Abstract

An intravascular catheter for Raman spectroscopic detection and analysis of coronary atherosclerotic disease has been developed. The catheter, having an outer diameter of 2 mm, consisted of a side-view-type micro-Raman probe, an imaging fiber bundle, a working channel (injection drain), and a balloon. By inflating the balloon, the probe was brought close to the inner wall of a modeled blood flow system and detected a phantom target buried in the wall. Results obtained demonstrate the possibility of using the spectroscopic catheter for molecular diagnosis of coronary lesions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
  2. M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Komachi, H. Sato, K. Aizawa, and H. Tashiro, "Micro-optical fiber probe for use in an intravascular Raman endoscope," Appl. Opt. 44, 4722-4732 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Komachi, H. Sato, and H. Tashiro, "Raman probe using a single hollow waveguide," Opt. Lett. 30, 2942-2944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Daasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. MacNeil, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I.-K. Jang, "Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23, 1333-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. H. J. Pijis, B. De Bruyne, and L. Smith, "Coronary thermodilution to assess flow reverse: validation in humans," Circulation 105, 2482-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

V. Fuster, Z. A. Fayad, and J. J. Badimon, "Acute coronary syndromes: biology," Lancet 353, 115-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, "Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 17, 1337-1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

P. Libby, "The molecular bases of acute coronary syndrome," Circulation 91, 2844-2850 (1995).
[PubMed]

Achenbach, S.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Airaksinen, K. E. Juhani

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizawa, K.

Anders, K.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assmann, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badimon, J. J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Fuster, Z. A. Fayad, and J. J. Badimon, "Acute coronary syndromes: biology," Lancet 353, 115-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bakker Schut, T. C.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballantyne, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, U.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C. R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bom, N. A.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, T. J.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, J. F.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruining, H. A.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruschke, A. V.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruschke, A. V. G.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buschman, H. P.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casscells, S. W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavantes, M. C.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, D.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, "Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 17, 1337-1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daasari, R. R.

Daniel, W. G.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M. J.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, "Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 17, 1337-1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Bruyne, B.

N. H. J. Pijis, B. De Bruyne, and L. Smith, "Coronary thermodilution to assess flow reverse: validation in humans," Circulation 105, 2482-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Korte, G. L.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, H.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farb, J. H. Andrew

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faxon, D. P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayad, Z.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayad, Z. A.

V. Fuster, Z. A. Fayad, and J. J. Badimon, "Acute coronary syndromes: biology," Lancet 353, 115-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Felton, C. V.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, "Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 17, 1337-1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferencik, M.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, P. J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuster, V.

B. D. MacNeil, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I.-K. Jang, "Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23, 1333-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Fuster, Z. A. Fayad, and J. J. Badimon, "Acute coronary syndromes: biology," Lancet 353, 115-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galindo, L. H.

Galis, Z. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

Greenland, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundy, S. M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansson, G. K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmannm, U.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

Insull, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
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Ishibashi, F.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
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Jackson, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I.-K.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. MacNeil, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I.-K. Jang, "Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23, 1333-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kastelijn, K.

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
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Kauffman, C. R.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenig, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komachi, Y.

Kramer, J. R.

Libby, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Libby, "The molecular bases of acute coronary syndrome," Circulation 91, 2844-2850 (1995).
[PubMed]

Litovsky, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodder, R. A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, H. C.

B. D. MacNeil, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I.-K. Jang, "Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23, 1333-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacNeil, B. D.

B. D. MacNeil, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I.-K. Jang, "Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23, 1333-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacNeill, B.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madjid, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

March, K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marple, E. T.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A. A.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mehran, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, K.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moselewski, F.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

Muller, J. E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naghavi, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navab, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nogueira, G. V.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamatsu, K.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M. F.

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, "Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 17, 1337-1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, M. T.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pasqualucci, C. A.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pasterkamp, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pijis, N. H. J.

N. H. J. Pijis, B. De Bruyne, and L. Smith, "Coronary thermodilution to assess flow reverse: validation in humans," Circulation 105, 2482-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pohle, K.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Priori, S. G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekhter, M. D.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romer, T. J.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, D.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rumberger, J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

Schlendorf, K. H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schut, T. C. Bakker

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, R. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seimiya, K.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Serruys, P. W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, P. K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silveria, L.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siscovick, D. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, L.

N. H. J. Pijis, B. De Bruyne, and L. Smith, "Coronary thermodilution to assess flow reverse: validation in humans," Circulation 105, 2482-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stone, P. H.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strijder, C.

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takano, M.

B. D. MacNeil, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I.-K. Jang, "Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23, 1333-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uemura, R.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van de Poll, S. W. E.

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Laarse, A.

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Duinen, S. G.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wach, M. L.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willerson, J. T.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, S.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zanggaro, R. A.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zarrabi, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipes, D. P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwinderman, A. H.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, and G. J. Puppels, "In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 72, 3771-3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan III, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, and A. V. G. Bruschke, "Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478-483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, "Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 17, 1337-1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. MacNeil, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I.-K. Jang, "Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23, 1333-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

P. Libby, "The molecular bases of acute coronary syndrome," Circulation 91, 2844-2850 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, G. L. de Korte, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Andrew Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull Jr, R. S. Schwartz, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, "From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies:Part I," Circulation 108, 1664-1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, and T. J. Brady, "Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography: a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound," Circulation 109, 14-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. J. Pijis, B. De Bruyne, and L. Smith, "Coronary thermodilution to assess flow reverse: validation in humans," Circulation 105, 2482-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heart

S. W. E. van de Poll, K. Kastelijn, T. C. Bakker Schut, C. Strijder, G. Pasterkamp, G. J. Puppels, and A. van der Laarse, "On-line detection of cholesterol and calcification by catheter based Raman spectroscopy in human atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo," Heart 89, 1078-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. College Cardiol.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, and R. Uemura, "Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy," J. Am. College Cardiol. 42, 680-686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. V. Nogueira, L. Silveria, A. A. Martin, R. A. Zanggaro, M. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. Pasqualucci, "Raman spectroscopy study of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 31117-31124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lancet

V. Fuster, Z. A. Fayad, and J. J. Badimon, "Acute coronary syndromes: biology," Lancet 353, 115-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an intravascular Raman spectroscopic catheter. (A) Outer view of the intravascular Raman spectroscopic catheter. (B) Side view of the intravascular Raman spectroscopic catheter. (C) Side-view MRP. (D) Operation of a latex balloon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mock-up test system for an intravascular Raman spectroscopic catheter, consisting of an intravascular Raman spectroscopic system, a vessel tube, and a modeled target of a phantom sample, details of which are presented in the magnified section.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Functional operation of the catheter in a vessel tube. (A) Without and (B) with inflation of the balloon. Laser light delivered through the excitation fiber illuminates the tube wall and the surroundings. The inner diameter of the tube is 4   mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured Raman spectra of (A) a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxyapatite in a flow system with water, and (B) a phantom target with whole blood flow. (a) The upper spectrum was measured with an inflation of the balloon, and (b) the lower was without balloon inflation. The laser power was 30   mW , and the exposure times were 0.4 s for a mixture and 1 s for a phantom target. (C) Raman spectrum of Fig. 4 (B-b) after baseline correctly using a 6th-order polynomial.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement through human whole blood to evaluate the effect of its obstruction on the spectroscopic observation. A phantom target was placed in the side wall of a container filled with whole blood, and the catheter was retracted from the contact position step by step.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raman spectra of a phantom target measured through (A) air and (B) whole blood. Figure 6(A) indicates the measured spectra for various distances z from the sample to the catheter; (a) z = 0 mm , (b) z = 0.4   mm , (c) z = 0.8   mm , (d) z = 1.2   mm , (e) z = 1.6 mm , and (f) z = 2.0 . Figure 6(B) presents its Raman spectra measured through the whole blood; (a) z = 0   mm , (b) z = 0.1 mm , (c) z = 0.2   mm , (d) z = 0.3   mm , (e) z = 0.4   mm , (f) z = 0.6 , (g) z = 0.8   mm , and (h) z = 1.0 . The vertical scales are the same for both figures. (C) Distance dependence of the intensity at 1078 cm 1 . The exposure time was 1 s, and the laser power was 30   mW .

Equations (54)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2   mm
0 .6   mm
0 .1   mm
4   mm
1   mm
10   μm
10   cm 1
785   nm
30   mW
( 70% )
( 14 % )
( 14 % )
( 2 % )
785   nm
50%
720   cm 1
1073 cm 1
954 cm 1
1440 cm 1
1437 cm 1
C C
CH 2
z = 0
z = 2.0   mm
1078   cm 1
1432 cm 1
z = 2.0   mm
1 .0   mm
1660   cm 1
z = 0.1   mm
10 783   cm 1
CaCO 3
1440 cm 1
CH 2
0.4   mm
0 .1   mm
4   mm
30   mW
z = 0 mm
z = 0.4   mm
z = 0.8   mm
z = 1.2   mm
z = 1.6 mm
z = 2.0
z = 0   mm
z = 0.1 mm
z = 0.2   mm
z = 0.3   mm
z = 0.4   mm
z = 0.6
z = 0.8   mm
z = 1.0
1078 cm 1
30   mW

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