Abstract

Stabilization of laser frequency to interferometers with a large time delay in one arm is of significant interest to space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. A recently proposed technique allows a control bandwidth larger than the inverse delay time to be achieved. We present experimental results demonstrating laser frequency stabilization to an optical fiber delay line. A control bandwidth approximately 50 times the inverse delay time is demonstrated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

J. I. Thorpe, R. J. Cruz, S. Sankar, and G. Mueller, "Electronic phase delay--A first step towards a bench-top model of LISA," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thorpe and G. Mueller, "Experimental verification of arm-locking for LISA using electronic phase delay," Phys. Lett. A 342, 199-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and D. A. Shaddock, "Laser frequency stabilization by locking to a LISA arm," Phys. Lett. A 320, 9-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Cornish and R. W. Hellings, "The effects of orbital motion on LISA time delay interferometry," Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 4851-4860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, "LISA technology--concept, status, prospects," Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1-S9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. V. Dhurandhar, K. Rajesh Nayak, and J.-Y. Vinet, "Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis for LISA," Phys. Rev. D 65, 102002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

F. B. Estabrook, M. Tinto, and J. W. Armstrong, "Time-delay analysis of LISA gravitational wave data: Elimination of spacecraft motion effects," Phys. Rev. D 62, 042002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, C. C. Hsu, T. H. Huang, W. C. Chuang, Y. S. Tsai, J. Y. Shieh, and C. Y. Leung, "Heterodyne inteferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber," Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437-442 (2000).

1999

J. W. Armstrong, F. B. Estabrook, and M. Tinto, "Time-delay interferometry for space-based gravitational wave searches," Astrophys. J. 527, 814-826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Bløtekjær, "Fundamental noise sources which limit the ultimate resolution of fiber-optic sensors," in Proc. SPIE, 3555, 1-12 (1998).

1996

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and S. Merlo, "Thermodynamic phase noise in fiber interferometers," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 28, 43-49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, K. Hotate, and M. Ito, "Polarization properties of a reflective fiber amplifier employing a circulator and a Faraday rotator mirror," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 385-390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "Measurements of fundamental thermal induced phase fluctuations in the fiber of a Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90-92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Kråkenes and K. Bløtekjær, "Comparison of fiber-optic Sagnac and Mach-Zehnder interferometers with respect to thermal processes in the fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 682-686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

K. H. Wanser, "Fundamental phase noise limit in optical fibres due to temperature fluctuations," Electron. Lett. 28, 53-54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

N. C. Pistoni and M. Matinelli, "Polarization noise suppression in retracing optical fiber circuits," Opt. Lett. 16, 711 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 21, 518-520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. H. Glenn, "Noise in interferometric optical systems: an optical nyquist theorem," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 25, 1218-1224 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, "A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam," Opt. Comm. 72, 341-344 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1958

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and S. Merlo, "Thermodynamic phase noise in fiber interferometers," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 28, 43-49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. W.

F. B. Estabrook, M. Tinto, and J. W. Armstrong, "Time-delay analysis of LISA gravitational wave data: Elimination of spacecraft motion effects," Phys. Rev. D 62, 042002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Armstrong, F. B. Estabrook, and M. Tinto, "Time-delay interferometry for space-based gravitational wave searches," Astrophys. J. 527, 814-826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bender, P.

P. Bender, K. Danzmann, and the LISA Study Team, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: Pre-Phase A Report, Rep. MPQ233 (Max Planck Institüt für Quantenoptik, 1998).

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Billing, H.

H. Billing, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, and W. Winkler, "The Munich Gravitational Wave Detector Using Laser Interferometry," in Quantum Optics, Experimental Gravity and Measurement Theory, P.Meystre and M.O.Scully, eds. (Plenum, 1983), pp. 525-566.

Bisi, M.

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Bløtekjær, K.

K. Bløtekjær, "Fundamental noise sources which limit the ultimate resolution of fiber-optic sensors," in Proc. SPIE, 3555, 1-12 (1998).

K. Kråkenes and K. Bløtekjær, "Comparison of fiber-optic Sagnac and Mach-Zehnder interferometers with respect to thermal processes in the fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 682-686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bork, R.

Brillet, A.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Butler, I.

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Cervantes, F. Guzmán

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cesare, S.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

Chang, S.

S. Chang, C. C. Hsu, T. H. Huang, W. C. Chuang, Y. S. Tsai, J. Y. Shieh, and C. Y. Leung, "Heterodyne inteferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber," Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437-442 (2000).

Chuang, W. C.

S. Chang, C. C. Hsu, T. H. Huang, W. C. Chuang, Y. S. Tsai, J. Y. Shieh, and C. Y. Leung, "Heterodyne inteferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber," Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437-442 (2000).

Cornish, N. J.

N. J. Cornish and R. W. Hellings, "The effects of orbital motion on LISA time delay interferometry," Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 4851-4860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cruise, A. M.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Cruz, R. J.

J. I. Thorpe, R. J. Cruz, S. Sankar, and G. Mueller, "Electronic phase delay--A first step towards a bench-top model of LISA," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thorpe, R. J. Cruz, S. R. Sankar, G. Mueller, and P. McNamara, "First step toward a benchtop model of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna," Opt. Lett. 29, 2843-2845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, C.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Dandridge, A.

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "Measurements of fundamental thermal induced phase fluctuations in the fiber of a Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90-92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, "LISA technology--concept, status, prospects," Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1-S9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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S. Yamashita, K. Hotate, and M. Ito, "Polarization properties of a reflective fiber amplifier employing a circulator and a Faraday rotator mirror," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 385-390 (1996).
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Jennrich, O.

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
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H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

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H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

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Rodrigues, M.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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Rodriguez-Canabal, J.

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

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Rong, H.

Rüdenauer, F.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Rüdiger, A.

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, "LISA technology--concept, status, prospects," Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1-S9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

D. H. Shoemaker, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and L. Schnupp, "Progress with the Garching 30-meter prototype for a gravitational wave detector," in Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, R. Ruffini, ed. (North-Holland, 1986), pp. 605-614.

H. Billing, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, and W. Winkler, "The Munich Gravitational Wave Detector Using Laser Interferometry," in Quantum Optics, Experimental Gravity and Measurement Theory, P.Meystre and M.O.Scully, eds. (Plenum, 1983), pp. 525-566.

Ruedenauer, F.

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

Sandford, M.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Sankar, S.

J. I. Thorpe, R. J. Cruz, S. Sankar, and G. Mueller, "Electronic phase delay--A first step towards a bench-top model of LISA," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sankar, S. R.

Schäfer, G.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Shoemaker, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and L. Schnupp, "Progress with the Garching 30-meter prototype for a gravitational wave detector," in Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, R. Ruffini, ed. (North-Holland, 1986), pp. 605-614.

H. Billing, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, and W. Winkler, "The Munich Gravitational Wave Detector Using Laser Interferometry," in Quantum Optics, Experimental Gravity and Measurement Theory, P.Meystre and M.O.Scully, eds. (Plenum, 1983), pp. 525-566.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Schnupp, L.

H. Billing, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, and W. Winkler, "The Munich Gravitational Wave Detector Using Laser Interferometry," in Quantum Optics, Experimental Gravity and Measurement Theory, P.Meystre and M.O.Scully, eds. (Plenum, 1983), pp. 525-566.

D. H. Shoemaker, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and L. Schnupp, "Progress with the Garching 30-meter prototype for a gravitational wave detector," in Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, R. Ruffini, ed. (North-Holland, 1986), pp. 605-614.

Schulte, H. R.

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

Schulte, H.-R.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Schutz, B.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Sembely, X.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

Shaddock, D. A.

D. A. Shaddock, "Operating LISA as a Sagnac interferometer," Phys. Rev. D 69, 022001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and D. A. Shaddock, "Laser frequency stabilization by locking to a LISA arm," Phys. Lett. A 320, 9-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheard, B. S.

B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and D. A. Shaddock, "Laser frequency stabilization by locking to a LISA arm," Phys. Lett. A 320, 9-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, J. Y.

S. Chang, C. C. Hsu, T. H. Huang, W. C. Chuang, Y. S. Tsai, J. Y. Shieh, and C. Y. Leung, "Heterodyne inteferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber," Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437-442 (2000).

Shoemaker, D. H.

D. H. Shoemaker, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and L. Schnupp, "Progress with the Garching 30-meter prototype for a gravitational wave detector," in Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, R. Ruffini, ed. (North-Holland, 1986), pp. 605-614.

Sigg, D.

Speake, C.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Spero, R.

R. Spero, "The Caltech laser-interferometeric gravitational wave detector," in Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, R. Ruffini, ed. (North-Holland, 1986), pp. 615-620.

Stebbins, R. T.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Steier, F.

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sumner, T.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Thorpe, J. I.

J. I. Thorpe, R. J. Cruz, S. Sankar, and G. Mueller, "Electronic phase delay--A first step towards a bench-top model of LISA," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thorpe and G. Mueller, "Experimental verification of arm-locking for LISA using electronic phase delay," Phys. Lett. A 342, 199-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thorpe, R. J. Cruz, S. R. Sankar, G. Mueller, and P. McNamara, "First step toward a benchtop model of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna," Opt. Lett. 29, 2843-2845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tinto, M.

F. B. Estabrook, M. Tinto, and J. W. Armstrong, "Time-delay analysis of LISA gravitational wave data: Elimination of spacecraft motion effects," Phys. Rev. D 62, 042002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Armstrong, F. B. Estabrook, and M. Tinto, "Time-delay interferometry for space-based gravitational wave searches," Astrophys. J. 527, 814-826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Touboul, P.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. S.

S. Chang, C. C. Hsu, T. H. Huang, W. C. Chuang, Y. S. Tsai, J. Y. Shieh, and C. Y. Leung, "Heterodyne inteferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber," Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437-442 (2000).

Tveten, A. B.

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "Measurements of fundamental thermal induced phase fluctuations in the fiber of a Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90-92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Uehara, N.

Vaillon, L.

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Vinet, J.-Y.

S. V. Dhurandhar, K. Rajesh Nayak, and J.-Y. Vinet, "Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis for LISA," Phys. Rev. D 65, 102002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

Vitale, S.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

H. Faulks, K. Gehbauer, A. Hammesfahr, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H. R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, F. Ruedenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, M. Peterseim, M. Rodrigues, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, I. Butler, D. Robertson, and S. Vitale, Study of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Final Technical Report, Rep. LI-RP-DS-009 (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2000).

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Weidner, A.

A. F. García Marín, G. Heinzel, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, V. Wand, F. Steier, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. Weidner, O. Jennrich, F. J. Meca Meca, and K. Danzmann, "Phase locking to a LISA arm: first results on a hardware model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S235-S242 (2005).
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D. H. Shoemaker, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and L. Schnupp, "Progress with the Garching 30-meter prototype for a gravitational wave detector," in Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, R. Ruffini, ed. (North-Holland, 1986), pp. 605-614.

H. Billing, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, and W. Winkler, "The Munich Gravitational Wave Detector Using Laser Interferometry," in Quantum Optics, Experimental Gravity and Measurement Theory, P.Meystre and M.O.Scully, eds. (Plenum, 1983), pp. 525-566.

A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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A. Hammesfahr, H. Faulks, K. Gebauer, K. Honnen, U. Johann, G. Kahl, M. Kersten, L. Morgenroth, M. Riede, H.-R. Schulte, M. Bisi, S. Cesare, O. Pierre, X. Sembely, L. Vaillon, D. Hayoun, S. Heys, B. J. Kent, F. Rüdenauer, S. Marcuccio, D. Nicolini, L. Maltecca, I. Butler, J. Rodriguez-Canabal, R. Reinhard, T. Edwards, P. Bender, A. Brillet, A. M. Cruise, C. Cutler, K. Danzmann, F. Fidecaro, W. M. Folkner, J. Hough, P. McNamara, M. Peterseim, D. Robertson, M. Rodrigues, A. Rüdiger, M. Sandford, G. Schäfer, R. Schilling, B. Schutz, C. Speake, R. T. Stebbins, T. Sumner, P. Touboul, J.-Y. Vinet, S. Vitale, H. Ward, and W. Winkler, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: A Cornerstone Mission for the Observation of Gravitational Waves, System and Technology Study Report, Rep. ESA-SCI(2000)11, Modified version 1.05 (European Space Agency, 2000).

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D. H. Shoemaker, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and L. Schnupp, "Progress with the Garching 30-meter prototype for a gravitational wave detector," in Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, R. Ruffini, ed. (North-Holland, 1986), pp. 605-614.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Heterodyne Mach–Zehnder interferometer response with a large time delay in one arm of the interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Interferometer response to laser frequency noise assuming a time delay of τ = 98.5 μ s and normalized to have a frequency discriminant of 1   V / Hz at dc.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) A simplified schematic of the experiment. An AOM was used to frequency shift the beam returned through the fiber delay line by 160   MHz . The FRM was used to control the state of polarization. An rf photodetector was used to measure the 160   MHz beat note that was fed into the rf mixer. The signal generator output was frequency doubled to generate the local oscillator that was fed into the mixer for demodulation of the 160   MHz beat note. FR, Faraday rotator; FRM, Faraday rotator mirror; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; EOM, electro-optic phase modulator; BS, nonpolarizing beam splitter; RFPD, rf photodetector; PD2, photodetector 2; f × 2 = frequency doubler; LPF = 100   MHz low pass filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The time domain error signals for low bandwidth compared to high bandwidth. Trace (a) the error signal for closing the loop with the high-bandwidth controller. Trace (b) steady state operation with the high-bandwidth controller. Trace (c) the error signal when closing the loop with the low bandwidth controller. Trace (d) shows the steady state error signal with the low bandwidth controller. In trace (c) the error signal deviates from the nominal lock point before the integrator of the low bandwidth controller is turned on. This effect is less pronounced for the high-bandwidth controller since the dc gain for this controller was higher than the low-bandwidth controller.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Error signal amplitude spectral densities for (a) the low-bandwidth controller ( 2.3   kHz unity gain frequency); (b) the high-bandwidth controller (500 kHz unity gain frequency); (c) the electronic noise floor; (d) an estimate of the fiber thermal phase noise based on the Wanser model; (e) the total modeled noise including the laser frequency noise model and the fiber thermal phase noise.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Error signal amplitude spectral density converted to equivalent frequency noise: (a) low bandwidth, (b) high bandwidth, (c) equivalent fiber thermal frequency noise, (d) estimate of the Schawlow–Townes limit, and (e) is the total modeled measured noise consisting of the laser frequency noise model and the equivalent frequency noise from thermally driven fiber phase noise. The laser frequency noise model is composed of a 3.5 × 10 3 f 1   Hz / Hz component plus the estimated Schawlow–Townes limited spectrum of approximately 76 × 10 3   Hz / Hz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Measured low frequency disturbance sensitivity for low and high control bandwidths. Curve (a) is for the low bandwidth controller, while curve (b) is for the high bandwidth arm-locking controller. The dashed curve is the predicted response for the high-bandwidth arm-locking controller.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Inferred loop transfer function from the measured disturbance sensitivity. The modeled loop transfer function is plotted on top of the measured response. For comparison the dashed line corresponds to a loop response of f 0.5 with a unity gain frequency of 500   kHz as marked. In this response two significant resonances from the EOM can be seen.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameter Definitions and Values Used for Calculating the Wanser Fiber Thermal Phase Noise Model a

Equations (138)

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5 × 10 9   km
100 μ Hz 1   Hz
1 %
6 × 10 6   Hz / Hz
30   Hz / Hz
5   Hz / Hz
Δ L / L 10 20 / Hz
( 1 1000   s )
33   s
30   mHz
33   s
1 / f
112   dB
1   mHz
2   MHz
72   MHz
300 m
1064   nm
33   s
10   km
100 μ s
500   kHz
T F ( f ) = V p k 1 exp ( i 2 π f τ ) i f [ V / Hz ] ,
V p k
τ = 98.5 μ s
τ 1   Hz
( f τ 1 )
2 π τ V p k   V / Hz
( f > τ 1 )
1 / f
180 °
τ 1   Hz
10   km
1.5   mW
Φ s p ( ω ) = 2 π k B T 2 L κ λ 2 ( d n d T + n α L ) 2 ln ( k max 4 + ( ω / D t h ) 2 k min 4 + ( ω / D t h ) 2 ) rad / Hz ,
g ( t , z ) = δ [ t n z / c ] + δ [ t n ( 2 L z ) / c ] .
G ( ω , z ) = exp [ i ω n z / c ] + exp [ i ω n ( 2 L z ) / c ] .
Φ s p ( ω ) L 1 d z
Φ d p 2 ( ω ) = Φ s p 2 ( ω ) L 1 0 L | G ( ω , z ) | 2 d z = 2 [ 1 + sinc ( 2 ω n L c ) ] Φ s p 2 ( ω ) .
Φ d p ( ω ) = Φ s p ( ω ) 2 [ 1 + sinc ( 2 ω n L c ) ] .
d n / d T
n α L
0.8 × 10 5 K 1
1.8 × 10 5 K 1
9.2 × 10 6 K 1
V e ( f ) = | [ 1 exp ( i 2 π f τ ) ] i f V p k F ( f ) | 2 + | V p k Φ d p ( f ) | 2
F ( f )
Hz / Hz
Φ d p ( f )
rad / Hz
F equiv ( f ) = V e ( f ) T F ( f ) = i f V e ( f ) V p k [ 1 exp ( i 2 π f τ ) ] .
Nd : YAG
98.5 μ s
10   km
160   MHz
1   MHz
L ( f ) = F ( f ) × T F ( f ) × G ( f ) ,
G ( f )
F ( f )
T F ( f )
5   kHz
6.5   kHz
20   kHz
400 kHz
4   MHz
100   kHz
( 2.15   dB )
f 0.5
165 mV pk
100   V / MHz
500   kHz
15   s
10.5 mV rms
1.4 m V rms
2.3   kHz
5   kHz
F ( f )
3.5 × 10 3 f 1   Hz / Hz
40   kHz
Hz / Hz
F S T ( f ) = 1 2 π t c 4 π ħ f c P ,
f c
2 π
t c
3.84   ns
76   mHz / Hz
12   kHz
2.3   kHz
3   kHz
20   kHz
80   kHz
5   kHz
5   kHz
D ( f ) = 1 1 + L ( f ) .
100   Hz
100   kHz
2.3   kHz
6   dB
10   kHz
8   kHz
10   dB
4   dB
16   dB
15   kHz
S D ( f )
L ( f ) = D 1 ( f ) 1.
100   kHz
100   kHz
760   kHz
1.69   MHz
500   kHz
f 0.5
500   kHz
500   kHz
10   km
98.5 μ s
10.1   kHz
500   kHz
100   kHz
1.69   MHz
98.5 μ s
10.5 mV rms
( 2.3   kHz
1.4 m V rms
( 500   kHz
τ = 98.5 μ s
1   V / Hz
160   MHz
160   MHz
160   MHz
λ / 2
f × 2
LPF = 100   MHz
( 2.3   kHz
3.5 × 10 3 f 1   Hz / Hz
76 × 10 3   Hz / Hz
f 0.5
500   kHz

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