Abstract

We report a fabrication method for a gradient refractive-index polymeric object from a binary comonomer system, regardless of the monomers' reactivity ratio and the molar volume criteria of gradient refractive-index development. To fabricate a large gradient refractive-index rod consisting of a methyl methacrylate and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate comonomer pair that has not been used for fabrication of a copolymer gradient refractive-index rod by previous conventional methods because of chemical restrictions in molar volume and reactivity ratio difference, we use the so-called successive UV polymerization in a controlled radial volume in conjunction with an automatic refill reactor. Simultaneously and automatically, the volume shrinkage problem, an inevitable shortcoming for the fabrication of a large polymeric object in a commercial production scale, is overcome and exploited. The theoretical features of the refractive-index profile generation of this method are also compared with those of conventional methods for which the chemical restrictions of monomers are crucial for the shape of a refractive-index profile.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Lachs, Fiber Optic Communications: Systems, Analysis, and Enhancements (McGraw-Hill, 1998).
  2. W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and O. Ziemann, POF: Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001).
  3. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, and H. Yamazaki, "Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. 6: The photocopolymer rod of methyl methacrylate with vinyl benzoate," Appl. Opt. 20, 280-285 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, and Y. Ohtsuka, "Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. 12: The GRIN fiber lens of methyl methacrylate-vinyl phenylacetate copolymer," Appl. Opt. 21, 1057-1062 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Koike, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre," Polymer 32, 1737-1745 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Koike, Y. Hondo, and E. Nihei, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber by new random copolymerization technique," Proc. SPIE 1991 1592 , 62-72 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, and Y. Ohtauka, "New interfacial-gel copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays," Appl. Opt. 27, 486-491 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Sato, T. Ishigure, and Y. Koike, "Thermally stable high-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 952-958 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1449-1456 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C.-W. Park, B. S. Lee, J. K. Walker, and W. Y. Choi, "A new processing method for the fabrication of cylindrical objects with radially varying properties," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 79-83 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization," Math. Comput. Modell. 30, 67-73 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization for weak and strong gel effects," Macromol. Theory Simul. 9, 26-46 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, C. Ronaghan, and C. S. Koeppen, "Reliability of graded-index plastic optical fibers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 531, 107-118 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.
  17. Y. Koike, S. Matsuoka, and H. E. Bair, "Origin of excess light scattering on poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses," Macromolecules 25, 4807-4815 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Taino, Y. Koike, "Estimate of light scattering loss of amorphous polymer glass from its molecular structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 743-748 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. G. H. van Duijnhoven and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, "Monomers and polymers in a centrifugal field: a new method to produce refractive-index gradients in polymers," Appl. Opt. 38, 1008-1014 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. G. H. van Duijnhoven, "Gradient refractive index polymers produced in a centrifugal field," Ph.D. dissertation (Enidhoven University, The Netherlands, 1999).
  21. G. Odian, Principles of Polymerization (Wiley, 1991).
  22. S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. G. Shin, J. H. Park, and J. J. Kim, "Low-loss, high-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber fabricated by the centrifugal deposition method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4645-4647 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.
  26. H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. T. Hwang, and S. H. Cho, "Cavity-preventing type reactor and a method for fabricating a preform for a plastic optical fiber using the same," U.S. patent 6, 984, 345 (10 January 2006).
  27. M. Doi and S. F. Edward, Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Oxford University Press, 1988).

2003 (1)

B. G. Shin, J. H. Park, and J. J. Kim, "Low-loss, high-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber fabricated by the centrifugal deposition method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4645-4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2000 (3)

M. Sato, T. Ishigure, and Y. Koike, "Thermally stable high-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 952-958 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Park, B. S. Lee, J. K. Walker, and W. Y. Choi, "A new processing method for the fabrication of cylindrical objects with radially varying properties," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 79-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization for weak and strong gel effects," Macromol. Theory Simul. 9, 26-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, C. Ronaghan, and C. S. Koeppen, "Reliability of graded-index plastic optical fibers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 531, 107-118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

N. Taino, Y. Koike, "Estimate of light scattering loss of amorphous polymer glass from its molecular structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 743-748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Koike, S. Matsuoka, and H. E. Bair, "Origin of excess light scattering on poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses," Macromolecules 25, 4807-4815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

Y. Koike, Y. Hondo, and E. Nihei, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber by new random copolymerization technique," Proc. SPIE 1991 1592 , 62-72 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre," Polymer 32, 1737-1745 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

Bair, H. E.

Y. Koike, S. Matsuoka, and H. E. Bair, "Origin of excess light scattering on poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses," Macromolecules 25, 4807-4815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

Blyler, L. L.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, C. Ronaghan, and C. S. Koeppen, "Reliability of graded-index plastic optical fibers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 531, 107-118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Chang, Y. H.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. H.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. C.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. T. Hwang, and S. H. Cho, "Cavity-preventing type reactor and a method for fabricating a preform for a plastic optical fiber using the same," U.S. patent 6, 984, 345 (10 January 2006).

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Cho, S. H.

H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. T. Hwang, and S. H. Cho, "Cavity-preventing type reactor and a method for fabricating a preform for a plastic optical fiber using the same," U.S. patent 6, 984, 345 (10 January 2006).

Choi, J. S.

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. T. Hwang, and S. H. Cho, "Cavity-preventing type reactor and a method for fabricating a preform for a plastic optical fiber using the same," U.S. patent 6, 984, 345 (10 January 2006).

Choi, W. Y.

C.-W. Park, B. S. Lee, J. K. Walker, and W. Y. Choi, "A new processing method for the fabrication of cylindrical objects with radially varying properties," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 79-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daum, W.

W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and O. Ziemann, POF: Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

Do, M. H.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Doi, M.

M. Doi and S. F. Edward, Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Oxford University Press, 1988).

Dueser, M.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Edward, S. F.

M. Doi and S. F. Edward, Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Oxford University Press, 1988).

Ho, B. C.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hondo, Y.

Y. Koike, Y. Hondo, and E. Nihei, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber by new random copolymerization technique," Proc. SPIE 1991 1592 , 62-72 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. T.

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. T. Hwang, and S. H. Cho, "Cavity-preventing type reactor and a method for fabricating a preform for a plastic optical fiber using the same," U.S. patent 6, 984, 345 (10 January 2006).

Im, S. H.

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishigure, T.

Kim, J. H.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Kim, J. J.

B. G. Shin, J. H. Park, and J. J. Kim, "Low-loss, high-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber fabricated by the centrifugal deposition method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4645-4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. G.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Kimoto, Y.

Kobayashi, E.

Koeppen, C. S.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, C. Ronaghan, and C. S. Koeppen, "Reliability of graded-index plastic optical fibers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 531, 107-118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Koike, Y.

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1449-1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sato, T. Ishigure, and Y. Koike, "Thermally stable high-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 952-958 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Taino, Y. Koike, "Estimate of light scattering loss of amorphous polymer glass from its molecular structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 743-748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, S. Matsuoka, and H. E. Bair, "Origin of excess light scattering on poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses," Macromolecules 25, 4807-4815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre," Polymer 32, 1737-1745 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Hondo, and E. Nihei, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber by new random copolymerization technique," Proc. SPIE 1991 1592 , 62-72 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, and Y. Ohtauka, "New interfacial-gel copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays," Appl. Opt. 27, 486-491 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, and Y. Ohtsuka, "Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. 12: The GRIN fiber lens of methyl methacrylate-vinyl phenylacetate copolymer," Appl. Opt. 21, 1057-1062 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, and H. Yamazaki, "Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. 6: The photocopolymer rod of methyl methacrylate with vinyl benzoate," Appl. Opt. 20, 280-285 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauser, J.

W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and O. Ziemann, POF: Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

Lachs, G.

G. Lachs, Fiber Optic Communications: Systems, Analysis, and Enhancements (McGraw-Hill, 1998).

Lee, B. S.

C.-W. Park, B. S. Lee, J. K. Walker, and W. Y. Choi, "A new processing method for the fabrication of cylindrical objects with radially varying properties," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 79-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. G.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Lee, S. H.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Matsuoka, S.

Y. Koike, S. Matsuoka, and H. E. Bair, "Origin of excess light scattering on poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses," Macromolecules 25, 4807-4815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Hondo, and E. Nihei, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber by new random copolymerization technique," Proc. SPIE 1991 1592 , 62-72 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nyu, T.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Odian, G.

G. Odian, Principles of Polymerization (Wiley, 1991).

Ohtauka, Y.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Park, C.-W.

C.-W. Park, B. S. Lee, J. K. Walker, and W. Y. Choi, "A new processing method for the fabrication of cylindrical objects with radially varying properties," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 79-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. G.

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Park, J. H.

B. G. Shin, J. H. Park, and J. J. Kim, "Low-loss, high-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber fabricated by the centrifugal deposition method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4645-4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Park, O. O.

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Park, S. H.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Quan, X.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Ra, B. J.

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

Reed, W. A.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Ronaghan, C.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, C. Ronaghan, and C. S. Koeppen, "Reliability of graded-index plastic optical fibers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 531, 107-118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ronaghen, C.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Salamon, T.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, C. Ronaghan, and C. S. Koeppen, "Reliability of graded-index plastic optical fibers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 531, 107-118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Sato, M.

Satoh, M.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shin, B. G.

B. G. Shin, J. H. Park, and J. J. Kim, "Low-loss, high-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber fabricated by the centrifugal deposition method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4645-4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spade, C. A.

C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization for weak and strong gel effects," Macromol. Theory Simul. 9, 26-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization," Math. Comput. Modell. 30, 67-73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suh, D. J.

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform without a cavity by inclusion of an additional monomer under a centrifugal force field," Appl. Opt. 41, 1858-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taino, N.

N. Taino, Y. Koike, "Estimate of light scattering loss of amorphous polymer glass from its molecular structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 743-748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takanashi, O.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takezawa, Y.

Tanaka, S.

Tseng, T. W.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Duijnhoven, F. G. H.

F. G. H. van Duijnhoven and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, "Monomers and polymers in a centrifugal field: a new method to produce refractive-index gradients in polymers," Appl. Opt. 38, 1008-1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. G. H. van Duijnhoven, "Gradient refractive index polymers produced in a centrifugal field," Ph.D. dissertation (Enidhoven University, The Netherlands, 1999).

Volpert, V. A.

C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization for weak and strong gel effects," Macromol. Theory Simul. 9, 26-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization," Math. Comput. Modell. 30, 67-73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. K.

C.-W. Park, B. S. Lee, J. K. Walker, and W. Y. Choi, "A new processing method for the fabrication of cylindrical objects with radially varying properties," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 79-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, W. R.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Wiltzius, P.

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

Yamazaki, H.

Yamazaki, S.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2095-2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zamzow, P. E.

W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and O. Ziemann, POF: Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

Ziemann, O.

W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and O. Ziemann, POF: Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. G. Shin, J. H. Park, and J. J. Kim, "Low-loss, high-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber fabricated by the centrifugal deposition method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4645-4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (1)

C.-W. Park, B. S. Lee, J. K. Walker, and W. Y. Choi, "A new processing method for the fabrication of cylindrical objects with radially varying properties," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39, 79-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Taino, Y. Koike, "Estimate of light scattering loss of amorphous polymer glass from its molecular structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 743-748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kor. J. Chem. Eng. (1)

S. H. Im, D. J. Suh, O. O. Park, H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. G. Park, and J. T. Hwang, "Fabrication of a graded-index polymer optical fiber preform by using a centrifugal force," Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 19, 505-509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Theory Simul. (1)

C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization for weak and strong gel effects," Macromol. Theory Simul. 9, 26-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

Y. Koike, S. Matsuoka, and H. E. Bair, "Origin of excess light scattering on poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses," Macromolecules 25, 4807-4815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, C. Ronaghan, and C. S. Koeppen, "Reliability of graded-index plastic optical fibers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 531, 107-118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Math. Comput. Modell. (1)

C. A. Spade and V. A. Volpert, "Mathematical modeling of interfacial gel polymerization," Math. Comput. Modell. 30, 67-73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Polym. J. (1)

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, Y. H. Chang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chen, and T. W. Tseng, "Graded-index polymer fibers prepared by extrusion," Polym. J. 27, 310-313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

Y. Koike, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre," Polymer 32, 1737-1745 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE 1991 1592 (1)

Y. Koike, Y. Hondo, and E. Nihei, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber by new random copolymerization technique," Proc. SPIE 1991 1592 , 62-72 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

G. Lachs, Fiber Optic Communications: Systems, Analysis, and Enhancements (McGraw-Hill, 1998).

W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and O. Ziemann, POF: Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

L. L. Blyler, Jr., T. Salamon, W. R. White, M. Dueser, W. A. Reed, C. S. Koeppen, C. Ronaghen, P. Wiltzius, and X. Quan, "Performance and reliability of graded-index polymer optical fibers," in Proceedings of the 47th International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 1998), pp. 241-247.

F. G. H. van Duijnhoven, "Gradient refractive index polymers produced in a centrifugal field," Ph.D. dissertation (Enidhoven University, The Netherlands, 1999).

G. Odian, Principles of Polymerization (Wiley, 1991).

J. S. Choi, H. Cho, M. G. Kim, B. J. Ra, J. Y. Park, J. T. Hwang, J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, M. H. Do, J. H. Kim, E. G. Lee, S. H. Park, and O. O. Park, "Novel manufacturing method of graded index copolymer optical fiber preform and its optical characteristics," in Proceedings of the 51st International Wire and Cable Symposium (International Wire and Cable Symposium, Inc., 2002), pp. 280-287.

H. Cho, J. S. Choi, J. T. Hwang, and S. H. Cho, "Cavity-preventing type reactor and a method for fabricating a preform for a plastic optical fiber using the same," U.S. patent 6, 984, 345 (10 January 2006).

M. Doi and S. F. Edward, Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Oxford University Press, 1988).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental facility of the rotating reactor system with a sliding UV focusing unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the radial UV polymerization technique with an automatic refill reactor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) RIP obtained (–□–) for the same condition as the experiments of poly(MMA-co-TFPMA) explained in the text. The best-fit α value is 2.499 (–■–). (b) Result of pulse broadening after 50 m transmission of an optical pulse whose original full width at half-height was 100 ns . The calculated 3 dB value is 3.1 Gbits / s .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscope micrographs of various POFs: (a) clad region of a commercial step-index POF, (b) clad region of our GI POF, (c) core region of a commercial step-index POF, (d) core region of a GI POF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of synchrotron SAXS results: (a) commercial step-index POF (–•–), commercial multistep POF (–■–), and our GI POF (–□–). (b) SAXS changes for an annealed step-index POF. (c) SAXS changes for our annealed GI POF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of volumetric changes during successive UV polymerization.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated RIP for the same reactivity ratio obtained with Eqs. (5) and (6). The parameters from Section 2 were used, i.e., ϕ A 0 = 0.8 , ϕ A * = 0.95 , n A = 1.492 , and n B = 1.462 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated RIP of a GRIN rod for reactivity ratios similar to those for GRIN generation: (a) diffusion method (same as the conventional method of Koike et al.[4]) and (b) successive UV polymerization method. For both cases we used n A = 1.492 and n B = 1.568 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the calculated RIPs according to Eqs. (3) and (8) for (a) copolymerization when ϕ A * = ϕ A 0 = 0.5 with various reactivity ratios and (b) for successive UV polymerization when ϕ A 0 = 0.5 with various feeding composition from the introduction part.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( r ) = n 0 [ 1 - 2 Δ ( r / R 0 ) α ] 1 / 2 ,
Δ V k   ≅   2 π H r k Δ r ( k = 0 ,   …   , M ) ,
ϕ A , k + 1 ( V k - Δ V k ) = ϕ A * ( 1 β - 1 ) Δ V k + ϕ A , k ( V k - Δ V k β ) ,
r 2 d r = ( 1 - 1 β ) ( ϕ A - ϕ A * ) d ϕ A .
ϕ A * - ϕ A ( r ) ϕ A * - ϕ A 0 = ( r R 0 ) 2 ( 1 / β - 1 ) .
n 2 - 1 n 2 + 2 = n 1 2 - 1 n A 2 + 2 ϕ A + n B 2 - 1 n B 2 + 2 ϕ B .
ϕ A , k V k = Φ A , k V k / β + ϕ A , k ( V k - Δ V k / β ) ,
Φ A , k = F A , k v A ( v A - v B ) F A , k + v A , ϕ A , k = f A , k v A ( v A - v B ) f A , k + v A
F A = γ A f A 2 + f A f B γ A f A 2 + 2 f A f B + γ B f B 2 .
n A < n B , v A < v B , γ A γ B .
n A < n B , γ A > 1 B , γ B < 1 .

Metrics