Abstract

To prevent fraud by use of replicas of human fingers for identity verification, we propose to check variations in color and in a series of previously acquired fingerprint images. Movement of a finger on a human hand induces blood movement, and light scattered inside the finger carries this life-related information. In experiments, we found characteristic changes in color and luminance extracted from the central parts of fingerprint images. Some criteria for recognition of living tissue were tested with input provided by more than 30 participants. Inasmuch as the response of a human body to an external stimulus can be checked by our method with no additional components, this technology can raise the security level of a fingerprint identification system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, "Biometric recognition systems: introduction," Appl. Opt. 44, 635-636 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: Don't get your finger burned," in Proceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.
  3. K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, presented at The 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan, 23-26 January 2001.
  4. L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.
  5. I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M. M. Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677, 177-185 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Fujieda and H. Haga, "Fingerprint input based on scattered light detection," Appl. Opt. 36, 9152-9156 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002; in Japanese).

2005 (2)

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M. M. Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677, 177-185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, "Biometric recognition systems: introduction," Appl. Opt. 44, 635-636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002; in Japanese).

1997 (1)

Alam, M. S.

Fujieda, I.

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M. M. Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677, 177-185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Fujieda and H. Haga, "Fingerprint input based on scattered light detection," Appl. Opt. 36, 9152-9156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haga, H.

Ito, Y.

I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karim, M. A.

Keuning, J.

T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: Don't get your finger burned," in Proceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.

Kobayashi, M.

I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002; in Japanese).

Konishi, I.

I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krissler, J.

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

Kurita, M.

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M. M. Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677, 177-185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, presented at The 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan, 23-26 January 2001.

Matsumoto, T.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, presented at The 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan, 23-26 January 2001.

Matsuyama, E.

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M. M. Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677, 177-185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakauchi, N.

I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thalheim, L.

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

Tsunazawa, Y.

I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Putte, T.

T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: Don't get your finger burned," in Proceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, presented at The 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan, 23-26 January 2001.

Ziegler, P.-M.

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. (1)

M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002; in Japanese).

Opt. Rev. (1)

I. Konishi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Tsunazawa, "A new optical imager for hemoglobin distribution in human skin," Opt. Rev. 10, 592-595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M. M. Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677, 177-185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: Don't get your finger burned," in Proceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, presented at The 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan, 23-26 January 2001.

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configurations for pulse detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The output of the amplifier generates these waveforms as the amount of scattered light fluctuates synchrony with the pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

When a finger is deformed by pressure on the sensor, the area and color of the sequential fingerprint images show characteristic changes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance spectra measured when a live finger was pressed against a transparent plate either softly and firmly.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fingerprint sensor based on scattered-light detection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sequential fingerprint images obtained by the sensor based on scattered-light detection.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color signals extracted from a series of fingerprint images plotted as a function of area of fingertip applied to sensor.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Based on the behavior of coordinate x and luminance Y versus area signal A, simple indices for recognition of life are defined.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stiffness of a blood vessel is analogous to resistance in an electric circuit.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Based on the resistance model, some indices are proposed for life-recognition criteria.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Some indices score higher for correctly identifying live fingers.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Index Δ x a for each input action (pressure and release) and ages of the participants in the trials.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Index S A / Y for each input action (pressure and release) and ages of the participants in the trials.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Criteria a for Recognition of Live Fingers

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