Abstract

Simulation studies were carried out with regard to the feasibility of using combined observations from sunphotometer (SPM) and lidar for microphysical characterization of aerosol particles, i.e., the retrieval of effective radius, volume, and surface-area concentrations. It was shown that for single, homogeneous aerosol layers, the aerosol parameters can be retrieved with an average accuracy of 30% for a wide range of particle size distributions. Based on the simulations, an instrument combination consisting of a lidar that measures particle backscattering at 355 and 1574nm, and a SPM that measures at three to four channels in the range from 340 to 1020nm is a promising tool for aerosol characterization. The inversion algorithm has been tested for a set of experimental data. The comparison with the particle size distribution parameters, measured with in situ instrumentation at the lidar site, showed good agreement.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1180-1195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding," Appl. Opt. 41, 3685-3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

C. Böckmann, "Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions," Appl. Opt. 40, 1329-1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, "Comprehensive particle characterization from 3-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study," Appl. Opt. 40, 4863-4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, "Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

J. K. Wolfenbarger and J. H. Seinfeld, "Inversion of aerosol size distribution data," J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 227-247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. D. King, "Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356-1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, D. W. Thomson, R. G. dePena, and Y. Mamano, "Atmospheric particulate properties inferred from lidar and solar radiometer observations compared with simultaneous in situ aircraft measurements: a case study," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 911-928 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alpers, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Althausen, D.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, "Comprehensive particle characterization from 3-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study," Appl. Opt. 40, 4863-4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

D. Müller, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, "Strong particle absorption over the Pearl River Delta, China, determined from combined Raman lidar and Sunphotometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be published).

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Forster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for the determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy (2004).

Amiridis, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Amodeo, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Andrews, E.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory," Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation," Appl. Opt. 38, 2358-2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, "Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles," in Lidar--Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the AtmosphereC.Weitkamp, ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

D. Müller, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, "Strong particle absorption over the Pearl River Delta, China, determined from combined Raman lidar and Sunphotometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Ansmann, D. A.

D. Müller, D. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arsenin, V. Y.

A. N. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).

Baars, H.

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Forster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for the determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy (2004).

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Balin, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, "Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions," Appl. Opt. 40, 1329-1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boselli, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, D. W. Thomson, R. G. dePena, and Y. Mamano, "Atmospheric particulate properties inferred from lidar and solar radiometer observations compared with simultaneous in situ aircraft measurements: a case study," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 911-928 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Chourdakis, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comeron, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

De Tomasi, F.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

dePena, R. G.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, D. W. Thomson, R. G. dePena, and Y. Mamano, "Atmospheric particulate properties inferred from lidar and solar radiometer observations compared with simultaneous in situ aircraft measurements: a case study," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 911-928 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, "Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, "Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eckhardt, S.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H.

H. Eichler, "Hygroscopic behaviour and simulation of the particle extinction of the aerosol in South East China at ambient conditions," Diplom Thesis (University of Leipzig, 2006).

Eixmann, R.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Engelmann, R.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Forster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for the determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy (2004).

D. Müller, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, "Strong particle absorption over the Pearl River Delta, China, determined from combined Raman lidar and Sunphotometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be published).

Feingold, G.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

Ferrare, R. A.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, M.

Flatau, P J.

P J. Flatau, "REFLIB:" http://atol.ucsd.edu.

Forster, R.

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Forster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for the determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy (2004).

Franke, A.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Franke, K.

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1180-1195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Giehl, H.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Griaznov, V.

Grigorov, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Hågård, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

Herber, A.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

P. V. Hobbs, ed., Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions (Academic, 1993).

Holben, B.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, "Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H. L.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hube, H.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Iarlori, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Iokibe, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, A.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
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O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, "Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806 (2000).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, "Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806 (2000).
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O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
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M. D. King, "Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356-1369 (1982).
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Kinoshita, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirsche, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Koga, R.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolarov, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Kolgotin, A.

Komguem, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Kreipl, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Kumpf, W.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Larchevêque, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-N.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
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Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Liu, Z. Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mamano, Y.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, D. W. Thomson, R. G. dePena, and Y. Mamano, "Atmospheric particulate properties inferred from lidar and solar radiometer observations compared with simultaneous in situ aircraft measurements: a case study," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 911-928 (1977).
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Matsui, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthey, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Matthias, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Mattis, I.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Mekler, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Michaelis, W.

Mironova, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Mona, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Morley, B.

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1180-1195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding," Appl. Opt. 41, 3685-3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, "Comprehensive particle characterization from 3-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study," Appl. Opt. 40, 4863-4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory," Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation," Appl. Opt. 38, 2358-2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, "Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles," in Lidar--Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the AtmosphereC.Weitkamp, ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

D. Müller, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, "Strong particle absorption over the Pearl River Delta, China, determined from combined Raman lidar and Sunphotometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Müller, H.

Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Music, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nickovic, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Nowak, A.

A. Nowak, "The humidified particle-spectrometer: a new experimental method for the determination of particle size distributions (<1 μm) and size-resolved hygroscopic growth factors at predefined relative humidity," Ph.D. thesis (University of Leipzig, 2005) (in German).

Ogren, J. A.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pahlow, M.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pandolfi, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Papayannis, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Pappalardo, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Perez, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Perrone, R. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Persson, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Quenzel, H.

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, D. W. Thomson, R. G. dePena, and Y. Mamano, "Atmospheric particulate properties inferred from lidar and solar radiometer observations compared with simultaneous in situ aircraft measurements: a case study," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 911-928 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, M. S.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D. P.

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Smimov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
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Smirnov, A.

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Sobolewski, P.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Stohl, A.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
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D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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Stoyanov, D.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Sugimoto, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, "Strong particle absorption over the Pearl River Delta, China, determined from combined Raman lidar and Sunphotometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be published).

M. Tesche, "Optical and microphysical properties of aerosols in southern (Pearl River Delta) and northern (Beijing) China observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Diplom Thesis (University of Leipzig, 2005).

Thomalla, E.

Thomson, D. W.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, D. W. Thomson, R. G. dePena, and Y. Mamano, "Atmospheric particulate properties inferred from lidar and solar radiometer observations compared with simultaneous in situ aircraft measurements: a case study," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 911-928 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonov, A. N.

A. N. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Tsaknakis, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Tumer, D. D.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
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Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, 1977).

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Venkataraman, C.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vorobieva, E.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Wagner, F.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding," Appl. Opt. 41, 3685-3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, "Comprehensive particle characterization from 3-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study," Appl. Opt. 40, 4863-4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation," Appl. Opt. 38, 2358-2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory," Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, "Strong particle absorption over the Pearl River Delta, China, determined from combined Raman lidar and Sunphotometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Wang, J.

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Wehner, B.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D. N.

Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

Wolfenbarger, J. K.

J. K. Wolfenbarger and J. H. Seinfeld, "Inversion of aerosol size distribution data," J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 227-247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Won, J. G.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. C.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zavrtanik, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Zerefos, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

Zhang, Y.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory," Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, "Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions," Appl. Opt. 40, 1329-1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding," Appl. Opt. 41, 3685-3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation," Appl. Opt. 38, 2358-2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, "Comprehensive particle characterization from 3-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study," Appl. Opt. 40, 4863-4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1180-1195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, and E. Thomalla, "Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique inversion algorithm," Appl. Opt. 20, 1308-1315 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

J. K. Wolfenbarger and J. H. Seinfeld, "Inversion of aerosol size distribution data," J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 227-247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, D. W. Thomson, R. G. dePena, and Y. Mamano, "Atmospheric particulate properties inferred from lidar and solar radiometer observations compared with simultaneous in situ aircraft measurements: a case study," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 911-928 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

M. D. King, "Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356-1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (12)

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, "Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, B. Wehner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, and O. Dubovik, "Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sunphotometer," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Pahlow, G. Feingold, A. Jefferson, E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, J. Wang, Y.-N. Lee, R. A. Ferrare, and D. D. Tumer, "Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Y. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. L. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, "Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology, Rep. 348 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2003).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, The German Aerosol Lidar Network: Methodolog, Data, Analysis, Rep.317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2001).

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, "Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles," in Lidar--Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the AtmosphereC.Weitkamp, ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, 1977).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

P. V. Hobbs, ed., Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions (Academic, 1993).

P J. Flatau, "REFLIB:" http://atol.ucsd.edu.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, J.T.Houghton, Y.Ding, D.J.Griggs, M.Noguer, P.J.van der Linden, X.Dai, K.Maskell, and C.A.Johnson, eds. Cambridge U. Press, (2001).

A. N. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).

H. Eichler, "Hygroscopic behaviour and simulation of the particle extinction of the aerosol in South East China at ambient conditions," Diplom Thesis (University of Leipzig, 2006).

A. Nowak, "The humidified particle-spectrometer: a new experimental method for the determination of particle size distributions (<1 μm) and size-resolved hygroscopic growth factors at predefined relative humidity," Ph.D. thesis (University of Leipzig, 2005) (in German).

D. Müller, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, "Strong particle absorption over the Pearl River Delta, China, determined from combined Raman lidar and Sunphotometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be published).

M. Tesche, "Optical and microphysical properties of aerosols in southern (Pearl River Delta) and northern (Beijing) China observed with Raman lidar and Sunphotometer," Diplom Thesis (University of Leipzig, 2005).

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Forster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for the determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy (2004).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean and standard deviation of retrieval error ε in (a) effective radius r eff , (b) surface-area concentration c sa , and (c) volume concentration c v for the lidar and SPM wavelength combinations I, II, III, IV, and V for sd 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean and standard deviation of retrieval error ε in effective radius r eff for the lidar and SPM wavelength combinations I (upward pointing triangles), VI (circles), and II (downward pointing triangles) for sd 1 to sd 7.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2, but for surface-area concentration c sa .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 2, but for volume concentration c v .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieval error in c sa for the four different SPM subsets of wavelength combination I and sd 1. Solutions are averaged for the minimum ρ min and for upper limit discrepancy values of ρ = 10 , 20, and 30 % (curves and small symbols) and for the 10 % of the total number of solutions with smallest discrepancy values (large symbols). Note that ρ min varies for the four different SPM subsets (see Table 1): (i) 1.6 % , (ii) 5.7 % , (iii) 8.3 % , and (iv) 6.9 % . Averaging 10 % of the total number of solutions corresponds to different upper limits, where the large symbols are plotted: (i) 55 % , (ii) 43 % , (iii) 57.5 % , and (iv) 30.5 % .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Normalized dα∕dr for 340 and 1020 nm , (b) normalized d r for 355 and 1574 nm . The dotted vertical curves delineate the limits where d r 0 and d r 0 , i.e., where d r < 1 % of maximum d r and d r < 1 % of maximum / d r , respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieval error for r eff , c sa , and c v for (a) r min ranging from 0.01 to 11 μm , step size 0.02 μm ( r max constant) and (b) r max with values of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μm ( r min constant). The dotted vertical lines represent the lower ( r min = 0.07 μm ) and upper ( r max = 0.6 μm ) limits d r 0 and d r 0 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical backscatter β, extinction α, and lidar ratio profiles on 23 October 2004. The haze layer height h was determined to be 1625 m, as indicated by the dotted lines.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of particle volume size distribution during lidar measurement between the mean of surface in situ measurements at the lidar site (dashed curves) and mean of inversion results with combined lidar and SPM data (solid curve).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effective radius r eff determined from inversion with combined lidar and SPM (circles), SPM (triangles), and in situ data (squares). Error bars denote one standard deviation.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Combinations of Lidar and SPM Wavelengths and Their Respective Number of Extinction (α) and Backscatter (β) Channels

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Table 2 Wavelengths Used by Lidar Monitoring Networks to Determine Backscatter and Extinction Coefficients a

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Table 3 sd and Retrieval Parameters Used as Input for the Simulations a

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Table 4 Maximum Error ε max in r eff , c sa , and c v for Combinations I, VI, and II and sd 1–7

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Table 5 Overall Comparison of Wavelength Combinations I, VI, and II for the Maximum Retrieval Error in r eff , c sa , and c v for sd 1–7 a

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Table 6 Wavelengths of Extinction (α) and Backscatter (β) Coefficients Used for the Two Test Cases of Inversion with Experimental Data

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Table 7 Results from Inversion with SPM Data, Combined Lidar, SPM Data, In Situ Measurements for Effective Radius r eff , Surface-Area Concentration c sa , and Volume Concentration c v

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g p = r min r max K p ( r , m ) v ( r ) d r + ε p exp .
K p ( r , m ) = 3 4 r Q p ( r , m ) .
v ( r ) = j = 1 n w j B j ( r ) + ε math ( r ) .
g = Aw + ε .
A pj = r min r max K p ( r , m ) B j ( r ) d r .
w = A - 1 g - A - 1 ε ,
e 2 Aw - g 2 + γΓ ( v ) .
Γ ( v ) = w T Hw .
w = ( A T A + γ H ) - 1 A T g .
r eff = n ( r ) r 3 d r n ( r ) r 2 d r .
c sa = 4 π n ( r ) r 2 d r ,
c v = 4 π 3 n ( r ) r 3 d r .
r eff = 3 c v c sa .

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