Abstract

We describe the design, characterization, and calibration of a high-power and high-accuracy transfer standard for optical power measurements in fibers based on an integrating sphere radiometer working from 50  to  +30  dBm. The integrating sphere radiometer has been calibrated in the spectral range 12501650  nm by use of an electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer and four tunable laser diodes. The total uncertainty obtained is less than ±0.8% for these wavelength and power ranges.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. R. G. Hall, T. C. E. Jones, and A. G. Roddie, "Traceability for high power fiber optic measurements," in 6th Optical Fibre Measurement Conference (OFMC '01) Proceedings (National Physical Laboratory, UK, 2001), pp. 77-80.
  2. I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).
  3. D. H. Nettleton, "Application of absolute radiometry to the measurement of optical power in fibre optic systems," in New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry, N. P. Fox and D. H. Nettleton, eds. (Institute of Physics, 1989), pp. 93-97.
  4. P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Envall, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Measurements of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without an integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. P. Boivin, "Properties of sphere radiometers suitable for high-accuracy cryogenic-radiometer-based calibrations in the near-infrared," Metrologia 37, 273-278 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. Labsphere, Inc., "Guide to reflectance coating and materials," http:\\www.labsphere.com (2002).
  9. P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, M. González-Herráez, and J. Campos, "Anomalous nonlinear behaviour of InGaAs photodiodes with overfilled illumination," Metrologia 40, 150-153 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. American National Standards Institute standard IEC 61316, "Calibration of fibre-optic power meters," 2nd ed. (2004).
  11. W. M. Doyle, B. C. McIntosh, and J. Geist, "Implementation of a system of optical calibration based on pyroelectric radiometer," Opt. Eng. 15, 541-548 (1976).
  12. P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kocchling, and P. Miller, "Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers," Appl. Opt. 29, 983-993 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Beissner, "On a measure of consistency in comparison measurements," Metrologia 39, 59-63 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Envall, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Measurements of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without an integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, M. González-Herráez, and J. Campos, "Anomalous nonlinear behaviour of InGaAs photodiodes with overfilled illumination," Metrologia 40, 150-153 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Beissner, "On a measure of consistency in comparison measurements," Metrologia 39, 59-63 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. P. Boivin, "Properties of sphere radiometers suitable for high-accuracy cryogenic-radiometer-based calibrations in the near-infrared," Metrologia 37, 273-278 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).

1998 (1)

P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kocchling, and P. Miller, "Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers," Appl. Opt. 29, 983-993 (1990).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

W. M. Doyle, B. C. McIntosh, and J. Geist, "Implementation of a system of optical calibration based on pyroelectric radiometer," Opt. Eng. 15, 541-548 (1976).

Beissner, K.

K. Beissner, "On a measure of consistency in comparison measurements," Metrologia 39, 59-63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boivin, L. P.

L. P. Boivin, "Properties of sphere radiometers suitable for high-accuracy cryogenic-radiometer-based calibrations in the near-infrared," Metrologia 37, 273-278 (2000).
[Crossref]

Campos, J.

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, M. González-Herráez, and J. Campos, "Anomalous nonlinear behaviour of InGaAs photodiodes with overfilled illumination," Metrologia 40, 150-153 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
[Crossref]

Corredera, P.

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, M. González-Herráez, and J. Campos, "Anomalous nonlinear behaviour of InGaAs photodiodes with overfilled illumination," Metrologia 40, 150-153 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
[Crossref]

Corróns, A.

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Corróns, A. Pons y A.

P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cromer, C. L.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).

Doyle, W. M.

W. M. Doyle, B. C. McIntosh, and J. Geist, "Implementation of a system of optical calibration based on pyroelectric radiometer," Opt. Eng. 15, 541-548 (1976).

Envall, J.

J. Envall, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Measurements of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without an integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fontecha, J. L.

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
[Crossref]

Foukal, P. V.

P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kocchling, and P. Miller, "Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers," Appl. Opt. 29, 983-993 (1990).
[Crossref]

Geist, J.

W. M. Doyle, B. C. McIntosh, and J. Geist, "Implementation of a system of optical calibration based on pyroelectric radiometer," Opt. Eng. 15, 541-548 (1976).

González-Herráez, M.

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, M. González-Herráez, and J. Campos, "Anomalous nonlinear behaviour of InGaAs photodiodes with overfilled illumination," Metrologia 40, 150-153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hall, S. R. G.

S. R. G. Hall, T. C. E. Jones, and A. G. Roddie, "Traceability for high power fiber optic measurements," in 6th Optical Fibre Measurement Conference (OFMC '01) Proceedings (National Physical Laboratory, UK, 2001), pp. 77-80.

Hernanz, M. L.

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, M. González-Herráez, and J. Campos, "Anomalous nonlinear behaviour of InGaAs photodiodes with overfilled illumination," Metrologia 40, 150-153 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hoyt, C.

P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kocchling, and P. Miller, "Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers," Appl. Opt. 29, 983-993 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ikonen, E.

J. Envall, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Measurements of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without an integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jones, T. C. E.

S. R. G. Hall, T. C. E. Jones, and A. G. Roddie, "Traceability for high power fiber optic measurements," in 6th Optical Fibre Measurement Conference (OFMC '01) Proceedings (National Physical Laboratory, UK, 2001), pp. 77-80.

Kärhä, P.

J. Envall, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Measurements of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without an integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kocchling, H.

P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kocchling, and P. Miller, "Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers," Appl. Opt. 29, 983-993 (1990).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).

McIntosh, B. C.

W. M. Doyle, B. C. McIntosh, and J. Geist, "Implementation of a system of optical calibration based on pyroelectric radiometer," Opt. Eng. 15, 541-548 (1976).

Miller, P.

P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kocchling, and P. Miller, "Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers," Appl. Opt. 29, 983-993 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nettleton, D. H.

D. H. Nettleton, "Application of absolute radiometry to the measurement of optical power in fibre optic systems," in New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry, N. P. Fox and D. H. Nettleton, eds. (Institute of Physics, 1989), pp. 93-97.

Pons, A.

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Roddie, A. G.

S. R. G. Hall, T. C. E. Jones, and A. G. Roddie, "Traceability for high power fiber optic measurements," in 6th Optical Fibre Measurement Conference (OFMC '01) Proceedings (National Physical Laboratory, UK, 2001), pp. 77-80.

Scott, T. R.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).

Vayshenker, I.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).

Yang, S.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kocchling, and P. Miller, "Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers," Appl. Opt. 29, 983-993 (1990).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (7)

K. Beissner, "On a measure of consistency in comparison measurements," Metrologia 39, 59-63 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Comparison between absolute thermal radiometers at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm," Metrologia 37, 543-546 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, J. Campos, M. L. Hernanz, J. L. Fontecha, and A. Pons y A. Corróns. "Calibration of near-infrared transfer standards at optical fibre communication wavelengths by direct comparison with a cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 35, 273-277 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Envall, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Measurements of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without an integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. P. Boivin, "Properties of sphere radiometers suitable for high-accuracy cryogenic-radiometer-based calibrations in the near-infrared," Metrologia 37, 273-278 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, J. Campos, A. Corróns, A. Pons, and J. L. Fontecha, "Absolute power measurements at wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm with a cryogenic radiometer and a tuneable laser diode," Metrologia 37, 513-516 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, M. González-Herráez, and J. Campos, "Anomalous nonlinear behaviour of InGaAs photodiodes with overfilled illumination," Metrologia 40, 150-153 (2003).
[Crossref]

NIST Spec. Publ. (1)

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fibre Power Meter Nonlinearity Calibrations at NIST,NIST Spec. Publ. 250-56 (2000).

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. M. Doyle, B. C. McIntosh, and J. Geist, "Implementation of a system of optical calibration based on pyroelectric radiometer," Opt. Eng. 15, 541-548 (1976).

Other (4)

S. R. G. Hall, T. C. E. Jones, and A. G. Roddie, "Traceability for high power fiber optic measurements," in 6th Optical Fibre Measurement Conference (OFMC '01) Proceedings (National Physical Laboratory, UK, 2001), pp. 77-80.

D. H. Nettleton, "Application of absolute radiometry to the measurement of optical power in fibre optic systems," in New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry, N. P. Fox and D. H. Nettleton, eds. (Institute of Physics, 1989), pp. 93-97.

American National Standards Institute standard IEC 61316, "Calibration of fibre-optic power meters," 2nd ed. (2004).

Labsphere, Inc., "Guide to reflectance coating and materials," http:\\www.labsphere.com (2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the ISR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial nonuniformity of the 3 mm InGaAs detector at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The thick curve represents the area in which the response of the detector is constant within 1% changes. The size of the spot for this test was approximately 1.2 mm at 1∕e 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial nonuniformity of the ISR at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The thick curve represent the area in which the response of the radiometer is constant within 1% changes. The size of the spot for this test was approximately 1.2 mm at 1∕e 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top, relative responsivity, normalized at 1300 nm, of the InGaAs detector at 20° and 30 °C. Bottom, temperature coefficient of the responsivity of the InGaAs detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nonlinearity (in decibels) of the InGaAs detector at 1550 nm. The upper axis is the equivalent optical power in the ISR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup used for the absolute-power calibration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral responsivity of the ISR.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative spectral responsivity of the radiometer in the water vapor-absorption region.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Long-term stability of the ISR. Solid vertical lines, uncertainties of the comparison. All values were obtained for k = 2 (95% confidence level).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Long-Term Stability of the Responsivity of the ISR a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Percent Deviation of Each Measured Responsivity of the ISR with Respect to the Mean Value and the Corresponding Uncertainties a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Connector Effect:Percent Increase of the Sphere Radiometer Signal for the Connectors Tested

Tables Icon

Table 4 Uncertainties in the Calibration of the Integrating Sphere Radiometer with the ECPR

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N L i = 10 × log 10 P a b , i P a , i + P b , i [ d B ] ,
N L G L O B A L ( P n ) = i = 0 n + 1 L N i , n = 1 , 2 , 3 , ,
N L G L O B A L ( P 0 ) = 0 ( reference   power ) ,
N L G L O B A L ( P n ) = + i = 1 n L N i , n = 1 , 2 , 3 , ,
u ( N L G L O B A L ) = [ u ( N L i ) ] 1 / 2 = n × u ( N L i ) [ d B ] ,

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