Abstract

Frequency-selective bolometers (FSBs) are a new type of detector for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths that are transparent to all but a narrow range of frequencies as set by characteristics of the absorber itself. Therefore stacks of FSBs tuned to different frequencies provide a low-loss compact method for utilizing a large fraction of the light collected by a telescope. Tests of prototype FSBs indicate that the absorption spectra are well predicted by models, that peak absolute absorption efficiencies of the order of 50% are attainable, and that their out-of-band transmission is high.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

2001

2000

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, and M. E. Huber, "Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043-4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

1996

J.-P. Berenger, "Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 127, 363-379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J.-Y. Wu, D. M. Kingsland, J.-F. Lee, and R. Lee, "A comparison of anisotropic PML to Berenger's PML and its application to the finite-element method for EM scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 40-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

1983

1979

E. L. Pelton and B. A. Munk, "Scattering from periodic arrays of crossed dipoles," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 27, 323-330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1956

H. Severin, "Nonreflecting absorbers for microwave radiation," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 4, 385-392 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Aslam, S.

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, J. W.

Bennett, C. L.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J.-P.

J.-P. Berenger, "Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 127, 363-379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, R. S.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bier, A.

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

Bock, J. J.

Boggess, N. W.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campano, B.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

Campano, B. A.

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chase, S. T.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chase and R. D. Joseph, "Resonant array bandpass filters for the far infrared," Appl. Opt. 22, 1775-1779 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, E.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

Cheng, E. S.

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chervenak, J. A.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, and M. E. Huber, "Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043-4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cordone, S. S.

S. S. Cordone, "Intrumentation for precision measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2004).

Cosmo, V. D.

Cottingham, D. A.

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T.

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

Crawford, T. M.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

Cunningham, C. R.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

Downes, T.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

Edgington, S. F.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eichorn, W. L.

Eplee, R. E.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finkbeiner, F. M.

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fixsen, D. J.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
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M. S. Kowitt, D. J. Fixsen, A. Goldin, and S. S. Meyer, "Frequency selective bolometers," Appl. Opt. 35, 5630 (1996).
[PubMed]

Gear, W. K.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

Glenn, J.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, V. V. Hristov, H. T. Nguyen, F. Rahman, S. Sethuraman, and A. L. Woodcraft, "Silicon nitride micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics," Appl. Opt. 40, 4921-4932 (2001).
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R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldin, A.

Grossman, E. N.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, and M. E. Huber, "Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043-4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gush, H.

Halpern, M.

Hargrave, P. C.

Hemmati, H.

Hewagama, T.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. S.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

Hristov, V. V.

Huber, M. E.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, and M. E. Huber, "Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043-4045 (1999).
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Irwin, K. D.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, and M. E. Huber, "Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043-4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isaacman, R. B.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jenness, T.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

Jensen, K. A.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, W. C.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
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Joseph, R. D.

Kelley, R. L.

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
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J.-Y. Wu, D. M. Kingsland, J.-F. Lee, and R. Lee, "A comparison of anisotropic PML to Berenger's PML and its application to the finite-element method for EM scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 40-50 (1995).
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Kowitt, M. S.

Laidlaw, K.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

Lange, A. E.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
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Lee, J.-F.

J.-Y. Wu, D. M. Kingsland, J.-F. Lee, and R. Lee, "A comparison of anisotropic PML to Berenger's PML and its application to the finite-element method for EM scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 40-50 (1995).
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Lee, R.

J.-Y. Wu, D. M. Kingsland, J.-F. Lee, and R. Lee, "A comparison of anisotropic PML to Berenger's PML and its application to the finite-element method for EM scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 40-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lightfoot, J. F.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

Logan, D.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

Logan, D. W.

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

Maffei, B.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mainzer, A. K.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinis, J. M.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, and M. E. Huber, "Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043-4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Massa, D. L.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mather, J. C.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Hemmati, J. C. Mather, and W. L. Eichorn, "Submillimeter and millimeter wave characterization of absorbing materials," Appl. Opt. 24, 4489-4492 (1985).
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Mauskopf, P. D.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, S.

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

Meyer, S. S.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kowitt, D. J. Fixsen, A. Goldin, and S. S. Meyer, "Frequency selective bolometers," Appl. Opt. 35, 5630 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mott, D. B.

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
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Munk, B.

B. Munk, Frequency Selective Surfaces: Theory and Design (Wiley, 2000).
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Munk, B. A.

E. L. Pelton and B. A. Munk, "Scattering from periodic arrays of crossed dipoles," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 27, 323-330 (1979).
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Nguyen, H. T.

Noerdlinger, P. D.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O'dell, C.

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
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Pelton, E. L.

E. L. Pelton and B. A. Munk, "Scattering from periodic arrays of crossed dipoles," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 27, 323-330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perera, T.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

Philhour, B. J.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, F.

Read, S. M.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reintsema, C. D.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, and M. E. Huber, "Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043-4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robson, E. I.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, and E. I. Robson, "SCUBA-A submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE 3357, 305-318 (1998).

Rosen, L. P.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rownd, B. K.

R. S. Bhatia, S. T. Chase, S. F. Edgington, J. Glenn, W. C. Jones, A. E. Lange, B. Maffei, A. K. Mainzer, P. D. Mauskopf, B. J. Philhour, and B. K. Rownd, "A three-stage helium sorption refrigerator for cooling of infrared detectors to 280 mK," Cryogenics 40, 685-691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sethuraman, S.

Severin, H.

H. Severin, "Nonreflecting absorbers for microwave radiation," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 4, 385-392 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, R. A.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, E.

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

Sharp, E. H.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

Silverberg, R. F.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cottingham, A. Bier, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, T. Crawford, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of frequency selective bolometers for ground-based MM-wave astronomy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 192-200 (2003).

G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

Stahle, C. K.

F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

Trenholme, A. R.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Weiss, R.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D. T.

D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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T. C. Chen, A. Bier, B. A. Campano, D. A. Cottingham, F. M. Finkbeiner, C. O'dell, E. Sharp, R. F. Silverberg, and G. Wilson, "Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 520, 446-448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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G. Wilson, T. C. Chen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. Crawford, D. J. Fixsen, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. W. Logan, S. Meyer, R. F. Silverberg, and P. T. Timbie, "Spectral energy distribution camera for the LMT," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips and J. Zmuidzinas, eds. Proc. SPIE 4855, 583-593 (2003).

Wilson, G. W.

R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

Wishnow, E.

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D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
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D. J. Fixsen, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, R. E. Eplee, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, K. A. Jensen, J. C. Mather, D. L. Massa, S. S. Meyer, P. D. Noerdlinger, S. M. Read, L. P. Rosen, R. A. Shafer, A. R. Trenholme, R. Weiss, C. L. Bennett, N. W. Boggess, D. T. Wilkinson, and E. L. Wright, "Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument," Astrophys. J. 420, 457-473 (1994).
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F. M. Finkbeiner, T. C. Chen, S. Aslam, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R. L. Kelley, M. Li, D. B. Mott, C. K. Stahle, and C. M. Stahle, "Fabrication of superconducting bilayer transition edge thermometers and their application for spacebourne x-ray microcalorimetry," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9, 2940-2942 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

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R. F. Silverberg, B. Campano, T. C. Chen, E. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, T. M. Crawford, T. Downes, F. M. Finkbeiner, D. J. Fixsen, D. Logan, S. S. Meyer, T. Perera, E. H. Sharp, and G. W. Wilson, "A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J. Antebi and D. Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498, 659-666 (2004).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a stack of two FSBs. Of the radiation entering from the left, the component in the band of FSB 1 (dotted arrows) is absorbed, and radiation outside that band passes through the detector. Of the remaining light, radiation that is within the band of FSB 2 (solid arrows) is absorbed and all other radiation (dashed arrows) continues down the stack until absorbed by an additional FSB or by a terminating absorber. On the right side is a schematic illustrating the combination of the absorbing layer and reflecting backshort.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FSB surface geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Picture of a complete FSB absorber frame. (b) Close-up showing the TES and leads. (c) Simple model describing the static thermal behavior of detectors. g 1 represents heat conductance from the TES to the cold stage, g 2 represents the gold-ring-to-TES thermal conductance (see Section 3). Arrows indicate the physical locations of elements in the schematic model and thermal links between them. g 2 corresponds to the small gap seen in (b) between the TES and the stub extending off the gold ring.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TES is biased by running a current ( I b ) through the shunt–TES combination. Current flowing through the TES ( I TES ) is measured with a SQUID multiplexer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) In both experimental arrangements light pipes are attached to the several temperature stages of the cryostat and filters are attached to the light pipes. (i) Polypropylene window ( 0.25   mm ) at room temperature, (ii) 1.3 % flat transmission neutral-density filter, (iii) 1.6   mm fluorogold, (iv) 3.2   mm Teflon foam (Gore-Tex), (v) 6 .6   mm fluorogold, (vi) two FSBs with an 6   mm gap, (vii) cavity made of magnetically loaded epoxy to absorb transmitted radiation, (viii) blackbody source capable of temperatures from 4 to 40 K housed in separate cryostat with shared vacuum, and (ix) 77 K shielding around (x) 4.2 K light pipe.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Electrical power dissipated in a 271   GHz detector at various source temperatures from 4.2 to 30.1 K. Electrical power within the transition (flat region) decreases with increasing source temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Solid curve is the measured source temperature modulation. The plus signs are measured values of the TES current for a 271   GHz detector. At this slow modulation speed the source temperature and bolometer response are in phase (the TES current is ac coupled and 180° out of phase with bolometer loading).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Solid curves show the spectral response of the two FSB stacks. The difference between the two stacks is in the TES lead material, which should not affect optical characteristics. In each stack, the 219   GHz detector is placed downstream of the 271   GHz detector in the light path. The line thickness of each curve represents the uncertainty when it exceeds the constant line thickness used to represent the data (mainly at low frequencies). Overlaid with dashed and dotted curves are the corresponding HFSS models scaled to have the same peak absorption as the data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Estimate of absorbed optical power versus source temperature for a 271 GHz detector. The curve through the data is the right-hand side of Eq. (4) scaled to best fit the data. The value of the best fit efficiency is also indicated. The indicated error bars are statistical. The error from the fit is combined with further systematics to get the final uncertainties of Table 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Parameters of FSBs a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absolute Absorption Efficiency of the Four Tested FSBs a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P + P rad = T s T g 1 ( T ) d T ,
Δ P = Δ P rad = Δ Q 1 + g 1 g 1 + g 2 .
δ I = δ P rad I b R b 1 R TES R b R TES + R b + g 1 ( T ) T P α ( 1 + β R TES R TES + R b ) ,
Q ( ν , T l ) = ϵ 0 f ( ν ) B I ( ν , T l ) d ν .

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