Abstract

A numerical iterative procedure is presented for the evaluation of the effect of signal absorption in two-color laser-induced incandescence measurements. The correction process is applied to our experimental data in an axisymmetric flame [Appl. Opt. 44, 7414 (2005)]. The influence of signal trapping on peak soot temperature and on soot volume fraction has been found to be minimal. Some numerical tests were performed to investigate the effects of soot concentration, flame size, and soot refractive index on the magnitude of the signal absorption correction.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, "Laser-induced incandescence" in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K.Khose-Hoingaus and J.B.Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 9.
  2. L. A. Melton, "Soot diagnostics based on laser heating," Appl. Opt. 23, 2201-2208 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Mewes and J. M. Seitzman, "Soot volume fraction and particle size measurements with laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Opt. 36, 709-717 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M. Y. Choi, "Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling," Combust. Flame 105, 462-470 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. L. Vander Wal, "Calibration and comparison of laser-induced incandescence with cavity ring-down," in Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, 1998), pp. 59-67.
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Y. Choi and K. A. Jensen, "Calibration and correction of laser-induced incandescence for soot volume fraction measurements," Combust. Flame 112, 485-491 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.
  11. S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames," Appl. Opt. 44, 7414-7423 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames: erratum," Appl. Opt. 45, 3805 (2006).
  13. H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 57-591 (1990).
  14. S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. De Iuliis, F. Migliorini, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Peak soot temperature in laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Phys. B 83, 397-402 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 122, 517-524 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 123, 331-339 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. De Iuliis, F. Migliorini, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Peak soot temperature in laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Phys. B 83, 397-402 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 123, 331-339 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 122, 517-524 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Y. Choi and K. A. Jensen, "Calibration and correction of laser-induced incandescence for soot volume fraction measurements," Combust. Flame 112, 485-491 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

R. L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M. Y. Choi, "Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling," Combust. Flame 105, 462-470 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 57-591 (1990).

1984 (1)

Bachalo, W. D.

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.

Bader, K.

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 57-591 (1990).

Charalampopoulos, T. T.

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 57-591 (1990).

Choi, M. Y.

M. Y. Choi and K. A. Jensen, "Calibration and correction of laser-induced incandescence for soot volume fraction measurements," Combust. Flame 112, 485-491 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M. Y. Choi, "Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling," Combust. Flame 105, 462-470 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cignoli, F.

S. De Iuliis, F. Migliorini, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Peak soot temperature in laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Phys. B 83, 397-402 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames," Appl. Opt. 44, 7414-7423 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames: erratum," Appl. Opt. 45, 3805 (2006).

Dankers, S.

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
[Crossref]

De Iuliis, S.

S. De Iuliis, F. Migliorini, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Peak soot temperature in laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Phys. B 83, 397-402 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames," Appl. Opt. 44, 7414-7423 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames: erratum," Appl. Opt. 45, 3805 (2006).

Desgroux, P.

C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
[Crossref]

Faeth, G. M.

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 123, 331-339 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 122, 517-524 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gulder, O. L.

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.

Jensen, K. A.

M. Y. Choi and K. A. Jensen, "Calibration and correction of laser-induced incandescence for soot volume fraction measurements," Combust. Flame 112, 485-491 (1998).
[Crossref]

Krishnan, S. S.

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 123, 331-339 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 122, 517-524 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-W.

B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994).
[Crossref]

Leipertz, A.

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lin, K.-C.

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 123, 331-339 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 122, 517-524 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.

Melton, L. A.

Mercier, X.

C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mewes, B.

Migliorini, F.

S. De Iuliis, F. Migliorini, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Peak soot temperature in laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Phys. B 83, 397-402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ni, T.

B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pauwels, J. F.

C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quay, B.

B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994).
[Crossref]

Santoro, R. J.

B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, "Laser-induced incandescence" in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K.Khose-Hoingaus and J.B.Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 9.

Schraml, S.

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Seitzman, J. M.

Shaddix, C. R.

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, "Laser-induced incandescence" in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K.Khose-Hoingaus and J.B.Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 9.

Shoemaker-Moreau, C.

C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smallwood, G. J.

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.

Smyth, K. C.

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[Crossref]

Snelling, D. R.

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.

Therssen, E.

C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vander Wal, R. L.

R. L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M. Y. Choi, "Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling," Combust. Flame 105, 462-470 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. L. Vander Wal, "Calibration and comparison of laser-induced incandescence with cavity ring-down," in Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, 1998), pp. 59-67.
[Crossref]

Will, S.

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

R. L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M. Y. Choi, "Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling," Combust. Flame 105, 462-470 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zizak, G.

S. De Iuliis, F. Migliorini, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Peak soot temperature in laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Phys. B 83, 397-402 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames," Appl. Opt. 44, 7414-7423 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames: erratum," Appl. Opt. 45, 3805 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. De Iuliis, F. Migliorini, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Peak soot temperature in laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Phys. B 83, 397-402 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Shoemaker-Moreau, E. Therssen, X. Mercier, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames," Appl. Phys. B 78, 485-492 (2004).
[Crossref]

Combust. Flame (5)

M. Y. Choi and K. A. Jensen, "Calibration and correction of laser-induced incandescence for soot volume fraction measurements," Combust. Flame 112, 485-491 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M. Y. Choi, "Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling," Combust. Flame 105, 462-470 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Heat Transfer (2)

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 122, 517-524 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 123, 331-339 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 57-591 (1990).

Other (4)

R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, "Laser-induced incandescence" in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K.Khose-Hoingaus and J.B.Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 9.

R. L. Vander Wal, "Calibration and comparison of laser-induced incandescence with cavity ring-down," in Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, 1998), pp. 59-67.
[Crossref]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.

S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames: erratum," Appl. Opt. 45, 3805 (2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Onionlike decomposition of soot regions in an axisymmetric flame. Measurement points are set at 0,1, . . . , N.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of LII intensity radial profiles obtained with (solid curve) and without (symbols) correction for signal absorption. Measurements refer to 450   nm and at 3   cm height above the burner in the ethylene diffusion flame.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of f v radial profiles obtained from extinction (open symbols) and LII measurements, uncorrected and corrected for absorption (closed symbols and solid curve, respectively).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of T s radial profiles obtained from incandescence measurements (open symbols) and the relative values corrected from absorption (solid curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Corrected (solid curve) and uncorrected (open symbols) T s and f v radial profiles for LII ×2 signals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Corrected (solid curve) and uncorrected (open symbols) T s and f v radial profiles for LII ×10 signals. In the f v graph, the thicker curve is obtained from T s local values, while an average of 4448 K is used in the dashed profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Uncorrected (open symbols) and corrected radial profiles for LII (dashed curve), LII ×2 (dashed curve), and LII ×10 (solid curve) for T s and f v , by using the values of E(m) of Krishnan et al. (Refs. 15 and 16) at the two wavelengths. The absorption-corrected f v curves are normalized to the uncorrected ones. Closed symbols refer to extinction measurements.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( N ) = I m ( N ) { exp [ f v ( N ) K e y N N λ ] } ,
K e = 6 π E ( m ) = 36 π n λ k λ ( n λ     2 k λ     2 + 2 ) 2 + 4 n λ     2 k λ     2 ,
y N N = p [ ( N + 1 2 ) 2 N 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
I ( n ) = I m ( n ) { exp [ f v ( n ) K e y n , n λ ] × exp [ f v ( n + 1 ) K e y n , n + 1 λ ] exp [ f v ( N ) K e y n , N λ ] } .

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