Abstract

Detectors have historically been calibrated for spectral power responsivity at the National Institute of Standards and Technology by using a lamp–monochromator system to tune the wavelength of the excitation source. Silicon detectors can be calibrated in the visible spectral region with combined standard uncertainties at the 0.1% level. However, uncertainties increase dramatically when measuring an instrument's spectral irradiance or radiance responsivity. We describe what we believe to be a new laser-based facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCUS) that was developed to calibrate instruments directly in irradiance or radiance mode with uncertainties approaching or exceeding those available for spectral power responsivity calibrations. In SIRCUS, the emission from high-power, tunable lasers is introduced into an integrating sphere using optical fibers, producing uniform, quasi-Lambertian, high-radiant-flux sources. Reference standard irradiance detectors, calibrated directly against national primary standards for spectral power responsivity and aperture area measurement, are used to determine the irradiance at a reference plane. Knowing the measurement geometry, the source radiance can be readily determined as well. The radiometric properties of the SIRCUS source coupled with state-of-the-art transfer standard radiometers whose responsivities are directly traceable to primary national radiometric scales result in typical combined standard uncertainties in irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations of less than 0.1%. The details of the facility and its effect on primary national radiometric scales are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

J. M. Houston and J. P. Rice, "NIST reference cryogenic radiometer designed for versatile performance," Metrologia 43, S31-S35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (8)

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, C. C. Miller, and K. R. Lykke, "Improved accuracy photometric and tristimulus-color scales based on spectral irradiance responsivity," Proceedings of the 25th Session of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Vol. 1, pp. D2-30-D32-33 (2003).

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Fowler and M. Litorja, "Geometric area measurements of circular apertures for radiometry at NIST," Metrologia 40, S9-S12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gardner, "Correlations in primary spectral standards," Metrologia 40, S167-S176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Noorma, P. Toivanen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of filter radiometers with a wavelength-tunable laser source," Metrologia 40, S220-S223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, and L. M. Hanssen, "Spectral responsivity determination of a transfer-standard pyroelectric radiometer," in Proc. SPIE 4818, 118-126 (2002).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, and P. Y. Barnes, "Realization of the National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based spectral irradiance scale," Appl. Opt. 41, 5879-5890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. A. Early, B. C. Bush, S. W. Brown, D. W. Allen, and B. C. Johnson, "Radiometric calibration of the Scripps Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera," in Proc. SPIE 4483, 77-84 (2001).

L. E. Jusinski and C. A. Taatjes, "Efficient and stable operation of an Ar+-pumped continuous-wave ring laser from 505-560 nm using a coumarin dye," Rev. Sci. Instrum 72, 2837-2838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

G. P. Eppeldauer and D. C. Lynch, "Opto-mechanical and electronic design of a tunnel-trap Si- radiometer," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 813-828 (2000).

G. Eppeldauer, "Noise-optimized silicon radiometers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 209-219 (2000).

J. L. Gardner, "Correlated color temperature-uncertainty and estimation," Metrologia 37, 381-384 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, T. C. Larason, M. Racz, and K. R. Lykke, "Realization of a spectral radiance responsivity scale with a laser-based source and Si radiance meters," Metrologia 37, 531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

G. P. Eppeldauer, "Spectral response based calibration method of tristimulus colorimeters," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 615-619 (1998).

K. R. Lykke, P.-S. Shaw, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, "Development of a monochromatic, uniform source facility for calibration of radiance and irradiance detectors from 0.2 micrometer to 12 micrometer," Metrologia 35, 479-484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Hartree, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "The use of a mode-locked laser for ultraviolet radiometry," Metrologia 35, 339-343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, and T. Larason, "Optical characterization of diffuser-input standard irradiance meters," in Proc. SPIE 3573, 220-224 (1998).

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Eppeldauer, "Electronic characteristics of Ge and InGaAs radiometers," in Proc. SPIE 3061-97, 833-838 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

1995 (1)

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, and D. H. Nettleton, "Absolute spectral radiometric determination of the thermodynamic temperatures of the melting/freezing points of gold, silver, and aluminium," Metrologia 28, 357-374 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Eppeldauer and J. E. Hardis, "Fourteen-decade photocurrent measurements with large-area silicon photodiodes at room temperature," Appl. Opt. 30, 3091-3099 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

H. Preston-Thomas, "The international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90)," Metrologia 27, 3-10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, and J. B. Shumaker, "Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49-67 (1990).

1986 (3)

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiodes physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

D. J. Pugh and K. Jackson, "Automatic gauge block measurement using multiple wavelength interferometry," in Proc. SPIE 656, 244-250 (1986).

P. F. Moulton, "Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125-133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1974 (1)

J. M. Yarborough, "cw dye laser emission spanning the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 629-630 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

O. G. Peterson, S. A. Tuccio, and B. B. Snavely, "cw operation of an organic dye solution laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 245-247 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D. W.

E. A. Early, B. C. Bush, S. W. Brown, D. W. Allen, and B. C. Johnson, "Radiometric calibration of the Scripps Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera," in Proc. SPIE 4483, 77-84 (2001).

H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, C. E. Gibson, and H. W. Yoon, "The development and characterization of an absolute pyrometer calibrated for radiance responsivity," in International Temperature Symposium (Chicago, Ill., 2003).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "The realization and the dissemination of the detector-based kelvin," in Proceedings of Tempmeko 04 (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004).

Anderson, V. E.

Arp, U.

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, P. Y.

Barnes, R. A.

N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

Booker, R. L.

R. L. Booker and D. A. McSparron, Photometric Calibrations (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Brady, R. H.

Brown, S. W.

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, C. C. Miller, and K. R. Lykke, "Improved accuracy photometric and tristimulus-color scales based on spectral irradiance responsivity," Proceedings of the 25th Session of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Vol. 1, pp. D2-30-D32-33 (2003).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

E. A. Early, B. C. Bush, S. W. Brown, D. W. Allen, and B. C. Johnson, "Radiometric calibration of the Scripps Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera," in Proc. SPIE 4483, 77-84 (2001).

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, T. C. Larason, M. Racz, and K. R. Lykke, "Realization of a spectral radiance responsivity scale with a laser-based source and Si radiance meters," Metrologia 37, 531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "The realization and the dissemination of the detector-based kelvin," in Proceedings of Tempmeko 04 (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004).

H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

Bruce, S. S.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, and A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998).

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Clark, D. K.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Craig, B.

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
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Duda, C. R.

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E. A. Early, B. C. Bush, S. W. Brown, D. W. Allen, and B. C. Johnson, "Radiometric calibration of the Scripps Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera," in Proc. SPIE 4483, 77-84 (2001).

E. A. Early, NIST, Gaithersburg, Md. (personal communication, 2005).

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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, and T. Larason, "Optical characterization of diffuser-input standard irradiance meters," in Proc. SPIE 3573, 220-224 (1998).

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G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, C. C. Miller, and K. R. Lykke, "Improved accuracy photometric and tristimulus-color scales based on spectral irradiance responsivity," Proceedings of the 25th Session of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Vol. 1, pp. D2-30-D32-33 (2003).

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, T. C. Larason, M. Racz, and K. R. Lykke, "Realization of a spectral radiance responsivity scale with a laser-based source and Si radiance meters," Metrologia 37, 531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer and D. C. Lynch, "Opto-mechanical and electronic design of a tunnel-trap Si- radiometer," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 813-828 (2000).

K. R. Lykke, P.-S. Shaw, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, "Development of a monochromatic, uniform source facility for calibration of radiance and irradiance detectors from 0.2 micrometer to 12 micrometer," Metrologia 35, 479-484 (1998).
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N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

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S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
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S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

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S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
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S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

Foujots, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
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J. Fowler and M. Litorja, "Geometric area measurements of circular apertures for radiometry at NIST," Metrologia 40, S9-S12 (2003).
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N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

C. Pietras, M. Miller, R. Frouin, E. J. Welton, and I. Slutsker, "Calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors," in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, R. B. G. S. Fargion and C. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001).

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H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

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G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
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G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, and L. M. Hanssen, "Spectral responsivity determination of a transfer-standard pyroelectric radiometer," in Proc. SPIE 4818, 118-126 (2002).

K. R. Lykke, P.-S. Shaw, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, "Development of a monochromatic, uniform source facility for calibration of radiance and irradiance detectors from 0.2 micrometer to 12 micrometer," Metrologia 35, 479-484 (1998).
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Hartree, W. S.

W. S. Hartree, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "The use of a mode-locked laser for ultraviolet radiometry," Metrologia 35, 339-343 (1998).
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W. S. Hartree, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "The use of a mode-locked laser for ultraviolet radiometry," Metrologia 35, 339-343 (1998).
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G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
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E. A. Early, B. C. Bush, S. W. Brown, D. W. Allen, and B. C. Johnson, "Radiometric calibration of the Scripps Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera," in Proc. SPIE 4483, 77-84 (2001).

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, C. E. Gibson, and H. W. Yoon, "The development and characterization of an absolute pyrometer calibrated for radiance responsivity," in International Temperature Symposium (Chicago, Ill., 2003).

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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

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G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, and T. Larason, "Optical characterization of diffuser-input standard irradiance meters," in Proc. SPIE 3573, 220-224 (1998).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larason, T. C.

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, T. C. Larason, M. Racz, and K. R. Lykke, "Realization of a spectral radiance responsivity scale with a laser-based source and Si radiance meters," Metrologia 37, 531-534 (2000).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Litorja, M.

J. Fowler and M. Litorja, "Geometric area measurements of circular apertures for radiometry at NIST," Metrologia 40, S9-S12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "The realization and the dissemination of the detector-based kelvin," in Proceedings of Tempmeko 04 (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004).

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Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
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S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, C. C. Miller, and K. R. Lykke, "Improved accuracy photometric and tristimulus-color scales based on spectral irradiance responsivity," Proceedings of the 25th Session of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Vol. 1, pp. D2-30-D32-33 (2003).

N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, T. C. Larason, M. Racz, and K. R. Lykke, "Realization of a spectral radiance responsivity scale with a laser-based source and Si radiance meters," Metrologia 37, 531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Lykke, P.-S. Shaw, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, "Development of a monochromatic, uniform source facility for calibration of radiance and irradiance detectors from 0.2 micrometer to 12 micrometer," Metrologia 35, 479-484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "The realization and the dissemination of the detector-based kelvin," in Proceedings of Tempmeko 04 (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004).

H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

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G. P. Eppeldauer and D. C. Lynch, "Opto-mechanical and electronic design of a tunnel-trap Si- radiometer," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 813-828 (2000).

Mande, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Noorma, P. Toivanen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of filter radiometers with a wavelength-tunable laser source," Metrologia 40, S220-S223 (2003).
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G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, C. C. Miller, and K. R. Lykke, "Improved accuracy photometric and tristimulus-color scales based on spectral irradiance responsivity," Proceedings of the 25th Session of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Vol. 1, pp. D2-30-D32-33 (2003).

Miller, M.

C. Pietras, M. Miller, R. Frouin, E. J. Welton, and I. Slutsker, "Calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors," in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, R. B. G. S. Fargion and C. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001).

Mori, Y.

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
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Moulton, P. F.

Mueller, J.

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

Nakai, S. M.

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
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Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Nakano, K.

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
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V. E. Anderson, N. P. Fox, and D. H. Nettleton, "Highly stable, monochromatic and tunable optical radiation source and its application to high accuracy spectrophotometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 536-545 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, and D. H. Nettleton, "Absolute spectral radiometric determination of the thermodynamic temperatures of the melting/freezing points of gold, silver, and aluminium," Metrologia 28, 357-374 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, S.

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noorma, M.

M. Noorma, P. Toivanen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of filter radiometers with a wavelength-tunable laser source," Metrologia 40, S220-S223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Parr, A. C.

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, and A. C. Parr, "National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer," Appl. Opt. 35, 1056-1068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. Larason, and A. C. Parr, "National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based photometric scales," Appl. Opt. 32, 2936-2948 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Gibson, B. K. Tsai, and A. C. Parr, Radiance Temperature Calibrations (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998).

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, and A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998).

Peetermans, W.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, O. G.

O. G. Peterson, S. A. Tuccio, and B. B. Snavely, "cw operation of an organic dye solution laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 245-247 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

C. Pietras, M. Miller, R. Frouin, E. J. Welton, and I. Slutsker, "Calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors," in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, R. B. G. S. Fargion and C. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001).

Preston-Thomas, H.

H. Preston-Thomas, "The international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90)," Metrologia 27, 3-10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, W.

Pugh, D. J.

D. J. Pugh and K. Jackson, "Automatic gauge block measurement using multiple wavelength interferometry," in Proc. SPIE 656, 244-250 (1986).

Racz, M.

G. P. Eppeldauer and M. Racz, "Design and characterization of a photometer-colorimeter standard," Appl. Opt. 43, 2621-2631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, and L. M. Hanssen, "Spectral responsivity determination of a transfer-standard pyroelectric radiometer," in Proc. SPIE 4818, 118-126 (2002).

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, T. C. Larason, M. Racz, and K. R. Lykke, "Realization of a spectral radiance responsivity scale with a laser-based source and Si radiance meters," Metrologia 37, 531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, and T. Larason, "Optical characterization of diffuser-input standard irradiance meters," in Proc. SPIE 3573, 220-224 (1998).

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Resnick, R.

D. Halliday and R. Resnick, Fundamentals of Physics (Wiley, 1981).

Rice, J. P.

J. M. Houston and J. P. Rice, "NIST reference cryogenic radiometer designed for versatile performance," Metrologia 43, S31-S35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R. D.

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, and J. B. Shumaker, "Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49-67 (1990).

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiodes physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, C. E. Gibson, and H. W. Yoon, "The development and characterization of an absolute pyrometer calibrated for radiance responsivity," in International Temperature Symposium (Chicago, Ill., 2003).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "The realization and the dissemination of the detector-based kelvin," in Proceedings of Tempmeko 04 (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Schaefer, A. R.

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiodes physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

A. R. Schaefer and K. L. Eckerle, "Spectrophotometric tests using a dye-laser-based radiometric characterization facility," Appl. Opt. 23, 250-256 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schanda, J. D.

J. D. Schanda, "Colorimetry," in Handbook of Applied Photometry, C. DeCusatis, ed. (Springer, 1998), pp. 327-412.

Schwinger, J.

J. Schwinger, "On the classical radiation of accelerated electrons," Phys. Rev. 75, 1912-1925 (1949).

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P.-S.

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Lykke, P.-S. Shaw, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, "Development of a monochromatic, uniform source facility for calibration of radiance and irradiance detectors from 0.2 micrometer to 12 micrometer," Metrologia 35, 479-484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shumaker, J. B.

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, and J. B. Shumaker, "Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49-67 (1990).

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Pietras, M. Miller, R. Frouin, E. J. Welton, and I. Slutsker, "Calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors," in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, R. B. G. S. Fargion and C. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001).

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snavely, B. B.

O. G. Peterson, S. A. Tuccio, and B. B. Snavely, "cw operation of an organic dye solution laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 245-247 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Souaidia, N.

N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

Sperling, A.

A. Sperling, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany (personal communication, 2005).

Stone, T.

T. Stone, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz., (personal communication, 2005).

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

T. Stone, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. (personal communication, 2005).

Taatjes, C. A.

L. E. Jusinski and C. A. Taatjes, "Efficient and stable operation of an Ar+-pumped continuous-wave ring laser from 505-560 nm using a coumarin dye," Rev. Sci. Instrum 72, 2837-2838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toivanen, P.

M. Noorma, P. Toivanen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of filter radiometers with a wavelength-tunable laser source," Metrologia 40, S220-S223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, B. K.

C. E. Gibson, B. K. Tsai, and A. C. Parr, Radiance Temperature Calibrations (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998).

Tuccio, S. A.

O. G. Peterson, S. A. Tuccio, and B. B. Snavely, "cw operation of an organic dye solution laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 245-247 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Welton, E. J.

C. Pietras, M. Miller, R. Frouin, E. J. Welton, and I. Slutsker, "Calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors," in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, R. B. G. S. Fargion and C. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001).

Yarborough, J. M.

J. M. Yarborough, "cw dye laser emission spanning the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 629-630 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yarborough, M. A.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yarbrough, M. A.

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

Yoon, H. W.

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, and P. Y. Barnes, "Realization of the National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based spectral irradiance scale," Appl. Opt. 41, 5879-5890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, C. E. Gibson, and H. W. Yoon, "The development and characterization of an absolute pyrometer calibrated for radiance responsivity," in International Temperature Symposium (Chicago, Ill., 2003).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "The realization and the dissemination of the detector-based kelvin," in Proceedings of Tempmeko 04 (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004).

H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

S. W. Brown, D. K. Clark, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, K. R. Lykke, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, R. A. Barnes, Y. S. Kim, T. Stone, and J. Mueller, eds., Advances in Radiometry for Ocean Color (NASA, 2004).

Zalewski, E. F.

Zhou, W.-L.

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

Appl. Opt. (11)

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, and A. C. Parr, "National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer," Appl. Opt. 35, 1056-1068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, and C. L. Cromer, "Realization of a scale of absolute spectral response using the NIST high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer," Appl. Opt. 35, 4392-4403 (1996).
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A. R. Schaefer and K. L. Eckerle, "Spectrophotometric tests using a dye-laser-based radiometric characterization facility," Appl. Opt. 23, 250-256 (1984).
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V. E. Anderson, N. P. Fox, and D. H. Nettleton, "Highly stable, monochromatic and tunable optical radiation source and its application to high accuracy spectrophotometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 536-545 (1992).
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T. F. Johnston, R. H. Brady, and W. Proffitt, "Powerful single-frequency ring dye laser spanning the visible spectrum," Appl. Opt. 21, 2307-2316 (1982).
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E. F. Zalewski and C. R. Duda, "Silicon photodiode device with 100% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Opt. 22, 2867-2873 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eppeldauer and J. E. Hardis, "Fourteen-decade photocurrent measurements with large-area silicon photodiodes at room temperature," Appl. Opt. 30, 3091-3099 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, and P. Y. Barnes, "Realization of the National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based spectral irradiance scale," Appl. Opt. 41, 5879-5890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. Larason, and A. C. Parr, "National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based photometric scales," Appl. Opt. 32, 2936-2948 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Eppeldauer and M. Racz, "Design and characterization of a photometer-colorimeter standard," Appl. Opt. 43, 2621-2631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W.-L. Zhou, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, S. M. Nakai, K. Nakano, S. Niikura, and B. Craig, "Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser with over 70% conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2463-2465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Peterson, S. A. Tuccio, and B. B. Snavely, "cw operation of an organic dye solution laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 245-247 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Yarborough, "cw dye laser emission spanning the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 629-630 (1974).
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Catalog 1990-91 (1)

Hamamatsu, "Photodiodes," Catalog 1990-91 , 16.

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G. Eppeldauer, "Electronic characteristics of Ge and InGaAs radiometers," in Proc. SPIE 3061-97, 833-838 (1997).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (4)

G. P. Eppeldauer, "Spectral response based calibration method of tristimulus colorimeters," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 615-619 (1998).

G. P. Eppeldauer and D. C. Lynch, "Opto-mechanical and electronic design of a tunnel-trap Si- radiometer," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 813-828 (2000).

G. Eppeldauer, "Noise-optimized silicon radiometers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 209-219 (2000).

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, and J. B. Shumaker, "Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49-67 (1990).

Metrologia (13)

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, and D. H. Nettleton, "Absolute spectral radiometric determination of the thermodynamic temperatures of the melting/freezing points of gold, silver, and aluminium," Metrologia 28, 357-374 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Noorma, P. Toivanen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of filter radiometers with a wavelength-tunable laser source," Metrologia 40, S220-S223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Houston and J. P. Rice, "NIST reference cryogenic radiometer designed for versatile performance," Metrologia 43, S31-S35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Gentile and C. L. Cromer, "Mode-locked lasers for high-accuracy radiometry," Metrologia 32, 585-587 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Hartree, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "The use of a mode-locked laser for ultraviolet radiometry," Metrologia 35, 339-343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fowler and M. Litorja, "Geometric area measurements of circular apertures for radiometry at NIST," Metrologia 40, S9-S12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, T. C. Larason, M. Racz, and K. R. Lykke, "Realization of a spectral radiance responsivity scale with a laser-based source and Si radiance meters," Metrologia 37, 531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarborough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gardner, "Correlated color temperature-uncertainty and estimation," Metrologia 37, 381-384 (2000).
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J. L. Gardner, "Correlations in primary spectral standards," Metrologia 40, S167-S176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Lykke, P.-S. Shaw, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, "Development of a monochromatic, uniform source facility for calibration of radiance and irradiance detectors from 0.2 micrometer to 12 micrometer," Metrologia 35, 479-484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Preston-Thomas, "The international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90)," Metrologia 27, 3-10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiodes physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Schwinger, "On the classical radiation of accelerated electrons," Phys. Rev. 75, 1912-1925 (1949).

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Leaven, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "Aeronet--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum (1)

L. E. Jusinski and C. A. Taatjes, "Efficient and stable operation of an Ar+-pumped continuous-wave ring laser from 505-560 nm using a coumarin dye," Rev. Sci. Instrum 72, 2837-2838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, T. Foujots, W. Peetermans, W. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mande, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EUREKA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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T. Stone, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. (personal communication, 2005).

R. Korde, International Radiation Detectors, Inc., Torrance, Calif. (personal communication, 2005).

G. Eppeldauer, "Near infrared radiometer standards," in Proc. SPIE 2815, 42-54 (1996).

N. Souaidia, C. Pietras, G. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, R. Frouin, K. R. Lykke, B. C. Johnson, and S. W. Brown, "Comparison of laser-based and conventional calibrations of sun photometers," in Proc. SPIE 4481, 61-72 (2003).

C. Pietras, M. Miller, R. Frouin, E. J. Welton, and I. Slutsker, "Calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors," in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, R. B. G. S. Fargion and C. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001).

R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House, 1994).

J. D. Schanda, "Colorimetry," in Handbook of Applied Photometry, C. DeCusatis, ed. (Springer, 1998), pp. 327-412.

D. Halliday and R. Resnick, Fundamentals of Physics (Wiley, 1981).

H. W. Yoon, D. W. Allen, C. E. Gibson, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, "Temperature scales using radiation thermometers calibrated from absolute irradiance and radiance responsivity," in NCSL International Workshop and Symposium (Orlando, Fla., 2003).

D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, C. E. Gibson, and H. W. Yoon, "The development and characterization of an absolute pyrometer calibrated for radiance responsivity," in International Temperature Symposium (Chicago, Ill., 2003).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "The realization and the dissemination of the detector-based kelvin," in Proceedings of Tempmeko 04 (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004).

Spectra-Physics, Inc., Wavetrain frequency doubler with a Coherent, Inc. Model 899 Ti:sapphire laser.

G. P. Eppeldauer, S. W. Brown, C. C. Miller, and K. R. Lykke, "Improved accuracy photometric and tristimulus-color scales based on spectral irradiance responsivity," Proceedings of the 25th Session of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Vol. 1, pp. D2-30-D32-33 (2003).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the SIRCUS facility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Lasers, output power, and spectral coverage of UV–Vis–IR SIRCUS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam propagation through the six-element transmission tunnel-trap detector. Detectors 3 and 6 have been removed from the diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Silicon tunnel-trap detector EQE versus wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular responsivity of the tunnel-trap detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detector response linearity. The signal-to-monitor ratio as a function of the signal (related to incident optical power).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Irradiance uniformity at a reference plane 1 m from the irradiance source. (a) Two-dimensional map of the irradiance distribution; (b) horizontal slice through the vertically centered irradiance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Radiometric determination of the distance between two aperture planes. Dots are measured trap-to-monitor ratios; solid curve is a fit to the data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of a filter radiometer, namely, the AP1 pyrometer, shown on (a) a logarithmic and (b) a linear scale. (c) Expanded view of the responsivity showing large oscillations arising from multiple reflections of the incident flux between surfaces within the instrument.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Contour plot of the sphere radiance uniformity within the exit port; 0.1 % steps.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of the alignment method for SIRCUS.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relative spectral responsivity of the PEP measured on SIRCUS and on the SCF: (a) linear scale; (b) log scale.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Relative spectral responsivity of the SLM measured in underfilled mode (SCF) and in overfilled mode (SIRCUS).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Schematic diagram of the filter radiometers that were calibrated for irradiance responsivity on SIRCUS and used to measure the angular distribution of radiation and intensity at SURF III. (b) Absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of the 400   nm filter radiometer.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Angular distribution pattern from SURF measured with three filter radiometers. The solid curve is the calculated distribution pattern.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Spectrograph images as the incident wavelength is changed and the central image moves across the array.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SIRCUS Uncertainty for an Irradiance Responsivity Calibration

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Results of Radiometric Determinations of the Gold- and Silver-Point Blackbody Temperatures Using the AP1 Pyrometer with the ITS-90 Values

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R DUT = i DUT i trap R trap = i DUT i trap s trap A ,
I ( λ ) = E 1 ( λ ) d 1 2 = E 2 ( λ ) d 2 2 ,
y = m 1 / ( m 0 m 2 ) 2 ,
u ( T BB ) = u ( T FP ) T FP 2 T BB 2 ,
i u = s L ( λ ) ε u L u ( λ , T ) d λ ,
Δ L L = c 2 λ Δ T T 2 .
V o ( SIRCUS ) = s ( λ ) E ( λ ) d λ ,

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