Abstract

We present the bidirectional reflectance of a Labsphere calibration plaque, both dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. The measurements indicate that when submerged in water, the Labsphere calibration plaque has a higher reflectance value than when dry at viewing angles below 55°. The results are presented in the form of a reflectance factor and are useful for calibrating underwater reflectance measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. J. Voss, A. L. Chapin, M. Monti, and H. Zhang, "Instrument to measure the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of surfaces," Appl. Opt. 39, 6197-6206 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Bruegge, N. Chrien, and D. Haner, "A Spectralon BRF data base for MISR calibration applications," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 354-366 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.
  4. H. Zhang and K. J. Voss, "Comparisons of bidirectional reflectance measurements and radiative transfer models," Appl. Opt. 44, 597-610 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Giles and K. J. Voss, "Submerged reflectance measurements as a function of visible wavelength," in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1537, 140-146 (1991).
  7. X. Feng, J. R. Schott, and T. Gallagher, "Comparison of methods for generation of absolute reflectance-factor values for bidirectional reflectance-distribution function studies," Appl. Opt. 32, 1234-1242 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Twomey, C. F. Bohren, and J. L. Mergenthaler, "Reflectance and albedo differences between wet and dry surfaces," Appl. Opt. 25, 431-437 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Angstrom, "The albedo of various surfaces of ground," Geogr. Ann. 7, 323-342 (1925).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lekner and M. C. Dorf, "Why some things are darker when wet," Appl. Opt. 27, 1278-1280 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Tyler and R. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, 1970), p. 102.
  13. G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delwart, "Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing," Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water-Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994), p. 159.

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delwart, "Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing," Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Bruegge, N. Chrien, and D. Haner, "A Spectralon BRF data base for MISR calibration applications," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 354-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water-Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994), p. 159.

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

J. W. Giles and K. J. Voss, "Submerged reflectance measurements as a function of visible wavelength," in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1537, 140-146 (1991).

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1970 (1)

J. Tyler and R. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, 1970), p. 102.

1925 (1)

A. Angstrom, "The albedo of various surfaces of ground," Geogr. Ann. 7, 323-342 (1925).
[CrossRef]

Abel, P.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Angstrom, A.

A. Angstrom, "The albedo of various surfaces of ground," Geogr. Ann. 7, 323-342 (1925).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

Bruegge, C.

C. Bruegge, N. Chrien, and D. Haner, "A Spectralon BRF data base for MISR calibration applications," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 354-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Chapin, A.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Chapin, A. L.

Chrien, N.

C. Bruegge, N. Chrien, and D. Haner, "A Spectralon BRF data base for MISR calibration applications," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 354-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Cooper, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Courreges-Lacoste, G. B.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delwart, "Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing," Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Delwart, S.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delwart, "Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing," Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dorf, M. C.

English, D.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Fargion, G.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Feinholz, M.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Feng, X.

Frouin, R.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Fry, E. S.

Gallagher, T.

Giles, J. W.

J. W. Giles and K. J. Voss, "Submerged reflectance measurements as a function of visible wavelength," in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1537, 140-146 (1991).

Haner, D.

C. Bruegge, N. Chrien, and D. Haner, "A Spectralon BRF data base for MISR calibration applications," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 354-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Korwan, D.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Lazin, G.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Lekner, J.

McClain, C.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

McLean, S.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Meister, G.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Menzies, D.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Mergenthaler, J. L.

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water-Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994), p. 159.

Monti, M.

Pope, R. M.

Poteau, A.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Robertson, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Schaarsberg, J. G.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delwart, "Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing," Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schott, J. R.

Sherman, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Smith, R.

J. Tyler and R. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, 1970), p. 102.

Sprik, R.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delwart, "Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing," Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S. A.

Tyler, J.

J. Tyler and R. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, 1970), p. 102.

Voss, K.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Voss, K. J.

Yungel, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Geogr. Ann. (1)

A. Angstrom, "The albedo of various surfaces of ground," Geogr. Ann. 7, 323-342 (1925).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delwart, "Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing," Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

C. Bruegge, N. Chrien, and D. Haner, "A Spectralon BRF data base for MISR calibration applications," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 354-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. Meister, P. Abel, K. Carder, A. Chapin, D. Clark, J. Cooper, C. Davis, D. English, G. Fargion, M. Feinholz, R. Frouin, F. Hoge, D. Korwan, G. Lazin, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, K. Voss, and J. Yungel, "The second SIMBIOS radiometric intercomparison (SIMRIC-2), March-November 2002," (NASA/TM-2002-210006, 2003), Vol. 2.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Giles and K. J. Voss, "Submerged reflectance measurements as a function of visible wavelength," in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1537, 140-146 (1991).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water-Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994), p. 159.

J. Tyler and R. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, 1970), p. 102.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

REFFs of plaque 45204-1-1, dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. Error bars are the standard deviation between the 24 individual measurements. Solid lines are the fit to Eqs. (10) and (11). Filled circles are the measurements of plaque (serial no. 23922-1-2) in the hexagonal cell as described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the radiance crossing a cylindrical interface between water (2) and air (1). Note that Snell's law applies only to β direction.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

REFF ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ v , ϕ v ) = r S ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ v , ϕ v ) r L r S ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ v , ϕ v ) μ 0 / π ,
r ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ v , ϕ v ) = L r ( θ v , ϕ v ) E i ( θ i , ϕ i ) .
E i r bare = L bare ,
E i t ag t ga r bare t ag t ga = L jar ,
E i T abs t ag t gw r sub n t wg t ga = L sub ,
REFF bare = L bare cos ( θ v ) f ( 45 ° ) ,
REFF 1 sub = L sub L jar n T abs ( t gw / t ag ) 2 REFF bare ,
REFF 2 sub = n T abs ( t ag t gw ) 2 L sub cos ( θ v ) f ( 45 ° ) .
L jar = L bare t ag 4
REFF bare = 1.04 ( ± 0.00 ) 1.52 ( ± 0.23 ) × 10 5 θ r 2 3.14 ( ± 0.45 ) × 10 9 θ r 4 ,
REFF sub = 1.13 ( ± 0.00 ) 3.85 ( ± 0.28 ) × 10 5 θ r 2 5.34 ( ± 0.55 ) × 10 9 θ r 4 ,
L 1 = Δ Φ 1 Δ A 1 Δ Ω 1 ,
L 2 = Δ Φ 2 Δ A 2 Δ Ω 2 ,
Δ Ω 1 = Δ α 1 Δ β 1 ,
Δ Ω 2 = Δ α 2 Δ β 2 ,
Δ α 1 = Δ α 2 ,
n 1 Δ β 1 = n 2 Δ β 2 .
L 2 L 1 = Δ Φ 2 Δ Φ 1 n 2 n 1 .
L 2 L 1 = n 2 n 1 .

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