Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a new technique for fast noncontact and continuous profile measurement of a rough surface. The technique is based on frequency tracking of the power modulation of spatially filtered scattered light. A dynamic speckle pattern is created when the laser beam scans the surface under study. The main advantage of the proposed technique is high scanning speed, which provides an extremely short response time of the distance sensor (<0.1μs). Parameters that affect accuracy and resolution of the system are analyzed. Possible ways for further improvement of the measurements accuracy are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  12. I. A. Popov, "Comparative study of accuracy of major signal processing techniques in laser Doppler velocimetry," in Sixth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques: Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 5503, 431-441 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

I. A. Popov, "Comparative study of accuracy of major signal processing techniques in laser Doppler velocimetry," in Sixth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques: Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 5503, 431-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. Hasman and V. Kleiner, "Three-dimensional optical metrology with extended depth-measuring range using a holographic axilens," Opt. Eng. 42, 132-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

I. A. Popov, L. M. Veselov, S. G. Hanson, and A. J. Gluzmann, "Accuracy of Doppler and grating velocimeters," in Fourth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques; Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4072, 222-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1988

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, "Principles and development of spatial filtering velocimetry," Appl. Phys. B 43, 209-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

A. Hayashi and Y. Kitagawa, "Fiber-optic distance sensor based on speckle velocity detection," Opt. Commun. 49, 91-94 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981

T. Asakura and N. Takai, "Dynamic laser speckles and their application to velocity measurements of the diffuse object," Appl. Phys. 25, 179-194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Giglio, S. Musazzi, and U. Perini, "Distance measurement from a moving object based on speckle velocity detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 721-722 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

I. Yamaguchi and S. Komatsu, "Theory and applications of dynamic laser speckles due to in-plane object motion," Opt. Acta 24, 705-724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1963

Aizu, Y.

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, "Principles and development of spatial filtering velocimetry," Appl. Phys. B 43, 209-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, T.

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, "Principles and development of spatial filtering velocimetry," Appl. Phys. B 43, 209-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Asakura and N. Takai, "Dynamic laser speckles and their application to velocity measurements of the diffuse object," Appl. Phys. 25, 179-194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ator, J. T.

Giglio, M.

Gluzmann, A. J.

I. A. Popov, L. M. Veselov, S. G. Hanson, and A. J. Gluzmann, "Accuracy of Doppler and grating velocimeters," in Fourth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques; Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4072, 222-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, S. G.

I. A. Popov, L. M. Veselov, S. G. Hanson, and A. J. Gluzmann, "Accuracy of Doppler and grating velocimeters," in Fourth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques; Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4072, 222-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartrumpf, M.

Hasman, E.

E. Hasman and V. Kleiner, "Three-dimensional optical metrology with extended depth-measuring range using a holographic axilens," Opt. Eng. 42, 132-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, A.

A. Hayashi and Y. Kitagawa, "Fiber-optic distance sensor based on speckle velocity detection," Opt. Commun. 49, 91-94 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kamshilin, A. A.

Kitagawa, Y.

A. Hayashi and Y. Kitagawa, "Fiber-optic distance sensor based on speckle velocity detection," Opt. Commun. 49, 91-94 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

E. Hasman and V. Kleiner, "Three-dimensional optical metrology with extended depth-measuring range using a holographic axilens," Opt. Eng. 42, 132-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, S.

I. Yamaguchi and S. Komatsu, "Theory and applications of dynamic laser speckles due to in-plane object motion," Opt. Acta 24, 705-724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Munser, R.

Musazzi, S.

Nippolainen, E.

Perini, U.

Popov, I. A.

I. A. Popov, "Comparative study of accuracy of major signal processing techniques in laser Doppler velocimetry," in Sixth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques: Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 5503, 431-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Popov, L. M. Veselov, S. G. Hanson, and A. J. Gluzmann, "Accuracy of Doppler and grating velocimeters," in Fourth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques; Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4072, 222-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, D. V.

Takai, N.

T. Asakura and N. Takai, "Dynamic laser speckles and their application to velocity measurements of the diffuse object," Appl. Phys. 25, 179-194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Veselov, L. M.

I. A. Popov, L. M. Veselov, S. G. Hanson, and A. J. Gluzmann, "Accuracy of Doppler and grating velocimeters," in Fourth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques; Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4072, 222-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi and S. Komatsu, "Theory and applications of dynamic laser speckles due to in-plane object motion," Opt. Acta 24, 705-724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, T.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

T. Asakura and N. Takai, "Dynamic laser speckles and their application to velocity measurements of the diffuse object," Appl. Phys. 25, 179-194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, "Principles and development of spatial filtering velocimetry," Appl. Phys. B 43, 209-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Acta

I. Yamaguchi and S. Komatsu, "Theory and applications of dynamic laser speckles due to in-plane object motion," Opt. Acta 24, 705-724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Hayashi and Y. Kitagawa, "Fiber-optic distance sensor based on speckle velocity detection," Opt. Commun. 49, 91-94 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. Hasman and V. Kleiner, "Three-dimensional optical metrology with extended depth-measuring range using a holographic axilens," Opt. Eng. 42, 132-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

I. A. Popov, L. M. Veselov, S. G. Hanson, and A. J. Gluzmann, "Accuracy of Doppler and grating velocimeters," in Fourth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques; Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4072, 222-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Popov, "Comparative study of accuracy of major signal processing techniques in laser Doppler velocimetry," in Sixth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser Techniques: Advances and Applications, E. P. Tomazini, ed., Proc. SPIE 5503, 431-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of distance measurements by means of dynamic speckles. A divergent Gaussian beam illuminates the surface under study, which is located behind the beam waist at a distance z. Ronchi rulings are situated on the other side of the beam waist for spatial filtering of dynamic speckles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic-speckle profilometer. A dynamic speckle pattern is generated by the laser beam scanning the surface under study. Scanning is accomplished by means of deflecting the laser beam from the rotating mirror fixed on the axis of the electrical motor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential technique for velocity measurements of a dynamic-speckle pattern: (a) oscilloscope trace of the current from the photodiode measuring light transmitted through the spatial filter, (b) current of the photodiode measuring reflected light, (c) the signal after the differential amplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile measurements of an aluminum plate with 1 mm surface steps by use of a dynamic-speckle profilometer with scanning implemented by a rotating mirror. A photograph of the plate is shown in the inset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of the photodiode signal from which frequency f SP is erroneously calculated by the electronic system used for frequency tracking. Lost oscillations are marked t A and t B .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SNR as a function of the distance between the illuminating beam waist and the surface under study for several locations R of the spatial filter from the beam waist. Spacing of the spatial filter, Λ = 25 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pairs of the filter position and distance to the surface at which, the SNR is 5 dB for spatial filters with different spatial periods. The area above each line corresponds to the geometry when the signal is modulated at the well-defined frequency, whereas in the area below the line the modulation is irregular.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SNR as a function of the average speckle size normalized to the spatial period Λ of Ronchi rulings.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of the maximal achievable modulation frequency on the position of the spatial filter. The speed of the laser beam with respect to the surface is 16 m/s. The four lower curves were obtained by use of an illuminating beam with a NA of 0.04 and Ronchi rulings with different spatial periods. The upper curve was measured for a NA of 0.2 and spatial filter Λ = 25 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average Speckle Size at Which the Modulation of Light Becomes Irregular

Equations (109)

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< 0.1 μ s
V S P V L B ( 1 + D 0 / R W ) ,
V S P
V L B
D 0
R W
D 0
R W
TEM 00
V S P V L B ( 1 + R + z cos θ z + Z R     2 / z ) .
Z R = π w 0     2 / λ
w 0
f S P = V S P Λ V L B Λ ( 1 + R + z z ) .
f S P
cos θ 1
z Z R
f S P
V L B
λ = 633   nm
w 0
Z R
254 μ m
25.4 × 25.4   mm
f S P
N S P
Δ t
16 μ s
M Q P
150   MHz
f S P = N S P M Q P f Q G .
f Q G
t S C
x = V L B t S C
1   mm
V L B = 12   m / s
Λ = 125 μ m
3   mm
0.2   mm
z Z R
800 μ s
16 μ s
z 1 = ( 4.0 ± 0.3 )   mm
z 2 = ( 3.0 ± 0.2 )   mm
0.8   MHz
0.6   MHz
N S P
f S P
( 1.0 ± 0.3 )   mm
0.03   mm
Δ t
200 μ m
320 μ m
t A
t B
N S P
Δ t
N S P
Δ t
f S P
V L B
V L B
Δ t
f S P
Δ t
N S P
f S P
Δ x
V S P
d f S P / d z
Δ z
d f S P / d z
Δ z
d f S P / d z
f S P
0 50   mm
254 μ m
f S P
z 0
5   dB
16   m / s
0.1 2   MHz
d S P = 2 λ π N A ( 1 + R z ) .
d S P
d S P / Λ
Λ / 2
d S P = Λ
f SP max = V L B ( 1 Λ + π N A 2 λ ) .
f SP max
f SP max
V L B
16   m / s
f SP max
d S P = Λ
Λ < d S P < λ
Λ = 125 μ m
λ = 0.6 μ m
Δ z
V L B
12.5   m / s
200   m / s
3000   m / s
100   MHz
16 μ s
100   ns
16 μ s
0.1 μ s
1   mm
0.3   mm
25 μ m

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