Abstract

We present a lidar concept for wind-speed measurements, in which a pulsed laser is used as the source for measurement and reference beams. A fraction of the transmitted pulse is stored in a fiber-optic ring resonator with a path length longer than the pulse. The output of the resonator is a pulse train that is used as the reference beam and can be mixed with the Doppler-shifted measurement signal. Because this reference has traveled a distance equivalent to the measurement beam's path length, low-coherence sources can be used. Inserting an erbium-doped fiber amplifier into the resonator ensures that the stored pulses do not decay in amplitude. Experiments prove that 16 reference pulses of sufficiently constant amplitude and stability can be generated. This would correspond to a measurement range of 240  m in free air over which the returned signal is sampled at equal intervals. Velocity measurements of a hard target have been carried out in the range of 110  m∕s. The Doppler-measured velocities agree with tachometer reference measurements within ±0.09  m∕s.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2003 (1)

C. M. Shun, "Ongoing research in Hong Kong has led to improved wind shear and turbulence alerts," Int. Civ. Aviat. Org. (ICAO) J. 58, 4-6 (2003).

2002 (2)

I. J. Sola, J. C. Martin, and J. M. Alvarez, "980 and 1480 nm EDF characterization by ring tunable laser dynamic study," Opt. Commun. 203, 349-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokota, K. Kamoto, J. Igarashi, N. Mouri, and Y. Sasaki, "An ASE reduction filter using cascaded optical fiber grating couplers in EDFA repeater," Opt. Rev. 9, 9-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (2)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

Alvarez, J. M.

I. J. Sola, J. C. Martin, and J. M. Alvarez, "980 and 1480 nm EDF characterization by ring tunable laser dynamic study," Opt. Commun. 203, 349-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ames, L. L.

Bogue, R. K.

D. C. Soreide, R. K. Bogue, L. J. Ehernberger, S. M. Hannon, and D. A. Bowdle, "Airborne coherent LIDAR for advanced in-flight measurements (ACLAIM) flight testing of the LIDAR sensor," NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Rep. H-2428, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/pdf/88701main_H-2428.pdf (2000).

Bowdle, D. A.

D. C. Soreide, R. K. Bogue, L. J. Ehernberger, S. M. Hannon, and D. A. Bowdle, "Airborne coherent LIDAR for advanced in-flight measurements (ACLAIM) flight testing of the LIDAR sensor," NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Rep. H-2428, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/pdf/88701main_H-2428.pdf (2000).

Bowles, R. L.

Brockman, P.

Calloway, R. S.

Danehy, P. M.

Desurvire, E.

R. Giles and E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dorrington, A. A.

Drain, L. E.

L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, 1980).

Ehernberger, L. J.

D. C. Soreide, R. K. Bogue, L. J. Ehernberger, S. M. Hannon, and D. A. Bowdle, "Airborne coherent LIDAR for advanced in-flight measurements (ACLAIM) flight testing of the LIDAR sensor," NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Rep. H-2428, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/pdf/88701main_H-2428.pdf (2000).

Forney, P.

Gentry, B. M.

Giles, R.

R. Giles and E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, S. M.

D. C. Soreide, R. K. Bogue, L. J. Ehernberger, S. M. Hannon, and D. A. Bowdle, "Airborne coherent LIDAR for advanced in-flight measurements (ACLAIM) flight testing of the LIDAR sensor," NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Rep. H-2428, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/pdf/88701main_H-2428.pdf (2000).

Hawley, J. G.

Huffaker, R. M.

Igarashi, J.

H. Yokota, K. Kamoto, J. Igarashi, N. Mouri, and Y. Sasaki, "An ASE reduction filter using cascaded optical fiber grating couplers in EDFA repeater," Opt. Rev. 9, 9-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kamoto, K.

H. Yokota, K. Kamoto, J. Igarashi, N. Mouri, and Y. Sasaki, "An ASE reduction filter using cascaded optical fiber grating couplers in EDFA repeater," Opt. Rev. 9, 9-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Klein, S. Harrell

Korb, C. L.

Künnemeyer, R.

Li, S. X.

Martin, J. C.

I. J. Sola, J. C. Martin, and J. M. Alvarez, "980 and 1480 nm EDF characterization by ring tunable laser dynamic study," Opt. Commun. 203, 349-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mouri, N.

H. Yokota, K. Kamoto, J. Igarashi, N. Mouri, and Y. Sasaki, "An ASE reduction filter using cascaded optical fiber grating couplers in EDFA repeater," Opt. Rev. 9, 9-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otto, R. G.

Robinson, P. A.

Sasaki, Y.

H. Yokota, K. Kamoto, J. Igarashi, N. Mouri, and Y. Sasaki, "An ASE reduction filter using cascaded optical fiber grating couplers in EDFA repeater," Opt. Rev. 9, 9-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shun, C. M.

C. M. Shun, "Ongoing research in Hong Kong has led to improved wind shear and turbulence alerts," Int. Civ. Aviat. Org. (ICAO) J. 58, 4-6 (2003).

Sola, I. J.

I. J. Sola, J. C. Martin, and J. M. Alvarez, "980 and 1480 nm EDF characterization by ring tunable laser dynamic study," Opt. Commun. 203, 349-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soreide, D. C.

D. C. Soreide, R. K. Bogue, L. J. Ehernberger, S. M. Hannon, and D. A. Bowdle, "Airborne coherent LIDAR for advanced in-flight measurements (ACLAIM) flight testing of the LIDAR sensor," NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Rep. H-2428, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/pdf/88701main_H-2428.pdf (2000).

Steakley, B. C.

Stone, R.

Swanson, D.

Targ, R.

Yokota, H.

H. Yokota, K. Kamoto, J. Igarashi, N. Mouri, and Y. Sasaki, "An ASE reduction filter using cascaded optical fiber grating couplers in EDFA repeater," Opt. Rev. 9, 9-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zarifis, V.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Int. Civ. Aviat. Org. (1)

C. M. Shun, "Ongoing research in Hong Kong has led to improved wind shear and turbulence alerts," Int. Civ. Aviat. Org. (ICAO) J. 58, 4-6 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. Giles and E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. J. Sola, J. C. Martin, and J. M. Alvarez, "980 and 1480 nm EDF characterization by ring tunable laser dynamic study," Opt. Commun. 203, 349-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Yokota, K. Kamoto, J. Igarashi, N. Mouri, and Y. Sasaki, "An ASE reduction filter using cascaded optical fiber grating couplers in EDFA repeater," Opt. Rev. 9, 9-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

D. C. Soreide, R. K. Bogue, L. J. Ehernberger, S. M. Hannon, and D. A. Bowdle, "Airborne coherent LIDAR for advanced in-flight measurements (ACLAIM) flight testing of the LIDAR sensor," NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Rep. H-2428, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/pdf/88701main_H-2428.pdf (2000).

L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, 1980).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Amplified reference beam storage loop.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output pulse train for the amplified storage loop.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup used for velocity measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beat frequency spectrum using the first reference pulse and a speed of 1 m∕s (upper trace) and 10 m∕s (lower trace).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Doppler versus tachometer-measured velocity for all 16 reference pulses. SD, standard deviation.

Equations (1)

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f D = ( 2 ν cos θ ) / λ ,

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