Abstract

A novel liquid-level sensor with a high-birefringence-fiber loop mirror (HBFLM) based on a uniform-strength cantilever beam (UCB) is proposed and demonstrated. Part of the high-birefringence fiber is pasted onto the central surface of the UCB. A hollow suspending pole is utilized to apply force at the end of the beam. The applied force varies with the change of the liquid level, leading to a change of transmission intensity. Thus the variation of liquid level can be determined via the laser wavelength within the quasi-linear transmission range of the HBFLM filter. Its sensitivity, resolution, and linear measurement range reach 0.047/cm, 10  mm, and 140  mm, respectively. The advantages of the sensor include simple structure, high sensitivity, low cost, and good repeatability, etc. The sensing signal can be directly detected by a photodetector and does not require complicated demodulation devices.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. F. Knowles, B. E. Jones, S. Purdy, and C. M. France, "Multiple microbending optical-fiber sensors for measurement of fuel quantity in aircraft fuel tanks," Sens. Actuators A 68, 230-323 (1998).
  6. C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optic liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors," Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

2005 (2)

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors," Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Fiber-optic liquid-level sensor using a long-period grating," Opt. Lett. 26, 1224-1226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optic liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. F. Knowles, B. E. Jones, S. Purdy, and C. M. France, "Multiple microbending optical-fiber sensors for measurement of fuel quantity in aircraft fuel tanks," Sens. Actuators A 68, 230-323 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Chen, S. P.

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optic liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors," Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

Dou, Q.

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

France, C. M.

S. F. Knowles, B. E. Jones, S. Purdy, and C. M. France, "Multiple microbending optical-fiber sensors for measurement of fuel quantity in aircraft fuel tanks," Sens. Actuators A 68, 230-323 (1998).

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

Jones, B. E.

S. F. Knowles, B. E. Jones, S. Purdy, and C. M. France, "Multiple microbending optical-fiber sensors for measurement of fuel quantity in aircraft fuel tanks," Sens. Actuators A 68, 230-323 (1998).

Kai, G.

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors," Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khaliq, S.

Knowles, S. F.

S. F. Knowles, B. E. Jones, S. Purdy, and C. M. France, "Multiple microbending optical-fiber sensors for measurement of fuel quantity in aircraft fuel tanks," Sens. Actuators A 68, 230-323 (1998).

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liang, L.

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Purdy, S.

S. F. Knowles, B. E. Jones, S. Purdy, and C. M. France, "Multiple microbending optical-fiber sensors for measurement of fuel quantity in aircraft fuel tanks," Sens. Actuators A 68, 230-323 (1998).

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

Xue, L.

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. N.

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optic liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. G.

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optic liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

Zhang, H.

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors," Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

Zhao, Q.

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

Zhou, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, "Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 11, 2400-2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators A (2)

S. F. Knowles, B. E. Jones, S. Purdy, and C. M. France, "Multiple microbending optical-fiber sensors for measurement of fuel quantity in aircraft fuel tanks," Sens. Actuators A 68, 230-323 (1998).

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optic liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, "Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating," in Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, S.Jian and Y.Liu, eds, Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the HBFLM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of a HBFLM filter at two strains.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the sensing system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of the HBFLM filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output spectrum of the LD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectrum of the LD when the liquid level rises to 10   mm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectrum of the LD when the liquid level rises to 130   mm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between liquid level and transmissivity when the liquid level rises.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relationship between liquid level and transmissivity when the liquid level decreases.

Equations (11)

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T = I o u t I i n = c [ cos ( π l Δ n / λ ) ] 2 ,
Δ η Δ λ .
Δ λ = k ε Δ ε ,
Δ η = k 1 Δ ε ,
ε = h L 2 x ,
ε = 6 L E b h 2 F .
Δ η = k 2 Δ F ,
0 = f m g = ρ g ( H 1 H 0 ) S m g ,
F = ρ g ( H H 0 x ) S m g ,
Δ H = ( 1 ρ g S + 6 L 3 E b h 3 ) Δ F .
Δ H = k Δ η ,

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