Abstract

Single layer magnesium fluoride (MgF2) was deposited on fused-silica substrates by a molybdenum boat evaporation process at 193nm. The formation of various microstructures in relation to the different substrate temperatures and deposition rates were investigated. The relation between these microstructures (including cross-sectional morphology, surface roughness, and crystalline structures), the optical properties (including refractive index and optical loss) and stress, were all investigated. It was found that the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) would be affected by the microstructure, optical loss, and stress of the thin film. To obtain a larger LIDT value and better optical characteristics, MgF2 films should be deposited at a high substrate temperature (300°C) and at a low deposition rate (0.05nms-1).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Davazoglou, M. Vasilopoulou, and P. Argitis, "Optical characterizations of thin organic films by analyzing transmission measurements with the Forouhi-Bloomer model," Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 619-622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J.-Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, "R. F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride," Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (3)

O. R. Wood II, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, "Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films," Appl. Opt. 23, 3644-3649 (1984).

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

1962 (1)

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, "Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adamik, M.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Argitis, P.

D. Davazoglou, M. Vasilopoulou, and P. Argitis, "Optical characterizations of thin organic films by analyzing transmission measurements with the Forouhi-Bloomer model," Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 619-622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barna, P. B.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, P.

Berger, M.

J.-Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biro, R.

Bosch, S.

Camiglia, C. K.

Chaton, P.

J.-Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cook, J. G.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, "R. F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride," Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

Das, S. R.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, "R. F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride," Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davazoglou, D.

D. Davazoglou, M. Vasilopoulou, and P. Argitis, "Optical characterizations of thin organic films by analyzing transmission measurements with the Forouhi-Bloomer model," Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 619-622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demshichin, A. V.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

Dumas, L.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Giri, A. P.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grovenor, C. R. M.

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Günster, S.

Hart, T. T.

Hasegawa, M.

Hentzell, H. T. G.

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ida, M.

J.-Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kato, R.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, "Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kiriakidis, G.

Laux, S.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Maloney, P. J.

Masetti, E.

Matsui, E.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, "Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, A.

Messier, R.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Mitchell, D. F.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, "R. F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride," Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Movchan, B. A.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

Muffato, V.

J.-Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niisaka, S.

Otani, M.

Ouchi, C.

Peiro, F.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peirò, F.

Quesnel, E.

Rainer, F.

Richter, W.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Robic, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R. A.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Safran, G.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saito, J.

Saito, T.

Smith, D.

Smith, D. A.

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sone, K.

Spann, J. F.

Suzuki, Y.

Sweeney, J. E.

Taki, Y.

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A.

Torr, D. G.

Torr, M. R.

Uchida, Y.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, "Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Vasilopoulou, M.

D. Davazoglou, M. Vasilopoulou, and P. Argitis, "Optical characterizations of thin organic films by analyzing transmission measurements with the Forouhi-Bloomer model," Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 619-622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

Yousefi, G. H.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, "R. F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride," Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zukic, M.

Acta Metall. (1)

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Fiz. Met. Metalloved. (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, "Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. (1)

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

D. Davazoglou, M. Vasilopoulou, and P. Argitis, "Optical characterizations of thin organic films by analyzing transmission measurements with the Forouhi-Bloomer model," Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 619-622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J.-Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, "R. F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride," Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2 (111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance spectra of the substrate and of MgF 2 prepared when (a) T s varies from room temperature to 300 °C and with a deposition rate of 0.2 nm s - 1 ; (b) T s = 250 °C and the deposition rate varies from 0.05 to 0.8 nm s - 1 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional SEM micrographs of samples prepared at (a) room temperature at 0.2 nm s - 1 ; (b) T s = 250 °C at 0.2 nm s - 1 ; (c) T s = 300 °C at 0.2 nm s - 1 ; (d) T s = 250 °C at 0.8 nm s - 1 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray diffraction patterns of MgF 2 films prepared at (a) room temperature at 0.2 nm s - 1 ; (b) T s = 250 °C at 0.2 nm s - 1 ; (c) T s = 300 °C at 0.2 nm s - 1 ; (d) T s = 250 °C at 0.8 nm s - 1 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index, optical loss, LIDT, and stress of MgF 2 prepared when (a) T s varies from room temperature to 300 °C and the deposition rate of 0.2 nm s - 1 and (b) T s = 250 °C and the deposition rate varies from 0.05 to 0.8 nm s - 1 .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Parameters of MgF2 Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 rms of the Surface Morphology of MgF2 Films by AFM

Tables Icon

Table 3 Refractive Index and the Extinction Coefficient of MgF2 Films

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L ( % ) = 1 - T ( % ) - R ( % ) ,
σ = Eh 2 ( 1 - v ) 6 t ( 1 R d 1 R 0 ) ,

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