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S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical path lengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "CCD-based scanner for three-dimensional fluorescence-mediated diffuse optical tomography of small animals," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Dendrimers with tetrabenzoporphyrin cores: near-infrared phosphors for in vivo oxygen imaging," Tetrahedron 59, 3821-3831 (2003).

[CrossRef]

G. Zacharakis, H. Kambara, H. Shih, J. Ripoll, J. Grimm, Y. Saeki, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Volumetric tomography of fluorescent proteins through small animals in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 18252-18257 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. V. Rozhkov, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescent Pd porphyrin-dendrimers: tuning core accessibility by varying the hydrophobicity of the dendritic matrix," Macromolecules 35, 1991-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]

W. L. Rumsey, J. M. Vanderkooi, and D. F. Wilson, "Imaging of phosphorescence: a novel method for measuring the distribution of oxygen in perfused tissue," Science 241, 1649-1651 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Zacharakis, H. Kambara, H. Shih, J. Ripoll, J. Grimm, Y. Saeki, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Volumetric tomography of fluorescent proteins through small animals in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 18252-18257 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Saltiel and B. W. Atwater, "Spin-statistical factors in diffusion controlled reactions," in Advances in Photochemistry, D. H. Volman, G. S. Hammond, and K. Gollnick, eds. (Wiley, 1988) pp. 1-90.

[CrossRef]

G. B. Arden, R. L. Sidman, W. Arap, and R. O. Schlingemann, "Spare the rod and spoil the eye," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 764-769 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, J. Railey, and S. Arridge, "Local diffusion regularization method for optical tomography reconstruction using robust statistics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2439-2441 (2005), and references therein.

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

L. S. Ziemer, W. M. F. Lee, S. A. Vinogradov, C. Sehgal, and D. F. Wilson, "Oxygen distribution in murine tumors: characterization using oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence," J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 1503-1510 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, "Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography," Med. Phys. 32, 992-1000 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 9619-9624 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and C. L. Burch, "Origin of phosphorescence signals re-emitted from tissues," Opt. Lett. 19, 1928-1930 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Chen and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "On the use of phophorescent and fluorescent dyes for lifetime-based imaging within tissues," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model and Human Studies II, B. Chance and A. A. Alfano, eds. (SPIE Press, 1997), pp. 129-138.

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G. Zacharakis, H. Kambara, H. Shih, J. Ripoll, J. Grimm, Y. Saeki, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Volumetric tomography of fluorescent proteins through small animals in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 18252-18257 (2005).

[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]

G. B. Arden, R. L. Sidman, W. Arap, and R. O. Schlingemann, "Spare the rod and spoil the eye," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 764-769 (2005).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. Skilling, Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods, J. Skilling, ed. (Kluver, 1989) p. 45.

V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media: the inverse problem and experimental image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 43, 564-574 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media: the forward problem," Appl. Opt. 42, 113-123 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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A. Tikhonov and V. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, London, 1977).

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

W. L. Rumsey, J. M. Vanderkooi, and D. F. Wilson, "Imaging of phosphorescence: a novel method for measuring the distribution of oxygen in perfused tissue," Science 241, 1649-1651 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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S. V. Apreleva, S. V., D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Feasibility of diffuse optical imaging with long-lived luminescent probes," Opt. Lett. 31, 1082-1084 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

L. S. Ziemer, W. M. F. Lee, S. A. Vinogradov, C. Sehgal, and D. F. Wilson, "Oxygen distribution in murine tumors: characterization using oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence," J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 1503-1510 (2005).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media: the forward problem," Appl. Opt. 42, 113-123 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, "Frequency domain instrument for measuring phosphorescence lifetime distributions in heterogeneous samples," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396-3406 (2001).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov and D. F. Wilson, "Recursive maximum entropy algorithm and its application to the luminescence lifetime distribution recovery," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 849-855 (2000).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov, L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. Koch, and D. F. Wilson, "Noninvasive imaging of the distribution of oxygen in tissue in vivo using near-infrared phosphors," Biophys. J. 70, 1609-1617 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Tissue oxygen measurements using phosphorescence quenching," in Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence, M.-A. Mycek and B. W. Pogue, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003) pp. 637-662.

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Zacharakis, H. Kambara, H. Shih, J. Ripoll, J. Grimm, Y. Saeki, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Volumetric tomography of fluorescent proteins through small animals in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 18252-18257 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "CCD-based scanner for three-dimensional fluorescence-mediated diffuse optical tomography of small animals," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. V. Apreleva, S. V., D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Feasibility of diffuse optical imaging with long-lived luminescent probes," Opt. Lett. 31, 1082-1084 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

L. S. Ziemer, W. M. F. Lee, S. A. Vinogradov, C. Sehgal, and D. F. Wilson, "Oxygen distribution in murine tumors: characterization using oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence," J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 1503-1510 (2005).

[CrossRef]

V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media: the inverse problem and experimental image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 43, 564-574 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media: the forward problem," Appl. Opt. 42, 113-123 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Dunphy, S. A. Vinogradov, and D. F. Wilson, "Oxyphor R2 and G2: phosphors for measuring oxygen by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence," Anal. Biochem. 310, 191-198 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. V. Rozhkov, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescent Pd porphyrin-dendrimers: tuning core accessibility by varying the hydrophobicity of the dendritic matrix," Macromolecules 35, 1991-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, "Frequency domain instrument for measuring phosphorescence lifetime distributions in heterogeneous samples," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396-3406 (2001).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov and D. F. Wilson, "Recursive maximum entropy algorithm and its application to the luminescence lifetime distribution recovery," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 849-855 (2000).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov, L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. Koch, and D. F. Wilson, "Noninvasive imaging of the distribution of oxygen in tissue in vivo using near-infrared phosphors," Biophys. J. 70, 1609-1617 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. L. Rumsey, J. M. Vanderkooi, and D. F. Wilson, "Imaging of phosphorescence: a novel method for measuring the distribution of oxygen in perfused tissue," Science 241, 1649-1651 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. M. Vanderkooi, G. Maniara, T. J. Green, and D. F. Wilson, "An optical method for measurement of dioxygen concentration based on quenching of phosphorescence," J. Biol. Chem 262, 5476-5482 (1987).

[PubMed]

D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Tissue oxygen measurements using phosphorescence quenching," in Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence, M.-A. Mycek and B. W. Pogue, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003) pp. 637-662.

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

L. S. Ziemer, W. M. F. Lee, S. A. Vinogradov, C. Sehgal, and D. F. Wilson, "Oxygen distribution in murine tumors: characterization using oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence," J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 1503-1510 (2005).

[CrossRef]

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A. K. Livesey and J. Skilling, "Maximum entropy theory," Acta Crystal. A41, 113-122 (1985).

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V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Phosphorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media: the inverse problem and experimental image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 43, 564-574 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. A. Vinogradov, L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. Koch, and D. F. Wilson, "Noninvasive imaging of the distribution of oxygen in tissue in vivo using near-infrared phosphors," Biophys. J. 70, 1609-1617 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. B. Arden, R. L. Sidman, W. Arap, and R. O. Schlingemann, "Spare the rod and spoil the eye," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 764-769 (2005).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
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R. I. Shrager, "Quadratic programming for nonlinear regression," Commun. ACM 15, 41-45 (1972).

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[CrossRef]

J. M. Vanderkooi, G. Maniara, T. J. Green, and D. F. Wilson, "An optical method for measurement of dioxygen concentration based on quenching of phosphorescence," J. Biol. Chem 262, 5476-5482 (1987).

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[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "CCD-based scanner for three-dimensional fluorescence-mediated diffuse optical tomography of small animals," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, "Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography," Med. Phys. 32, 992-1000 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).

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[CrossRef]
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A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, J. Railey, and S. Arridge, "Local diffusion regularization method for optical tomography reconstruction using robust statistics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2439-2441 (2005), and references therein.

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. V. Apreleva, S. V., D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Feasibility of diffuse optical imaging with long-lived luminescent probes," Opt. Lett. 31, 1082-1084 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and C. L. Burch, "Origin of phosphorescence signals re-emitted from tissues," Opt. Lett. 19, 1928-1930 (1994).

[CrossRef]
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Similar porphyrin-dendrimers have been described in S. A. Vinogradov, "Arylamide dendrimers with flexible linkers via haloacyl halide method," Org. Lett. 7, 1761-1764 (2005).

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 9619-9624 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, "Frequency domain instrument for measuring phosphorescence lifetime distributions in heterogeneous samples," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396-3406 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. A. Istratov and O. F. Vyvenko, "Exponential analysis in physical phenomena," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1233-1257 (1999).

[CrossRef]

W. L. Rumsey, J. M. Vanderkooi, and D. F. Wilson, "Imaging of phosphorescence: a novel method for measuring the distribution of oxygen in perfused tissue," Science 241, 1649-1651 (1988).

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The phosphorescence quantum yield Phi(r) at the point r inside the medium is dependent on the local concentration of the quencher (oxygen) and is proportional to the phosphorescence lifetime τ(r). The quantum yield in the absence of the quencher Phi_{0} is the same for all probe molecules throughout the volume, provided that the probe molecules do not interact with the environment. Dendritically protected phosphorescent probes are designed to exclude such interactions. They have been shown to retain their photophysical properties in physiological environments, e.g., in the blood serum and interstitial fluid.

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D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, "Tissue oxygen measurements using phosphorescence quenching," in Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence, M.-A. Mycek and B. W. Pogue, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003) pp. 637-662.

[CrossRef]

J. Saltiel and B. W. Atwater, "Spin-statistical factors in diffusion controlled reactions," in Advances in Photochemistry, D. H. Volman, G. S. Hammond, and K. Gollnick, eds. (Wiley, 1988) pp. 1-90.

[CrossRef]

A. Chen and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "On the use of phophorescent and fluorescent dyes for lifetime-based imaging within tissues," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model and Human Studies II, B. Chance and A. A. Alfano, eds. (SPIE Press, 1997), pp. 129-138.

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M. C. Case and P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, 1967).

P. E. Gill, W. Murray, and M. H. Wright, Practical Optimization (Academic, 1981).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. FlannerlyNumerical Recipes in C. The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).