Abstract

Methods for evaluating the light intensity distribution on receivers of concentrated solar radiation systems are described. They are based on the use of Lambertian diffusers in place of the illuminated receiver and on the acquisition of the scattered light, in reflection or transmission mode, by a CCD camera. The spatial distribution of intensity radiation is then numerically derived from the recorded images via a proprietary code. The details of the method are presented and a short survey of the main applications of the method in the photovoltaic and thermal solar energy conversion field is proposed. Methods for investigating the Lambertian character of commercial diffusers are also discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Steinfeld, "Solar hydrogen production via a two-step water-splitting thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 611-619 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Tamaura, A. Steinfeld, P. Kuhn, and K. Ehrensberger, "Production of solar hydrogen by a novel, two-step, water-splitting thermochemical cycle," Energy 20, 325-330 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kogan, "Direct solar thermal splitting of water and on-site separation of the products--IV. Development of porous ceramic membranes for a solar thermal water-splitting reactor," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 25, 1043-1050 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ohta, ed., Solar-Hydrogen Energy Systems. An Authoritative Review of Water-Splitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Utilization (Pergamon, 1979).
    [PubMed]
  6. A. Steinfeld, "Recent research developments in solar thermochemical processing," in Recent Research Developments in Chemical Engineering (Transworld Research Network, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 95-101.
  7. R. M. Swanson, "The promise of concentrators," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8, 93-111 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. W. Blakers and J. Smeltink, "The ANU PV/trough concentrator system," in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 2193-2195.
  10. G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.
  11. A. Martí and A. Luque, eds., Next Generation Photovoltaics. High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization (Institute of Physics, 2004).
  12. I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th EPSEC 2000 (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.
  13. G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.
  14. G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.
  15. I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 387-405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy. Principles, Methods, Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1969).
  17. R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Weng, P. Cohen, and M. Hernion, "Camera calibration with distortion models and accuracy evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 965-980 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Zhang, "A flexible new technique for camera calibration," Technical Report MSR-TR-98-71 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Wash., December 1998).
  20. A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and H. Yakubu, "Nondestructive optical characterization of photovoltaic modules by an integrating sphere. Part I: mono-Si modules," Opt. Commun. 161, 297-309 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Parretta, P. Grillo, P. Tortora, and P. Maddalena, "Method for measurement of the directional/hemispherical reflectance of photovoltaic devices," Opt. Commun. 186, 1-14 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Parretta, "Dispositivo per la esecuzione non distruttiva di misure di riflettanza spettrale, globale, speculare e diffusa, ad angolo di incidenza variabile, nonchè di trasmittanza, per celle solari e moduli fotovoltaici," Italian patent application N. RM 97 A 000676 (5 November 1997).
  24. A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and P. Tortora, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura differenziale della riflettanza di una superficie," Italian patent Application N. RM 99 A 000656 (25 October 1999).
  25. P. Tortora, P. Maddalena, and A. Parretta, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura simultanea della corrente e della riflettanza di una cella solare," Italian patent Application N. RM 2001 A 000321 (8 June 2001).

2003 (1)

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Steinfeld, "Solar hydrogen production via a two-step water-splitting thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 611-619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

2000 (6)

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th EPSEC 2000 (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

A. Kogan, "Direct solar thermal splitting of water and on-site separation of the products--IV. Development of porous ceramic membranes for a solar thermal water-splitting reactor," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 25, 1043-1050 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Steinfeld, "Recent research developments in solar thermochemical processing," in Recent Research Developments in Chemical Engineering (Transworld Research Network, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 95-101.

R. M. Swanson, "The promise of concentrators," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8, 93-111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, P. Grillo, P. Tortora, and P. Maddalena, "Method for measurement of the directional/hemispherical reflectance of photovoltaic devices," Opt. Commun. 186, 1-14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and H. Yakubu, "Nondestructive optical characterization of photovoltaic modules by an integrating sphere. Part I: mono-Si modules," Opt. Commun. 161, 297-309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. W. Blakers and J. Smeltink, "The ANU PV/trough concentrator system," in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 2193-2195.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

1997 (1)

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Tamaura, A. Steinfeld, P. Kuhn, and K. Ehrensberger, "Production of solar hydrogen by a novel, two-step, water-splitting thermochemical cycle," Energy 20, 325-330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Weng, P. Cohen, and M. Hernion, "Camera calibration with distortion models and accuracy evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 965-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

T. Ohta, ed., Solar-Hydrogen Energy Systems. An Authoritative Review of Water-Splitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Utilization (Pergamon, 1979).
[PubMed]

1969 (1)

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy. Principles, Methods, Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1969).

Aihara, M.

H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Antón, I.

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th EPSEC 2000 (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Arboiro, J. C.

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th EPSEC 2000 (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blakers, A. W.

A. W. Blakers and J. Smeltink, "The ANU PV/trough concentrator system," in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 2193-2195.

Bruton, T.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruton, T. M.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Camblor, E.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Cendagorta, M.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Cohen, P.

T. Weng, P. Cohen, and M. Hernion, "Camera calibration with distortion models and accuracy evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 965-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, D.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Datta, P.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Dobón, F.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Ehrensberger, K.

Y. Tamaura, A. Steinfeld, P. Kuhn, and K. Ehrensberger, "Production of solar hydrogen by a novel, two-step, water-splitting thermochemical cycle," Energy 20, 325-330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Friend, M. P.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Gasson, M. P.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

González, S.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Grillo, P.

A. Parretta, P. Grillo, P. Tortora, and P. Maddalena, "Method for measurement of the directional/hemispherical reflectance of photovoltaic devices," Opt. Commun. 186, 1-14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heasman, K. C.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Hernion, M.

T. Weng, P. Cohen, and M. Hernion, "Camera calibration with distortion models and accuracy evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 965-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kogan, A.

A. Kogan, "Direct solar thermal splitting of water and on-site separation of the products--IV. Development of porous ceramic membranes for a solar thermal water-splitting reactor," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 25, 1043-1050 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kortum, G.

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy. Principles, Methods, Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1969).

Kuhn, P.

Y. Tamaura, A. Steinfeld, P. Kuhn, and K. Ehrensberger, "Production of solar hydrogen by a novel, two-step, water-splitting thermochemical cycle," Energy 20, 325-330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luque, A.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Martí and A. Luque, eds., Next Generation Photovoltaics. High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization (Institute of Physics, 2004).

Maddalena, P.

A. Parretta, P. Grillo, P. Tortora, and P. Maddalena, "Method for measurement of the directional/hemispherical reflectance of photovoltaic devices," Opt. Commun. 186, 1-14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, P. Maddalena, and A. Parretta, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura simultanea della corrente e della riflettanza di una cella solare," Italian patent Application N. RM 2001 A 000321 (8 June 2001).

Martí, A.

A. Martí and A. Luque, eds., Next Generation Photovoltaics. High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization (Institute of Physics, 2004).

Mason, N.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mason, N. B.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Mera, E.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Monedero, J.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

Negishi, Y.

H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, T.

T. Ohta, ed., Solar-Hydrogen Energy Systems. An Authoritative Review of Water-Splitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Utilization (Pergamon, 1979).
[PubMed]

Ohya, H.

H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pachón, D.

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parretta, A.

A. Parretta, P. Grillo, P. Tortora, and P. Maddalena, "Method for measurement of the directional/hemispherical reflectance of photovoltaic devices," Opt. Commun. 186, 1-14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and H. Yakubu, "Nondestructive optical characterization of photovoltaic modules by an integrating sphere. Part I: mono-Si modules," Opt. Commun. 161, 297-309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, "Dispositivo per la esecuzione non distruttiva di misure di riflettanza spettrale, globale, speculare e diffusa, ad angolo di incidenza variabile, nonchè di trasmittanza, per celle solari e moduli fotovoltaici," Italian patent application N. RM 97 A 000676 (5 November 1997).

P. Tortora, P. Maddalena, and A. Parretta, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura simultanea della corrente e della riflettanza di una cella solare," Italian patent Application N. RM 2001 A 000321 (8 June 2001).

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and P. Tortora, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura differenziale della riflettanza di una superficie," Italian patent Application N. RM 99 A 000656 (25 October 1999).

Pérez, F.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Sala, G.

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th EPSEC 2000 (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarno, A.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and H. Yakubu, "Nondestructive optical characterization of photovoltaic modules by an integrating sphere. Part I: mono-Si modules," Opt. Commun. 161, 297-309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and P. Tortora, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura differenziale della riflettanza di una superficie," Italian patent Application N. RM 99 A 000656 (25 October 1999).

Smeltink, J.

A. W. Blakers and J. Smeltink, "The ANU PV/trough concentrator system," in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 2193-2195.

Steinfeld, A.

A. Steinfeld, "Solar hydrogen production via a two-step water-splitting thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 611-619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Steinfeld, "Recent research developments in solar thermochemical processing," in Recent Research Developments in Chemical Engineering (Transworld Research Network, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 95-101.

Y. Tamaura, A. Steinfeld, P. Kuhn, and K. Ehrensberger, "Production of solar hydrogen by a novel, two-step, water-splitting thermochemical cycle," Energy 20, 325-330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, R. M.

R. M. Swanson, "The promise of concentrators," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8, 93-111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamaura, Y.

Y. Tamaura, A. Steinfeld, P. Kuhn, and K. Ehrensberger, "Production of solar hydrogen by a novel, two-step, water-splitting thermochemical cycle," Energy 20, 325-330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tortora, P.

A. Parretta, P. Grillo, P. Tortora, and P. Maddalena, "Method for measurement of the directional/hemispherical reflectance of photovoltaic devices," Opt. Commun. 186, 1-14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, P. Maddalena, and A. Parretta, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura simultanea della corrente e della riflettanza di una cella solare," Italian patent Application N. RM 2001 A 000321 (8 June 2001).

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and P. Tortora, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura differenziale della riflettanza di una superficie," Italian patent Application N. RM 99 A 000656 (25 October 1999).

Tsai, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Valera, P.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

Wang, A.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weng, T.

T. Weng, P. Cohen, and M. Hernion, "Camera calibration with distortion models and accuracy evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 965-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yakubu, H.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and H. Yakubu, "Nondestructive optical characterization of photovoltaic modules by an integrating sphere. Part I: mono-Si modules," Opt. Commun. 161, 297-309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yatabe, M.

H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, "A flexible new technique for camera calibration," Technical Report MSR-TR-98-71 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Wash., December 1998).

Zhao, J.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Energy (1)

Y. Tamaura, A. Steinfeld, P. Kuhn, and K. Ehrensberger, "Production of solar hydrogen by a novel, two-step, water-splitting thermochemical cycle," Energy 20, 325-330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Rob. Autom. (1)

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

T. Weng, P. Cohen, and M. Hernion, "Camera calibration with distortion models and accuracy evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 965-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (3)

H. Ohya, M. Yatabe, M. Aihara, Y. Negishi, and T. Takeuchi, "Feasibility of hydrogen production above 2500 K by direct thermal decomposition reaction in membrane reactor using solar energy," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 369-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kogan, "Direct solar thermal splitting of water and on-site separation of the products--IV. Development of porous ceramic membranes for a solar thermal water-splitting reactor," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 25, 1043-1050 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Steinfeld, "Solar hydrogen production via a two-step water-splitting thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 611-619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and H. Yakubu, "Nondestructive optical characterization of photovoltaic modules by an integrating sphere. Part I: mono-Si modules," Opt. Commun. 161, 297-309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Opt. Commun. 172, 139-151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, P. Grillo, P. Tortora, and P. Maddalena, "Method for measurement of the directional/hemispherical reflectance of photovoltaic devices," Opt. Commun. 186, 1-14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (3)

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Swanson, "The promise of concentrators," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8, 93-111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

A. W. Blakers and J. Smeltink, "The ANU PV/trough concentrator system," in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 2193-2195.

G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, I. Antón, M. P. Gasson, N. B. Mason, K. C. Heasman, T. M. Bruton, E. Mera, E. Camblor, P. Datta, M. Cendagorta, M. P. Friend, P. Valera, S. González, F. Dobón, and F. Pérez, "480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs," in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (1998), pp. 1963-1968.

A. Martí and A. Luque, eds., Next Generation Photovoltaics. High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization (Institute of Physics, 2004).

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th EPSEC 2000 (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES-THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The EUCLIDES-THERMIE concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy. Principles, Methods, Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1969).

Z. Zhang, "A flexible new technique for camera calibration," Technical Report MSR-TR-98-71 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Wash., December 1998).

T. Ohta, ed., Solar-Hydrogen Energy Systems. An Authoritative Review of Water-Splitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Utilization (Pergamon, 1979).
[PubMed]

A. Steinfeld, "Recent research developments in solar thermochemical processing," in Recent Research Developments in Chemical Engineering (Transworld Research Network, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 95-101.

A. Parretta, "Dispositivo per la esecuzione non distruttiva di misure di riflettanza spettrale, globale, speculare e diffusa, ad angolo di incidenza variabile, nonchè di trasmittanza, per celle solari e moduli fotovoltaici," Italian patent application N. RM 97 A 000676 (5 November 1997).

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, and P. Tortora, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura differenziale della riflettanza di una superficie," Italian patent Application N. RM 99 A 000656 (25 October 1999).

P. Tortora, P. Maddalena, and A. Parretta, "Apparecchio e metodo per la misura simultanea della corrente e della riflettanza di una cella solare," Italian patent Application N. RM 2001 A 000321 (8 June 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Basic scheme of the LS–CCD method in reflection mode; (b) basic scheme of the LS–CCD method in transmission mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Alternative scheme of the LS–CCD method in reflection mode; (b) alternative scheme of the LS–CCD method in transmission mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LS–CCD method applied to a tubular receiver.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Schematic of the LS–CCD method applied to a planar receiver in the reflection mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Schematic of the LS–CCD method applied to a planar receiver in the transmission mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the perspective effects produced on a square array of luminous points. The relative compression or expansion of different portions of the target is also illustrated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a), (c) CCD images recorded in the reflection mode at, respectively, θ = 30 ° and θ = 60 ° ; (b), (d) images reconstructed from, respectively, images (a) and (c).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmittance spectrum of the Labsphere diffuser SDM-500-SM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the apparatus used for measuring the angle ψ-resolved radiant intensity of light diffused from the Labsphere Spectralon reflectors.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radiant intensity curves of the Labsphere Spectralon reflector, measured at λ = 543 nm and at different incidence angles. The theoretical cos ψ curve is drawn for comparison.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Radiant intensity curve of the Labsphere Spectralon transmitter, measured at different wavelengths.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic of the experimental setup for LS–CCD experiments.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) (a) Reflectance images, reproduced in false colors, taken at λ = 650 nm for different values of the orientation angle θ from 30° to 70°; (b) correspondening reference frames.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Elaboration of CCD images recorded in the reflection mode at λ = 650 nm for y = 0 : (a) as recorded intensity profile; (b) intensity profile after perspective correction; (c) intensity profile after correction for a quasi-Lambertian diffuser.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Elaboration of CCD images recorded in the reflection mode at λ = 650 nm for x = 0 : (a) as recorded intensity profile; (b) intensity profile after correction for a quasi-Lambertian diffuser.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Elaboration of CCD images recorded in the transmission mode at λ = 550 nm for y = 0 : (a) as recorded intensity profile; (b) intensity profile after perspective correction; (c) intensity profile after intensity correction for a quasi-Lambertian diffuser.

Equations (48)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( P , λ ) f scat ( P ) f lightcoll ( P ) I ( P , λ )
= R d ( δ , ψ , λ ) [ R o ( φ , λ ) cos ( φ ) f focus ( P ) r 2 ( P ) ] × I ( P , λ ) ,
r 2 ( P ) = r 0 2 + ( x 2 + y 2 ) - 2 r 0 x sin θ ,
ϕ ( P ) = cos - 1 [ r 2 + r 0 2 - ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 r r 0 ] ,
ψ ( P ) = cos - 1 ( r 0 cos θ 2 r r 0 ) .
R d ( δ , ψ , λ ) = R d ( ψ , λ ) = R d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ , λ ) ,
    I ( P , λ ) R d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ , λ ) [ cos ϕ f focus ( P ) r 2 ( P ) ] I ( P , λ ) .
I ( P , λ ) f corr ( P , λ ) I ( P , λ )
= r 2 ( P ) R d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ , λ ) cos ϕ f focus ( P ) I ( P , λ ) ,
I ( P , λ ) r 0 2 R d ( λ ) Λ ( θ , λ ) f focus ( P ) I ( P , λ ) .
I ( P , λ ) f scatt ( P ) f lightcoll ( P ) I ( P , λ )
= T d ( δ , ψ , λ ) [ R o ( φ , λ ) cos ( φ ) f focus ( P ) r 2 ( P ) ] × I ( P , λ ) ,
   I ( P , λ ) T d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ , λ ) [ cos ϕ f focus ( P ) r 2 ( P ) ] I ( P , λ ) ,
I ( P , λ ) f corr ( P , λ ) I ( P , λ )
=   r 2 ( P ) T d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ , λ ) cos ( ϕ ) f focus ( P ) I ( P , λ ) .
I ( P , λ ) r 2 ( P ) T d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ , λ ) cos ( ψ ) I ( P , λ ) .
I ( P , λ ) r 0 2 T d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ , λ ) f focus ( P ) I ( P , λ ) .
1 / r 0 + 1 / f = 1 / F ,
x = r 0 x ( x sin θ + f cos θ ) ; y = r 0 x cos θ ( x sin θ + f cos θ ) ,
x = f x cos θ ( r 0 - x sin θ ) ; y = f y ( r 0 - x sin θ ) .
x r 0 x f cos θ ; y r 0 y f ,
x f x cos θ r 0 ; y f y r 0 .
f focus ( P ) = Δ x Δ y Δ x ( P ) Δ y ( P ) = Δ x Δ y Δ x ( P ) Δ y ( P ) .
f focus ( P ) = ( r 0 - x sin θ ) 4 r 0 f 2 cos θ [ ( | y | - x ) sin θ + r 0 ] .
f focus ( P ) x = 0 = r 0 3 f 2 cos θ ( | y | sin θ + r 0 ) ,
f focus ( P ) y = 0 = ( r 0 - x sin θ ) 3 r 0 f 2 cos θ .
f focus ( P ) x = 0 = r 0 3 f 2 cos θ ( y sin θ + r 0 ) ;
f focus ( P ) y = 0 = ( r 0 - x sin θ ) 3 r 0 f 2 cos θ .
f exp ( x ) = Δ x ( 0 ) Δ x ( θ )
= f Δ x r 0 ( r 0 - x max sin θ ) ( r 0 - x min sin θ ) f r 0 cos θΔ x
= ( r 0 - 2 sin θ ) ( r 0 + 2 sin θ ) r 0 2 cos θ ,
f corr ( x ) r 2 ( x ) R d ( λ ) cos ψ cos ϕ f focus ( x )
= r 2 ( x ) R d ( λ ) cos ψ cos ϕ r 0 f 2 cos θ ( r 0 - x sin θ ) 3 .
f corr ( x , λ ) r 2 ( x ) R d ( λ ) cos ϕΛ ( ψ ) 1 f focus ( x )
= r 2 ( x ) R d ( λ ) cos ϕΛ ( ψ ) r 0 f 2 cos θ ( r 0 - x sin θ ) 3 .
I ( x , θ ) = f 2 r 0 r 2 ( x , θ ) cos θ R d ( λ ) Λ ( ψ ) ( r 0 - x sin θ ) 3 I ( x , θ ) ,
r 3 ( x , θ ) = ( r 0 2 + x 2 - 2 r 0 x sin θ ) 3 / 2 ,
ψ = cos - 1 [ r 0 cos θ r ( x , θ ) ] ,
ϕ = cos - 1 [ r 0 - x sin θ r ( x , θ ) ] .
f corr ( y ) r 2 ( y ) R d ( λ ) cos ψ cos ϕ f focus ( y )
= r 2 ( y ) R d ( λ ) cos ψ cos ϕ f 2 cos θ ( r 0 + y sin θ ) r 0 3
= ( r 0 2 + y 2 ) 2 f 2 R d ( λ ) r 0 5 ( r 0 + y sin θ ) ,
r 2 ( y ) = ( r 0 2 + y 2 ) ,
ψ ( y , θ ) = cos - 1 [ r 0 cos θ ( r 0 2 + y 2 ) 1 / 2 ] ,
ϕ ( y ) = cos - 1 [ r 0 ( r 0 2 + y 2 ) 1 / 2 ] .
f corr ( y , λ ) r 2 ( y ) R d ( λ ) cos ϕΛ ( ψ ) 1 f focus ( y )
= r 2 ( y ) R d ( λ ) cos ϕΛ ( ψ ) f 2 cos θ ( r 0 + y sin θ ) r 0 3
= ( r 0 2 + y 2 ) 3 / 2 f 2 cos θ ( r 0 + y sin θ ) R d ( λ ) r 0 4 Λ ( ψ ) .

Metrics