Abstract

Gradient index coatings and optical filters are a challenge for fabrication. In a round-robin experiment, basically the same hybrid antireflection coating for the visible spectral region, combining homogeneous refractive index layers of pure materials and linear gradient refractive index layers of material mixtures, has been deposited. The experiment involved three different deposition techniques: electron-beam evaporation, ion-beam sputtering, and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The material combinations used by these techniques were Nb2O 5/SiO2, TiO2/SiO2, and Ta2O 5/SiO2, respectively. The spectral performances of samples coated on one side and on both sides have been compared to the corresponding theoretical spectra of the designed profile. Also, the reproducibility of results for each process is verified. Finally, it is shown that ion-beam sputtering gave the best results in terms of deviation from the theoretical performance and reproducibility.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, "Optical monitoring of rugate filters," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 547-555 (2005).
  20. K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, "Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters," in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
  21. S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of optical coatings," in Proceedings of the Fifth ICCG (Saarbruecken, 2004), pp. 429-433.
  22. M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (5)

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, "Optical monitoring of rugate filters," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 547-555 (2005).

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

E. Lorenzo, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, "Porous silicon-based rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 44, 5415-5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, "NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 58-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer system for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras and J. A. Dobrowolski, "Toward perfect antireflection coatings. 2. Theory," Appl. Opt. 43, 1286-1295 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of optical coatings," in Proceedings of the Fifth ICCG (Saarbruecken, 2004), pp. 429-433.

2002 (2)

2000 (2)

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, "Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters," in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).

P. Prene, J. J. Proittron, L. Beavrain, and P. Belleville, "Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch resistant coating for blast shields of the French laser LIL," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, 1976) pp. 41-68.

Acree, M.

Amotchkina, T.

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amotchkina, T. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

Bartzsch, H.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer system for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beavrain, L.

P. Prene, J. J. Proittron, L. Beavrain, and P. Belleville, "Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch resistant coating for blast shields of the French laser LIL," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, R.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beermann, N.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belleville, P.

P. Prene, J. J. Proittron, L. Beavrain, and P. Belleville, "Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch resistant coating for blast shields of the French laser LIL," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, R. W.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brauneck, U.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Capuj, N. E.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Ehlers, H.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frach, P.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer system for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrberg, P.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gäbler, D.

R. Leitel, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, V. Janicki, and N. Kaiser, "Optical and nonoptical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional gradient index layer and rugate structures," Thin Solid Films 497, 135-141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

Gaburro, Z.

Ghulinyan, M.

Goedicke, K.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer system for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Görtz, B.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, D. Ristau, "Application of optical broad band monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1502-1506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, "Optical monitoring of rugate filters," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 547-555 (2005).

Gross, T.

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, "Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters," in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).

Jakobs, S.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janicki, V.

R. Leitel, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, V. Janicki, and N. Kaiser, "Optical and nonoptical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional gradient index layer and rugate structures," Thin Solid Films 497, 135-141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

R. Leitel, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, V. Janicki, and N. Kaiser, "Optical and nonoptical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional gradient index layer and rugate structures," Thin Solid Films 497, 135-141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, "NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 58-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of optical coatings," in Proceedings of the Fifth ICCG (Saarbruecken, 2004), pp. 429-433.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

Kaless, A.

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, "NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 58-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, M.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knittl, Z.

Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, 1976) pp. 41-68.

Kokarev, M. A.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

König, F.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R. V.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lange, S.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer system for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lappschies, M.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, D. Ristau, "Application of optical broad band monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1502-1506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, "Optical monitoring of rugate filters," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 547-555 (2005).

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, "Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters," in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).

Laux, S.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitel, R.

R. Leitel, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, V. Janicki, and N. Kaiser, "Optical and nonoptical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional gradient index layer and rugate structures," Thin Solid Films 497, 135-141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

Lorenzo, E.

Ma, P.

Malkomes, N.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matthée, T.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J. C.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munzert, P.

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, "NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 58-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

Oton, C. J.

Ouellette, M. F.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Owles, R. S.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

Poitras, D.

Prene, P.

P. Prene, J. J. Proittron, L. Beavrain, and P. Belleville, "Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch resistant coating for blast shields of the French laser LIL," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proittron, J. J.

P. Prene, J. J. Proittron, L. Beavrain, and P. Belleville, "Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch resistant coating for blast shields of the French laser LIL," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rau, B.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richter, U.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riggers, W.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, D. Ristau, "Application of optical broad band monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1502-1506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, "Optical monitoring of rugate filters," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 547-555 (2005).

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, "Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters," in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).

Schäfer, D.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, U.

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, "NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 58-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Staedler, T.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, "Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters," in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).

Stenzel, O.

R. Leitel, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, V. Janicki, and N. Kaiser, "Optical and nonoptical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional gradient index layer and rugate structures," Thin Solid Films 497, 135-141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of optical coatings," in Proceedings of the Fifth ICCG (Saarbruecken, 2004), pp. 429-433.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, I. M.

Tikhonravov, A.

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

A. V. Tikhonravov, "Some theoretical aspects of thin-film optics and their applications," Appl. Opt. 32, 5417-5426 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trubetskov, M.

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

Vakil, H.

Vergöhl, M.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, D.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilbrandt, S.

R. Leitel, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, V. Janicki, and N. Kaiser, "Optical and nonoptical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional gradient index layer and rugate structures," Thin Solid Films 497, 135-141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokarev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, "New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of optical coatings," in Proceedings of the Fifth ICCG (Saarbruecken, 2004), pp. 429-433.

Willey, R. R.

R. R. Willey, Practical Design and Production of Thin Films (Dekker, 2002) pp. 65-83.

Yan, K. L.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

V. Janicki, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Hybrid optical coating design for omnidirectional antireflection purposes," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L9-L12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Prene, J. J. Proittron, L. Beavrain, and P. Belleville, "Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch resistant coating for blast shields of the French laser LIL," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, and D. Vincent, "Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188-1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, "Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 646-655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Janicki, R. Leitel, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Design of hybrid coatings composed of homogeneous layers and refractive index gradients," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 397-404 (2005).

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, "Optical monitoring of rugate filters," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5963, 547-555 (2005).

Surf. Coat. Technol. (2)

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer system for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, "NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 58-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

R. Leitel, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, V. Janicki, and N. Kaiser, "Optical and nonoptical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional gradient index layer and rugate structures," Thin Solid Films 497, 135-141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthée, and U. Richter, "Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF- and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control," Thin Solid Films 351, 42-47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, "Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters," in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of optical coatings," in Proceedings of the Fifth ICCG (Saarbruecken, 2004), pp. 429-433.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and M. A. Kokarev, "Refractive indices of SiO2 and Nb2O5 mixture films," in Proceedings of VI International Conference "Prikladnaja Optika" (Roshdestvensky Optical Society, 2004), vol. 3, pp. 34-38.

Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, 1976) pp. 41-68.

R. R. Willey, Practical Design and Production of Thin Films (Dekker, 2002) pp. 65-83.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Designs proposed for each deposition technique. For RFS there are two proposed designs, the thinner one and the thicker one, the latter has a lower deviation from the target, but is more demanding for deposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical reflectance spectra of a glass surface (no back-side reflection) coated with the designs presented in Fig. 1 for (a) angles of incidence of 0° and (b) as defined in specifications, 50°. One uncoated glass surface reflects 4 % of light at 0° angle of incidence in the presented spectral range [see Fig. 3(a), for instance].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and theoretical reflectance spectra of samples coated on one side. Spectra of the thinner coatings and designs are shown at (a) 0°, (b) s and (c) p polarization at 45° angle of incidence. Reflectance of one uncoated glass surface is also shown for comparison. (d) Corresponding spectra for the thicker RFS coating and design are presented.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental and theoretical reflectance spectra of samples coated on both sides. Spectra of the thinner coatings and designs are shown at (a) 0°, (b) s and (c) p polarization at 45° angle of incidence. Reflectance of one uncoated glass surface is also shown for comparison. Note the higher discrepancy between the model and reflectance for EBE samples coated on both sides [most clearly seen in (a)] compared with the discrepancy for the EBE one-side coated sample [Fig. 3(a)] that originates from an accumulation of error (errors in second coating added to the errors in the first coating). (See also Fig. 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reproducibility of the results. Comparison of the spectra of two one-side coated samples produced with the same technique but in two different runs presented for each of the techniques.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refined Designs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characteristics of the Deposition Techniques a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ TH = i , j [ R i , TH ( λ j ) R i ,TAR ( λ j ) ] 2 N ( N 1 ) ,
n ( λ ) = μ n H ( λ ) + ( 1 μ ) n L ( λ ) ,

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