Abstract

The development of a new concurrent multiaxis (CMAX) sky viewing spectrometer to monitor rapidly changing urban concentrations of nitrogen dioxide is detailed. The CMAX differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique involves simultaneous spectral imaging of the zenith and off-axis measurements of spatially resolved scattered sunlight. Trace-gas amounts are retrieved from the measured spectra using the established DOAS technique. The potential of the CMAX DOAS technique to derive information on rapidly changing concentrations and the spatial distribution of NO2 in an urban environment is demonstrated. Three example data sets are presented from measurements during 2004 of tropospheric NO2 over Leicester, UK (52.62°N, 1.12°W). The data demonstrate the current capabilities and future potential of the CMAX DOAS method in terms of the ability to measure real-time spatially disaggregated urban NO2.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2004

G. Honninger, H. Leser, O. Sebastian, and U. Platt, "Ground-based measurements of halogen oxides at the Hudson Bay by active longpath DOAS and passive MAX-DOAS," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Honninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, "Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Friess, S. Sanghavi, R. Sinreich, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS O4 measurements: a new technique to derive information on atmospheric aerosols--principles and information content," J. Geophys. Res. 109D, D22205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Bobrowski, G. Honninger, B. Galle, and U. Platt, "Detection of bromine monoxide in a volcanic plume," Nature 423, 273-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

G. Honninger and U. Platt, "Observations of BrO and its vertical distribution during surface ozone depletion at Alert," Atmos. Environ. 36, 2481-2489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Tornkvist, D. W. Arlander, and B.-M. Sinnhuber, "Ground-based UV measurements of BrO and OCIO over Ny-Alesund during winter 1996 and 1997 and Andoya during winter 1998/99," J. Atmos. Chem. 43, 75-106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

U. Friess, T. Wagner, I. Pundt, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, "Spectroscopic measurements of tropospheric iodine oxide at Neumayer Station, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1941-1944 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Wittrock, R. Muller, A. Richter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) above Spitsbergen," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1471-1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Richter, M. Eisinger, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, and J. P. Burrows, "DOAS zenith sky observations: 2. Seasonal variation of BrO over Bremen (53 degrees N) 1994-1995," J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 83-99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42 000 cm-1 to 10 000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. L. Miller, A. Weaver, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, and S. Solomon, "Measurements of arctic sunrise surface ozone depletion events at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67 degrees N, to 51 degrees W)," Tellus Ser. B 49, 496-509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, M. Demaziere, and P. C. Simon, "Stratospheric NO2 observations at the Jungfraujoch Station between June 1990 and May 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1383-1386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, and A. L. Schmeltekopf, "Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OCIO from April to October 1991," J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 7219-7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

G. D. Greenblatt, J. J. Orlando, J. B. Burkholder, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Absorption measurements of oxygen between 330 nm and 1140 nm," J. Geophys. Res. 95D, 18577-18582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, "On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 92(D7): p. 8311-8319 (1987).

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, "On the interpretation of zenith sky measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 92(D7): 8311-8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, "Stratospheric NO2. 1. Observational method and behaviour at Midlatitudes," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047-5076 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

J. F. Noxon, "Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy," Science 189, 547-549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962

J. F. Grainger and J. Ring, "Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles," Nature 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aliwell, S. R.

S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arlander, D. W.

S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Tornkvist, D. W. Arlander, and B.-M. Sinnhuber, "Ground-based UV measurements of BrO and OCIO over Ny-Alesund during winter 1996 and 1997 and Andoya during winter 1998/99," J. Atmos. Chem. 43, 75-106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arpag, K.

H. L. Miller, A. Weaver, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, and S. Solomon, "Measurements of arctic sunrise surface ozone depletion events at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67 degrees N, to 51 degrees W)," Tellus Ser. B 49, 496-509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bobrowski, N.

N. Bobrowski, G. Honninger, B. Galle, and U. Platt, "Detection of bromine monoxide in a volcanic plume," Nature 423, 273-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogumil, K.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Wittrock, R. Muller, A. Richter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) above Spitsbergen," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1471-1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, and L. Testerman, "Solar flux atlas from 296 to 1300 nm," in National Solar Observatory Atlas No. 1 (National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 1984).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burkholder, J. B.

G. D. Greenblatt, J. J. Orlando, J. B. Burkholder, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Absorption measurements of oxygen between 330 nm and 1140 nm," J. Geophys. Res. 95D, 18577-18582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Wittrock, R. Muller, A. Richter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) above Spitsbergen," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1471-1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Eisinger, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, and J. P. Burrows, "DOAS zenith sky observations: 2. Seasonal variation of BrO over Bremen (53 degrees N) 1994-1995," J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 83-99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42 000 cm-1 to 10 000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colin, R.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42 000 cm-1 to 10 000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coquart, B.

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, M. Demaziere, and P. C. Simon, "Stratospheric NO2 observations at the Jungfraujoch Station between June 1990 and May 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1383-1386 (1994).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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T. Wagner, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Friess, S. Sanghavi, R. Sinreich, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS O4 measurements: a new technique to derive information on atmospheric aerosols--principles and information content," J. Geophys. Res. 109D, D22205 (2004).
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A. Richter, M. Eisinger, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, and J. P. Burrows, "DOAS zenith sky observations: 2. Seasonal variation of BrO over Bremen (53 degrees N) 1994-1995," J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 83-99 (1999).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42 000 cm-1 to 10 000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
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S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
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K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
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T. Wagner, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Friess, S. Sanghavi, R. Sinreich, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS O4 measurements: a new technique to derive information on atmospheric aerosols--principles and information content," J. Geophys. Res. 109D, D22205 (2004).
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U. Friess, T. Wagner, I. Pundt, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, "Spectroscopic measurements of tropospheric iodine oxide at Neumayer Station, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1941-1944 (2001).
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Furenlid, I.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, and L. Testerman, "Solar flux atlas from 296 to 1300 nm," in National Solar Observatory Atlas No. 1 (National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 1984).

Galle, B.

N. Bobrowski, G. Honninger, B. Galle, and U. Platt, "Detection of bromine monoxide in a volcanic plume," Nature 423, 273-276 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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G. D. Greenblatt, J. J. Orlando, J. B. Burkholder, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Absorption measurements of oxygen between 330 nm and 1140 nm," J. Geophys. Res. 95D, 18577-18582 (1990).
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Hartmann, M.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
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Hermans, C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42 000 cm-1 to 10 000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
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M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, M. Demaziere, and P. C. Simon, "Stratospheric NO2 observations at the Jungfraujoch Station between June 1990 and May 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1383-1386 (1994).
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Homann, T.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
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Honninger, G.

G. Honninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, "Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004).
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G. Honninger, H. Leser, O. Sebastian, and U. Platt, "Ground-based measurements of halogen oxides at the Hudson Bay by active longpath DOAS and passive MAX-DOAS," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04111 (2004).
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N. Bobrowski, G. Honninger, B. Galle, and U. Platt, "Detection of bromine monoxide in a volcanic plume," Nature 423, 273-276 (2003).
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G. Honninger and U. Platt, "Observations of BrO and its vertical distribution during surface ozone depletion at Alert," Atmos. Environ. 36, 2481-2489 (2002).
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H. Leser, G. Honninger, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS measurements of BrO and NO2 in the marine boundary layer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1537 (2003).

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J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, "Stratospheric NO2. 1. Observational method and behaviour at Midlatitudes," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047-5076 (1979).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42 000 cm-1 to 10 000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
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S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
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P. V. Johnston and R. L. McKenzie, "NO2 observations at 45-degrees-S during the decreasing phase of Solar-Cycle 21, from 1980 to 1987," J. Geophys. Res. 94D, 3473-3486 (1989).

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S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
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Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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Keys, J. G.

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, and A. L. Schmeltekopf, "Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OCIO from April to October 1991," J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 7219-7228 (1993).
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Kromminga, H.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
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Kurucz, R. L.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, and L. Testerman, "Solar flux atlas from 296 to 1300 nm," in National Solar Observatory Atlas No. 1 (National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 1984).

Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A.

A. Richter, M. Eisinger, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, and J. P. Burrows, "DOAS zenith sky observations: 2. Seasonal variation of BrO over Bremen (53 degrees N) 1994-1995," J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 83-99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, J. C.

S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
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Leser, H.

G. Honninger, H. Leser, O. Sebastian, and U. Platt, "Ground-based measurements of halogen oxides at the Hudson Bay by active longpath DOAS and passive MAX-DOAS," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Leser, G. Honninger, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS measurements of BrO and NO2 in the marine boundary layer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1537 (2003).

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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McKenzie, R. L.

P. V. Johnston and R. L. McKenzie, "NO2 observations at 45-degrees-S during the decreasing phase of Solar-Cycle 21, from 1980 to 1987," J. Geophys. Res. 94D, 3473-3486 (1989).

Medeke, T.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merienne, M. F.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42 000 cm-1 to 10 000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
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H. L. Miller, A. Weaver, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, and S. Solomon, "Measurements of arctic sunrise surface ozone depletion events at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67 degrees N, to 51 degrees W)," Tellus Ser. B 49, 496-509 (1997).
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R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, and A. L. Schmeltekopf, "Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OCIO from April to October 1991," J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 7219-7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mount, G. H.

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, and A. L. Schmeltekopf, "Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OCIO from April to October 1991," J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 7219-7228 (1993).
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Muller, R.

F. Wittrock, R. Muller, A. Richter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) above Spitsbergen," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1471-1474 (2000).
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Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, "Stratospheric NO2. 1. Observational method and behaviour at Midlatitudes," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047-5076 (1979).
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J. F. Noxon, "Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy," Science 189, 547-549 (1975).
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Oetjen, H.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, J. J.

G. D. Greenblatt, J. J. Orlando, J. B. Burkholder, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Absorption measurements of oxygen between 330 nm and 1140 nm," J. Geophys. Res. 95D, 18577-18582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perliski, L.

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, and A. L. Schmeltekopf, "Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OCIO from April to October 1991," J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 7219-7228 (1993).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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Pfeilsticker, K.

S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
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F. Wittrock, R. Muller, A. Richter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) above Spitsbergen," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1471-1474 (2000).
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F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
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T. Wagner, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Friess, S. Sanghavi, R. Sinreich, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS O4 measurements: a new technique to derive information on atmospheric aerosols--principles and information content," J. Geophys. Res. 109D, D22205 (2004).
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R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, and A. L. Schmeltekopf, "Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OCIO from April to October 1991," J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 7219-7228 (1993).
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S. R. Aliwell, M. Van Roozendael, P. V. Johnston, A. Richter, T. Wagner, D. W. Arlander, J. P. Burrows, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, K. K. Tornkvist, J. C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and I. Pundt, "Analysis for BrO in zenith-sky spectra: an intercomparison exercise for analysis improvement," J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4199 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, H. Bovensmann, J. Frerick, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230-2380 nm region," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 167-184 (2003).
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G. Honninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, "Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004).
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T. Wagner, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Friess, S. Sanghavi, R. Sinreich, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS O4 measurements: a new technique to derive information on atmospheric aerosols--principles and information content," J. Geophys. Res. 109D, D22205 (2004).
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T. Wagner, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Friess, S. Sanghavi, R. Sinreich, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS O4 measurements: a new technique to derive information on atmospheric aerosols--principles and information content," J. Geophys. Res. 109D, D22205 (2004).
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H. L. Miller, A. Weaver, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, and S. Solomon, "Measurements of arctic sunrise surface ozone depletion events at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67 degrees N, to 51 degrees W)," Tellus Ser. B 49, 496-509 (1997).
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F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
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F. Wittrock, R. Muller, A. Richter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) above Spitsbergen," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1471-1474 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Alesund: radiative transfer studies and their application," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966 (2004).
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Geophys. Res. Lett.

H. Leser, G. Honninger, and U. Platt, "MAX-DOAS measurements of BrO and NO2 in the marine boundary layer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1537 (2003).

G. Honninger, H. Leser, O. Sebastian, and U. Platt, "Ground-based measurements of halogen oxides at the Hudson Bay by active longpath DOAS and passive MAX-DOAS," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, M. Demaziere, and P. C. Simon, "Stratospheric NO2 observations at the Jungfraujoch Station between June 1990 and May 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1383-1386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Friess, T. Wagner, I. Pundt, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, "Spectroscopic measurements of tropospheric iodine oxide at Neumayer Station, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1941-1944 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Wittrock, R. Muller, A. Richter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows, "Measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) above Spitsbergen," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1471-1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Simplified schematic illustrating paths through the atmosphere of scattered solar radiation detected by the multiaxis DOAS instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the instrumentation used for CMAX DOAS measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Example CCD image with five fibers imaged over a total of 550 rows. Software algorithms adjust for any tilt in the imaged spectra. Charge buildup between reads can be seen at the top of the image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) An example DOAS fit of a spectrum taken at 15:00 on 9 November 2004 (80.9° SZA) using a reference spectrum at solar noon (69.6° SZA) showing fits for (a) NO 2 , (b) O 3 , (c) O 4 , (d) H 2 O , (e) Ring, (f) with the residual structure. (a)–(e) show the fitted cross section in blue with the residual structure in red. Derived slant column densities from this retrieval are NO 2 , 2.05 × 10 17   mol   cm 2 ; O 3 , 2.37 × 10 19   mol   cm 2 ; H 2 O , 1.26 × 10 3   mol   cm 2 ; O 4 , 4.4 × 10 3 . The residual rms value is 2.05 × 10 3 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Spectra from a quartz tungsten radiometric calibration lamp recorded from all five fibers on their respective portions of the 48-20 CCD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Radiometric calibration factors for each pixel of each fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Signal intensities measured on each of the five fibers, plotted with the signal intensity measured at off-fiber points. These off-fiber points were measured between the fibers, above the top fiber, and below the bottom fiber, and all have such similar values as to be indistinguishable in this figure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Measured instrument line shape (ILS) plotted with a fitted Gaussian curve, demonstrating the slight asymmetry of the line shape.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Instrument line shape calculated by the WinDOAS software from spectra measured on each section of the CCD. Values plotted are the FWHM of fitted Gaussian curves along the spectrum.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) (a) Slant column densities of NO 2 measured using the four different methods of analysis: Prim∕Prim, Sec∕Sec, Prim∕Sec, and Sec∕Prim. (b) A correlation plot of these four data sets using the Prim∕Prim analysis for the x axis. Also included in (b) are linear best-fit lines for each data set, with their equations, showing intercept, gradient, and R 2 values.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Example fits from spectra from the primary telescope at 3 p.m. on 9 November 2004 using a reference spectrum from the primary telescope (left) and the secondary telescope (right). Species and concentrations for each panel as are follows: (a) NO 2 , 2.05 × 10 17   mol   cm - 2 ; (b) O 3 , 2.37 × 10 19   mol   cm - 2 ; (c) O 4 , 4.4 × 10 3  mol   cm - 2 , (d) H 2 O , 1.26 × 10 3   mol   cm - 2 ; (e) Ring, (f) rms, 2.05 × 10 3 ; (g) NO 2 , 2.06 × 10 17   mol   cm - 2 ; (h) O 3 , 1.5 × 10 19  mol   cm - 2 ; (i) O 4 , 4.56 × 10 3   mol   cm - 2 ; (j) H 2 O , 1.48 × 10 3   mol   cm - 2 ; (k) rms, 5.28 × 10 3 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) (a) Slant column densities from 9 November 2004 using an original zenith reference spectrum and a spectrum convolved with a broader instrument line shape. (b) A correlation plot of slant column densities retrieved with convolved reference spectra against retrieved concentrations using the original spectrum.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Slant column densities for all retrieved absorbers from Thursday, 20 May 2004 for all axes. (a) NO 2 , (b) O 3 , (c) O 4 , (d) H 2 O .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Slant column densities of (a) NO 2 and (b) O 4 for 17 January 2004 for all axes. The smooth O 4 curves indicate a cloud-free period.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Slant column density measurements of two plumes from five viewing directions. Transport of the plumes through the viewing geometry can be clearly seen, with peak shape and position giving information on the dynamical progression and geometry of the NO 2 -rich air mass.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Instrument Characteristics for the CMAX DOAS Instrument

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Table 2 Absorption Cross Sections Used in the CMAX DOAS Analysis Routine

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Table 3 Theoretical Fitting Errors for the CMAX DOAS Instrument Based on an Investigation of Instrumental Characteristics (see text)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Dimensions of the Two Plumes Identified on the Morning of 17 January 2004 a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( λ ) = I 0 ( λ ) exp [ - i 0 L σ i ( λ ) ρ i d s ] .
ln [ I 0 ( λ ) I ( λ ) ] = i 0 L σ i ( λ ) ρ i d s .
R ( α , n ) = I ( z e n , n ) c I ( α , n ) c ,

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