Abstract

We report, what is to our knowledge, the first experimental realization of partially coherent bottle beams. It is shown that partially coherent bottle beams can be achieved by the focusing of partially coherent light with an axicon-lens system. The influence of the spatial coherence of the incident partially coherent light and other parameters, such as the radius of the limiting aperture of the axicon and the distance between the axicon and the lens, on the size of the bottle beams is investigated. We find that the longer the spatial coherence length, the larger the size of the resultant bottle beams. This dependence of the size of the bottle beams on the spatial coherence of the incident light provides a facile approach for generating adjustable partially coherent bottle beams. This kind of partially coherent bottle beam may have applications in atom optics, such as in atom trapping and atom guiding, etc.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Freegarde and K. Dholakia, "Cavity-enhanced optical bottle beam as a mechanical amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 66, 013413 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, "Long spin relaxation times in a single-beam blue-detuned optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750-R1753 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Arlt and M. J. Padgett, "Generation of a beam with a dark focus surrounded by regions of higher intensity: the optical bottle beam," Opt. Lett. 25, 191-193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. H. Chen, P. T. Tai, and W. F. Hsieh, "Bottle beam from a bare laser for single-beam trapping," Appl. Opt. 43, 6001-6006 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, "Optimized single-beam dark optical trap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1233-1238 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Generating an adjustable three-dimensional dark focus," Opt. Lett. 29, 661-663 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, and S. H. Tao, "Generation of self-imaged optical bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 238, 177-184 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yin and W. J. Gao, "Intensity-gradient cooling of atoms in a localized-hollow beam," Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 4157-4162 (2004).
  9. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chuk, "Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles," Opt. Lett. 11, 288-290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Gbur and T. D. Visser, "Can spatial coherence effects produce a local minimum of intensity at focus," Opt. Lett. 28, 1627-1629 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. X. Pu, S. Nemoto, and X. Y. Liu, "Beam shaping of focused partially coherent beams by use of spatial coherence effect," Appl. Opt. 43, 5281-5286 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. X. Pu, X. Y. Liu, and S. Nemoto, "Partially coherent bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 252, 7-11 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999) Chap. 10.
  14. M. Wei, W. Shiao, and Y. Lin, "Adjustable generation of bottle beams hollow beams using an axicon," Opt. Commun. 248, 7-14 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. X. Pu, X. Y. Liu, and S. Nemoto, "Partially coherent bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 252, 7-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wei, W. Shiao, and Y. Lin, "Adjustable generation of bottle beams hollow beams using an axicon," Opt. Commun. 248, 7-14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, "Optimized single-beam dark optical trap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1233-1238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Freegarde and K. Dholakia, "Cavity-enhanced optical bottle beam as a mechanical amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 66, 013413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, "Long spin relaxation times in a single-beam blue-detuned optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750-R1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Ahluwalia, B. P. S.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, and S. H. Tao, "Generation of self-imaged optical bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 238, 177-184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

Ashkin, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999) Chap. 10.

Bouma, B. E.

Chen, C. H.

Chuk, S.

Davidson, N.

A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, "Optimized single-beam dark optical trap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1233-1238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, "Long spin relaxation times in a single-beam blue-detuned optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750-R1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

T. Freegarde and K. Dholakia, "Cavity-enhanced optical bottle beam as a mechanical amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 66, 013413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Freegarde, T.

T. Freegarde and K. Dholakia, "Cavity-enhanced optical bottle beam as a mechanical amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 66, 013413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, N.

Gao, W. J.

J. Yin and W. J. Gao, "Intensity-gradient cooling of atoms in a localized-hollow beam," Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 4157-4162 (2004).

Gbur, G.

Hsieh, W. F.

Kaplan, A.

Khaykovich, L.

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, "Long spin relaxation times in a single-beam blue-detuned optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750-R1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

M. Wei, W. Shiao, and Y. Lin, "Adjustable generation of bottle beams hollow beams using an axicon," Opt. Commun. 248, 7-14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. Y.

Nemoto, S.

Ozeri, R.

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, "Long spin relaxation times in a single-beam blue-detuned optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750-R1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

Pu, J. X.

Shiao, W.

M. Wei, W. Shiao, and Y. Lin, "Adjustable generation of bottle beams hollow beams using an axicon," Opt. Commun. 248, 7-14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tai, P. T.

Tao, S. H.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, and S. H. Tao, "Generation of self-imaged optical bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 238, 177-184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Visser, T. D.

Wei, M.

M. Wei, W. Shiao, and Y. Lin, "Adjustable generation of bottle beams hollow beams using an axicon," Opt. Commun. 248, 7-14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999) Chap. 10.

Yelin, D.

Yin, J.

J. Yin and W. J. Gao, "Intensity-gradient cooling of atoms in a localized-hollow beam," Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 4157-4162 (2004).

Yuan, X. C.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, and S. H. Tao, "Generation of self-imaged optical bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 238, 177-184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

J. Yin and W. J. Gao, "Intensity-gradient cooling of atoms in a localized-hollow beam," Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 4157-4162 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, and S. H. Tao, "Generation of self-imaged optical bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 238, 177-184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Pu, X. Y. Liu, and S. Nemoto, "Partially coherent bottle beams," Opt. Commun. 252, 7-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wei, W. Shiao, and Y. Lin, "Adjustable generation of bottle beams hollow beams using an axicon," Opt. Commun. 248, 7-14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. Freegarde and K. Dholakia, "Cavity-enhanced optical bottle beam as a mechanical amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 66, 013413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, "Long spin relaxation times in a single-beam blue-detuned optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750-R1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999) Chap. 10.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for generating partially coherent bottle beams. A lens L 1 is employed to focus a Gaussian beam delivered from a He–Ne laser onto a rotating ground glass, and the scattering light is incident on an apertured axicon and is subsequently focused by a lens L 2 . f 1 = 35 mm , γ = 2 ° , a is the radius of the limiting aperture. w 0 = 0.15 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse intensity distribution across six positions of the focused region, showing that the partially coherent bottle beam is achieved. f 1 = 35 mm , f 2 = 35 mm , w 0 = 0.15 mm , d = 142.8 cm , λ = 0.6328 μm (resulting in the effective coherence length 1.9 mm ). γ = 2 ° , z 0 = 31.5 mm , n = 1.458 , a = 10 mm . z indicates the distance between the lens L 2 and the observed position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Longitudinal width W L and (b) transverse width W T of the bottle beam as a function of the spatially coherent length (σ) of the incident partially coherent light for three radii of the limiting aperture. λ = 0.6328 μm , w 0 = 0.15 mm , γ = 2 ° , f 1 = f 2 = 35 mm , z 0 = 300 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Longitudinal width W L and (b) transverse width W T of the bottle beam as a function of Z 0 . The spatial coherence length is chosen as σ = 1.85 mm ; other parameters are the same as in Fig. 3.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( ρ ) = I 0 exp ( - 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) ,
μ ( Δ r ) = 0 exp ( - 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) J 0 ( k Δ r d ρ ) ρd ρ 0 exp ( - 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) ρd ρ .
μ ( r 1 - r 2 ) = exp [ - ( r 1 - r 2 ) 2 2 σ 2 ] ,
σ = 2 d k w 0

Metrics