Abstract

A tunable, ultrafast (100  fs1  ps) laser system generating mid-IR (310μm) and UV∕visible (392417  nm, 785835  nm) radiation is described and its output characterized. The system is designed to explore vibrational dynamics in the condensed phase in a direct, two-pulse, time-resolved manner, using Raman spectroscopy as the probe. To produce vibrational resolution, probe pulses are spectrally narrowed by use of a long doubling crystal. Frequency-resolved optical gating is used to evaluate beam characteristics. An effective method for determining the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses for a one-color, 400  nm configuration is illustrated. Representative results from studies of heme and para-nitroaniline vibrational dynamics illustrate the effectiveness of the visible pump–visible probe portion of the system in illuminating fast structure and energy dynamics.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  18. J. J. Loparo, C. M. Cheatum, M. R. Ondrias, and M. C. Simpson. "Transient Raman observations of heme vibrational dynamics in five-coordinate iron porphyrins," Chem. Phys. 286, 353-374 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Y. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Intensity and phase measurements of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60. Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 147-148.
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, "Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955-1967 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.
  26. K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, "Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595-1608 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Huang and J. B. Hopkins, "Femtosecond resonance Raman investigation of four univalent bipyridinium radicals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 9585-9591 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. If the fluxes are different, the minimum will not be at Deltat = 0. This is easily accounted for by use of the relative fluxes of the pump and probe to evaluate the two halves of the dynamics (Deltat < 0 and Deltat > 0).
  31. X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. Challa, T. Gunaratne, and M. C. Simpson, "Pump-probe measurement of vibrational lifetimes in heme. Dependence on state preparation," submitted to Chem. Phys. Lett.
  34. M. C. Schneebeck (Simpson), L. E. Vigil, and M. R. Ondrias, "Mode-selective energy localization during photoexcitation of deoxyhemoglobin and heme model complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 215, 251-256 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Gunaratne, R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, "Energy flow in push-pull molecules. Vibrational dynamics in para-nitroaniline," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1157-1163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kropman and H. J. Bakker, "Effect of ions on the vibrational relaxation of liquid water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 9135-9141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, A. I. Vodchits, and J. Dreyer, "Ultrafast excitation of out-of-plane vibrations and vibrational energy redistribution after internal conversion of 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1808-1814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Loparo, C. M. Cheatum, M. R. Ondrias, and M. C. Simpson. "Transient Raman observations of heme vibrational dynamics in five-coordinate iron porphyrins," Chem. Phys. 286, 353-374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Graener, T. Patzlaff, K. Paradowska-Moszkowska, and G. Seifert, "Intermolecular exchange of vibrational population in a binary liquid mixture," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8537-8541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Pakoulev, Z. Wang, Y. Pang, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 404-410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, A. Pakoulev, and D. D. Dlott, "Watching vibrational energy transfer in liquids with atomic spatial resolution," Science 296, 2201-2203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. K. Iwaki and D. D. Dlott, "Three-dimensional spectroscopy of vibrational energy relaxation in liquid methanol," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 9101-9112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. C. Deak, L. K. Iwaki, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of nitromethane," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 971-979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. C. Deak and L. K. Iwaki, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of acetonitrile," J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 8193-8201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. Mizutani and T. Kitagawa, "Direct observation of cooling of heme upon photodissociation of carbonmonoxy myoglobin," Science 278, 443-446 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang and J. B. Hopkins, "Femtosecond resonance Raman investigation of four univalent bipyridinium radicals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 9585-9591 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann and H. Graener, "Time resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of dichloromethane," Chem. Phys. 206, 129-137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

1993 (1)

M. C. Schneebeck (Simpson), L. E. Vigil, and M. R. Ondrias, "Mode-selective energy localization during photoexcitation of deoxyhemoglobin and heme model complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 215, 251-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. R. Stallard, P. R. Callis, P. M. Champion, and A. C. Albrecht, "Application of the transform theory to resonance Raman excitation profiles in the soret region of cytochrome c," J. Chem. Phys. 80, 70-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. Hassig and O. S. Mortensen. "Kramers-Kronig relations and resonance Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 1078-1083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. C. Hanna, V. Rampal and R. C. Smith, "Tunable infrared down-conversion in silver thiogallate," Opt. Commun. 8, 151-153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, A. C.

B. R. Stallard, P. R. Callis, P. M. Champion, and A. C. Albrecht, "Application of the transform theory to resonance Raman excitation profiles in the soret region of cytochrome c," J. Chem. Phys. 80, 70-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

An, Q.

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

M. F. Kropman and H. J. Bakker, "Effect of ions on the vibrational relaxation of liquid water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 9135-9141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrick, D.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowie, J.

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brzezinka, K.-W.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Callis, P. R.

B. R. Stallard, P. R. Callis, P. M. Champion, and A. C. Albrecht, "Application of the transform theory to resonance Raman excitation profiles in the soret region of cytochrome c," J. Chem. Phys. 80, 70-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Challa, R.

T. Gunaratne, R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, "Energy flow in push-pull molecules. Vibrational dynamics in para-nitroaniline," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1157-1163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Challa, T. Gunaratne, and M. C. Simpson, "Pump-probe measurement of vibrational lifetimes in heme. Dependence on state preparation," submitted to Chem. Phys. Lett.

Champion, P. M.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Stallard, P. R. Callis, P. M. Champion, and A. C. Albrecht, "Application of the transform theory to resonance Raman excitation profiles in the soret region of cytochrome c," J. Chem. Phys. 80, 70-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cheatum, C. M.

J. J. Loparo, C. M. Cheatum, M. R. Ondrias, and M. C. Simpson. "Transient Raman observations of heme vibrational dynamics in five-coordinate iron porphyrins," Chem. Phys. 286, 353-374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Long, K. W.

K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, "Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595-1608 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

Deak, J. C.

J. C. Deak, L. K. Iwaki, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of nitromethane," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 971-979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Deak and L. K. Iwaki, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of acetonitrile," J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 8193-8201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, "Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955-1967 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Intensity and phase measurements of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60. Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 147-148.
[CrossRef]

Demidov, A.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dlott, D. D.

A. Pakoulev, Z. Wang, Y. Pang, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 404-410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, A. Pakoulev, and D. D. Dlott, "Watching vibrational energy transfer in liquids with atomic spatial resolution," Science 296, 2201-2203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Iwaki and D. D. Dlott, "Three-dimensional spectroscopy of vibrational energy relaxation in liquid methanol," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 9101-9112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Deak, L. K. Iwaki, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of nitromethane," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 971-979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dreyer, J.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, A. I. Vodchits, and J. Dreyer, "Ultrafast excitation of out-of-plane vibrations and vibrational energy redistribution after internal conversion of 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1808-1814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, B.

A. Shreve, B. Dyer, and W. Woodruff, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. M. 8754 (personal communication, 1997).

Eads, D. D.

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eittinghoff, D. N.

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

Elsaesser, T.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, "Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955-1967 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, J. M.

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gilch, P.

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graener, H.

H. Graener, T. Patzlaff, K. Paradowska-Moszkowska, and G. Seifert, "Intermolecular exchange of vibrational population in a binary liquid mixture," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8537-8541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann and H. Graener, "Time resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of dichloromethane," Chem. Phys. 206, 129-137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gunaratne, T.

T. Gunaratne, R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, "Energy flow in push-pull molecules. Vibrational dynamics in para-nitroaniline," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1157-1163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Challa, T. Gunaratne, and M. C. Simpson, "Pump-probe measurement of vibrational lifetimes in heme. Dependence on state preparation," submitted to Chem. Phys. Lett.

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, V. Rampal and R. C. Smith, "Tunable infrared down-conversion in silver thiogallate," Opt. Commun. 8, 151-153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hassig, S.

S. Hassig and O. S. Mortensen. "Kramers-Kronig relations and resonance Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 1078-1083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

J. C. Owrutsky, D. Raftery, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Vibrational relaxation dynamics in solutions," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 519-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M.

M. Hoffmann and H. Graener, "Time resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of dichloromethane," Chem. Phys. 206, 129-137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J. B.

Y. Huang and J. B. Hopkins, "Femtosecond resonance Raman investigation of four univalent bipyridinium radicals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 9585-9591 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang and J. B. Hopkins, "Femtosecond resonance Raman investigation of four univalent bipyridinium radicals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 9585-9591 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J.

K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

Ionascu, D.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwaki, L. K.

L. K. Iwaki and D. D. Dlott, "Three-dimensional spectroscopy of vibrational energy relaxation in liquid methanol," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 9101-9112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Deak, L. K. Iwaki, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of nitromethane," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 971-979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Deak and L. K. Iwaki, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of acetonitrile," J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 8193-8201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

A. Seilmeier and W. Kaiser, in Ultrashort Laser Pulses and Applications, W.Kaiser, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1988), pp. 279-317.
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, "Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595-1608 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

Kitagawa, T.

Y. Mizutani and T. Kitagawa, "Direct observation of cooling of heme upon photodissociation of carbonmonoxy myoglobin," Science 278, 443-446 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohler, B. Y.

B. Y. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Intensity and phase measurements of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60. Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 147-148.
[CrossRef]

Koller, F.

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozich, V.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, A. I. Vodchits, and J. Dreyer, "Ultrafast excitation of out-of-plane vibrations and vibrational energy redistribution after internal conversion of 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1808-1814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kropman, M. F.

M. F. Kropman and H. J. Bakker, "Effect of ions on the vibrational relaxation of liquid water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 9135-9141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumbuegel, M. A.

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kummrow, A.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ladera, C. L.

Loparo, J. J.

J. J. Loparo, C. M. Cheatum, M. R. Ondrias, and M. C. Simpson. "Transient Raman observations of heme vibrational dynamics in five-coordinate iron porphyrins," Chem. Phys. 286, 353-374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, Y.

Y. Mizutani and T. Kitagawa, "Direct observation of cooling of heme upon photodissociation of carbonmonoxy myoglobin," Science 278, 443-446 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortensen, O. S.

S. Hassig and O. S. Mortensen. "Kramers-Kronig relations and resonance Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 1078-1083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ondrias, M. R.

J. J. Loparo, C. M. Cheatum, M. R. Ondrias, and M. C. Simpson. "Transient Raman observations of heme vibrational dynamics in five-coordinate iron porphyrins," Chem. Phys. 286, 353-374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schneebeck (Simpson), L. E. Vigil, and M. R. Ondrias, "Mode-selective energy localization during photoexcitation of deoxyhemoglobin and heme model complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 215, 251-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Owrutsky, J. C.

J. C. Owrutsky, D. Raftery, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Vibrational relaxation dynamics in solutions," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 519-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pakoulev, A.

A. Pakoulev, Z. Wang, Y. Pang, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 404-410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, A. Pakoulev, and D. D. Dlott, "Watching vibrational energy transfer in liquids with atomic spatial resolution," Science 296, 2201-2203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

A. Pakoulev, Z. Wang, Y. Pang, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 404-410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paradowska-Moszkowska, K.

H. Graener, T. Patzlaff, K. Paradowska-Moszkowska, and G. Seifert, "Intermolecular exchange of vibrational population in a binary liquid mixture," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8537-8541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patzlaff, T.

H. Graener, T. Patzlaff, K. Paradowska-Moszkowska, and G. Seifert, "Intermolecular exchange of vibrational population in a binary liquid mixture," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8537-8541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, E. S.

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Raftery, D.

J. C. Owrutsky, D. Raftery, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Vibrational relaxation dynamics in solutions," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 519-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rampal, V.

D. C. Hanna, V. Rampal and R. C. Smith, "Tunable infrared down-conversion in silver thiogallate," Opt. Commun. 8, 151-153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rini, M.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosca, F.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schneebeck (Simpson), M. C.

M. C. Schneebeck (Simpson), L. E. Vigil, and M. R. Ondrias, "Mode-selective energy localization during photoexcitation of deoxyhemoglobin and heme model complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 215, 251-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, T.

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, W.

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, F.

Seifert, G.

H. Graener, T. Patzlaff, K. Paradowska-Moszkowska, and G. Seifert, "Intermolecular exchange of vibrational population in a binary liquid mixture," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8537-8541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seilmeier, A.

A. Seilmeier and W. Kaiser, in Ultrashort Laser Pulses and Applications, W.Kaiser, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1988), pp. 279-317.
[CrossRef]

Shannon, C. F.

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shreve, A.

A. Shreve, B. Dyer, and W. Woodruff, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. M. 8754 (personal communication, 1997).

Sieg, A.

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M. C.

T. Gunaratne, R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, "Energy flow in push-pull molecules. Vibrational dynamics in para-nitroaniline," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1157-1163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Loparo, C. M. Cheatum, M. R. Ondrias, and M. C. Simpson. "Transient Raman observations of heme vibrational dynamics in five-coordinate iron porphyrins," Chem. Phys. 286, 353-374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Challa, T. Gunaratne, and M. C. Simpson, "Pump-probe measurement of vibrational lifetimes in heme. Dependence on state preparation," submitted to Chem. Phys. Lett.

Smith, R. C.

D. C. Hanna, V. Rampal and R. C. Smith, "Tunable infrared down-conversion in silver thiogallate," Opt. Commun. 8, 151-153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

B. Y. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Intensity and phase measurements of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60. Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 147-148.
[CrossRef]

Stallard, B. R.

B. R. Stallard, P. R. Callis, P. M. Champion, and A. C. Albrecht, "Application of the transform theory to resonance Raman excitation profiles in the soret region of cytochrome c," J. Chem. Phys. 80, 70-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

Sweetser, J. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, "Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955-1967 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, "Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595-1608 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

B. Y. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Intensity and phase measurements of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60. Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 147-148.
[CrossRef]

Vigil, L. E.

M. C. Schneebeck (Simpson), L. E. Vigil, and M. R. Ondrias, "Mode-selective energy localization during photoexcitation of deoxyhemoglobin and heme model complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 215, 251-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vodchits, A. I.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, A. I. Vodchits, and J. Dreyer, "Ultrafast excitation of out-of-plane vibrations and vibrational energy redistribution after internal conversion of 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1808-1814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

A. Pakoulev, Z. Wang, Y. Pang, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 404-410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, A. Pakoulev, and D. D. Dlott, "Watching vibrational energy transfer in liquids with atomic spatial resolution," Science 296, 2201-2203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werncke, W.

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, A. I. Vodchits, and J. Dreyer, "Ultrafast excitation of out-of-plane vibrations and vibrational energy redistribution after internal conversion of 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1808-1814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wharton, D.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, W. E.

K. W. De Long, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

Wilson, K. R.

B. Y. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Intensity and phase measurements of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60. Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 147-148.
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Woodruff, W.

A. Shreve, B. Dyer, and W. Woodruff, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. M. 8754 (personal communication, 1997).

Yakovlev, V. V.

B. Y. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Intensity and phase measurements of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60. Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 147-148.
[CrossRef]

Ye, X.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. C. Owrutsky, D. Raftery, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Vibrational relaxation dynamics in solutions," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 519-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Hoffmann and H. Graener, "Time resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of dichloromethane," Chem. Phys. 206, 129-137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Loparo, C. M. Cheatum, M. R. Ondrias, and M. C. Simpson. "Transient Raman observations of heme vibrational dynamics in five-coordinate iron porphyrins," Chem. Phys. 286, 353-374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. Gunaratne, R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, "Energy flow in push-pull molecules. Vibrational dynamics in para-nitroaniline," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1157-1163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Pakoulev, Z. Wang, Y. Pang, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 404-410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Schrader, A. Sieg, F. Koller, W. Schreier, Q. An, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Vibrational relaxation following ultrafast internal conversion: comparing IR and Raman probing," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 358-364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schneebeck (Simpson), L. E. Vigil, and M. R. Ondrias, "Mode-selective energy localization during photoexcitation of deoxyhemoglobin and heme model complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 215, 251-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

M. C. Simpson, E. S. Peterson, C. F. Shannon, D. D. Eads, J. M. Friedman, C. M. Cheatum, and M. R. Ondrias, "Transient Raman observations of heme electronic and vibrational photodynamics in deoxyhemoglobin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 5110-5117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kropman and H. J. Bakker, "Effect of ions on the vibrational relaxation of liquid water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 9135-9141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (5)

H. Graener, T. Patzlaff, K. Paradowska-Moszkowska, and G. Seifert, "Intermolecular exchange of vibrational population in a binary liquid mixture," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8537-8541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, K.-W. Brzezinka, M. Rini, A. Kummrow, and T. Elsaesser, "Vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast internal conversion in 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 719-726 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozich, W. Werncke, A. I. Vodchits, and J. Dreyer, "Ultrafast excitation of out-of-plane vibrations and vibrational energy redistribution after internal conversion of 4-nitroaniline," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1808-1814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hassig and O. S. Mortensen. "Kramers-Kronig relations and resonance Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 1078-1083 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Stallard, P. R. Callis, P. M. Champion, and A. C. Albrecht, "Application of the transform theory to resonance Raman excitation profiles in the soret region of cytochrome c," J. Chem. Phys. 80, 70-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. Huang and J. B. Hopkins, "Femtosecond resonance Raman investigation of four univalent bipyridinium radicals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 9585-9591 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (4)

X. Ye, A. Demidov, F. Rosca, W. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Ionascu, L. Zhu, D. Barrick, D. Wharton, and P. M. Champion, "Investigations of heme protein absorption line shapes, vibrational relaxation, and resonance Raman scattering on ultrafast time scales," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8156-8165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Deak and L. K. Iwaki, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of acetonitrile," J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 8193-8201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Deak, L. K. Iwaki, and D. D. Dlott, "Vibrational energy redistribution in polyatomic liquids: ultrafast IR-Raman spectroscopy of nitromethane," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 971-979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Iwaki and D. D. Dlott, "Three-dimensional spectroscopy of vibrational energy relaxation in liquid methanol," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 9101-9112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. C. Hanna, V. Rampal and R. C. Smith, "Tunable infrared down-conversion in silver thiogallate," Opt. Commun. 8, 151-153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, J. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbuegel, K. W. DeLong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Practical advances in ultrashort pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Lasers Pulses III, W. White and D. H. Reit, eds. Proc. SPIE 2701, 118-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

Y. Mizutani and T. Kitagawa, "Direct observation of cooling of heme upon photodissociation of carbonmonoxy myoglobin," Science 278, 443-446 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Pakoulev, and D. D. Dlott, "Watching vibrational energy transfer in liquids with atomic spatial resolution," Science 296, 2201-2203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. Seilmeier and W. Kaiser, in Ultrashort Laser Pulses and Applications, W.Kaiser, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1988), pp. 279-317.
[CrossRef]

A. Shreve, B. Dyer, and W. Woodruff, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. M. 8754 (personal communication, 1997).

R. Challa, T. Gunaratne, and M. C. Simpson, "Pump-probe measurement of vibrational lifetimes in heme. Dependence on state preparation," submitted to Chem. Phys. Lett.

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[CrossRef]

If the fluxes are different, the minimum will not be at Deltat = 0. This is easily accounted for by use of the relative fluxes of the pump and probe to evaluate the two halves of the dynamics (Deltat < 0 and Deltat > 0).

K. W. De Long, D. N. Eittinghoff, R. Trebino, A. Sullivan, J. Hunter, W. E. White, and D. J. Kane, "Frequency-resolved optical gating: measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 127-131.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the laser system constructed. Amplified Ti:S laser (NJA-5, CPA-1000): Clark-MXR Ti:S oscillator (NJA-5) pumped by a Millennia Nd:YLF cw laser (Spectra-Physics) through an active pointing stabilizer (Clark-MXR). The CPA-1000 stretcher, amplifier, and compressor (Clark-MXR) is pumped by an ORC-1000 Q-switched Nd-YAG 1 kHz laser (Clark-MXR). BS 1, beam splitter; TL1, TL2, telescopes; DFG, type II AgGaS2 (2.5 mm); SHG, KDP (15 or 30 mm). Beam characteristics at specific points along the beam paths: (A) 785–835 nm, 80–100 fs; (B) residual fundamental (800 nm); (C) 1.2–1.6 μm; (D) 1.6–2.2 μm; (E) 3–10 μm. D1, InSb–HgCdTe detector (Infrared Associates); D2, backilluminated CCD array (Andor DU420-BV); T1, T2, manual translational stages; T3, motorized translational stage (Newport M-MTM250PP.1∕MM3000); IR, imaging spectrograph∕scanning monochromator (Chromex 250is∕sm), and UV–visible spectrograph (Chromex 500is); PA, InSb-1000–HgCdTe-1000 preamplifiers (Infrared System Developments); BC, boxcar averager (Princeton Applied Research Model 162).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal, idler, and mid-IR beam profiles. (a) Measured after the OPA stage by use of an IR scanning monochromator and an InSb–HgCdTe detector. (B) Typical output of the IR difference-frequency generation stage. Solid curves, Gaussian fits to the data points. FROG contour plots of (c) signal and (d) idler arms of the OPA stage (sum-frequency generation with residual 800 nm in LiIO3 crystal).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV–visible beam characteristics. Top, FROG analyses of (a) an 800 nm pump beam (second-harmonic generation) and (b) a spectrally narrowed 400 nm beam profile (third-harmonic generation with 800 nm). Bottom, slices in time (energy spectrum) and energy (temporal profile) at points in the FROG contours indicated by horizontal and vertical lines, respectively. (b) Energy spectra: The darker curve is the energy spectrum derived from the FROG measurement; the lighter curve is the intensity spectrum of the ∼400 nm beam alone.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile of the PNA anti-Stokes peak at 867 cm−1. (a) Time-resolved anti-Stokes spectra as a function of delay time, as indicated. Each spectrum is the background-corrected difference: [(pump + probe) at Δt of interest] − [reference (pump + probe) spectrum at very long Δt]. (b) Intensities of the 867 cm−1 band plotted versus time delay. Open circles indicate data points; a solid curve indicates simulation of the dynamics with lifetimes of 2.5 ps (rise) and 8.1 ps (decay) and convoluted with a Gaussian pulse of 600 fs. The depth, shape, and position of the central dip reflect the instrumental parameters and the rise kinetics of the system; longer time behavior yields vibrational decay lifetimes. See text for further details on interpreting this line shape. λpump = λprobe = 403 nm; probe energy = pump energy = 5 μJ∕pulse; reference spectrum measured at −43.6 ps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical results from a model heme system. (a) Transient resonance Raman spectra of FeII octaethylporphyrin-2-methyl imidazole in CH2Cl2 at various delay times with the one-color pump–probe experiment (413 nm; pulse width, ∼500 fs). (b) Kinetic profile of the intensity of the ν4 band (symmetric in-phase pyrrole breathing mode) at ∼1360 cm−1.

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