time-frequency analysis of single-shot high-order harmonic spectra," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, "High-order laser harmonics detection in the EUV and soft x-ray spectral regions," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2868-2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. R. Samson and D. L. Ederer, Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy II (Academic, 1998).

P. Jaeglè, Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation (Springer, 2006).

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Institute of Physics, 1992).

"X-Ray Multilayer Results;" see http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Off-plane mount.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-delay compensated monochromator for HHs with two plane gratings in the off-plane mount.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-delay compensated monochromator for HHs with two toroidal gratings in the off-plane mount.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometry of the off-plane mount for a toroidal grating. S, source point; O, the grating vertex; I, image point; p, grating entrance arm (i.e., the distance between the source point and the grating vertex); q, grating exit arm (i.e., the distance between the grating vertex and the image point).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative variations of the nominal output arm for a toroidal grating in the off-plane mount. The azimuth angle α ranges in the 2°–10° interval. Three curves with different α R are shown.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the Time-Delay Compensated Monochromator

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Performance and Analysis of the Compensation of Optical Path Lengths for the Time-Delay Compensated Monochromator a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Analysis of the Compensation of Optical Path Lengths Within the Spectrum of the Harmonics to be Selected a

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ω 1 / 2 Δ τ 1 / 2 = 4 ln 2 = 2.77.
sin γ ( sin α + sin β ) = m λ σ ,
R = 2 p M sin θ , ρ = 2 p M sin θ ,
Δ l Δ λ = m σ p M cos β m σ p M .
Δ S H n = m σ p M Δ λ H ( n 2 ) H ( n + 2 ) 2 ,
Δ λ H ( n 2 ) H ( n + 2 ) = λ 0 ( 1 n 2 1 n + 2 ) λ 0 4 n 2 ,
Δ S H n = 2 n 2 m σ p M λ 0 .
Δ λ 1 / 2 , H n = 1 n 2 λ 0 2 Δ τ 1 / 2 2.77 2 π c ,
sin 2 δα r α + sin 2 δβ r β sin δα + sin δβ R + ( z α r α ) 2 ( 1 2 sin 2 δ α r α + sin δ α 2 R ) + ( z β r β ) 2 ( 1 2 sin 2 δ β r β + sin δ β 2 R ) = 0 ,
1 r α + 1 r β sin δα + sin δ β ρ 1 2 ( z α r α ) 2 ( 3 r α sin δα ρ ) 1 2 ( z β r β ) 2 ( 3 r β sin δβ ρ ) = 0 ,
R = p sin γ cos 2 γ cos α ×  ( 1 + tan 2 γ cos 2 α ) ( 1 + tan 2 γ 3 2 tan 2 γ sin 2 α ) 1 + tan 2 α + tan 2 γ 2 tan 2 γ sin 2 α ,
ρ = p sin γ cos α 1 + tan 2 γ ( 3 / 2 ) tan 2 γ sin 2 α 1 + tan 2 γ ( 5 / 2 ) tan 2 γ sin 2 α .
R p sin γ cos 2 γ cos α ,
ρ p sin γ cos α .
α R = sin 1 ( m λ σ 2 sin γ ) ,
q spet ( λ ) ( 2 R sin γ cos 2 γ cos α 1 p ) 1 = p cos α R 2 cos α cos α R .
q spat ( λ ) ( 2 ρ cos α sin γ 1 p ) 1 = p cos α R 2 cos α cos α R .
Δ q ( λ ) p = q ( λ ) p p = 2 cos α R cos α 2 cos α cos α R .

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