Abstract

Gain factor and output performance of erbium–praseodymium codoped ZBLAN double-clad fiber lasers at 2.7μm with different pumping designs were calculated and analyzed. Single-end backward pumping with a highly reflective mirror butted against one fiber end and dual-end pumping with Fresnel reflections from both fiber ends were found to be the most efficient pumping designs. Ten-watt-level Er∕Pr:ZBLAN fiber lasers proved to be achievable with recent diode laser and ZBLAN fiber technologies. Their corresponding optimum fiber lengths for different pumping configurations were determined. It was also found that fiber lasers with a flat evolution of gain factor can obtain the largest output power. Experimental results of 4m and 12m fiber lasers showed very good agreement with simulation results.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy:an invited view," Opt. Eng. 19, 945-960 (1980).
  2. P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, "Lasers in medicine:a review," J. Med. Eng. Technol. 17, 51-57 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, "Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery," J. Derm. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).
  5. S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, "Diode-pumped fiber lasers:a new clinical tool?" Laser Surg. Med. 30, 184-190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, "Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition," Appl. Opt. 28, 14-16 (1989).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, "Energy transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-doped fluoride glass fibers and applications to lasing at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 445-447 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, "980 nm diode-pumped continuous wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power "watt-level" cw operation of diode-pumped 2.7 μm fiber lasers using efficient cross-relaxation and energy transfer mechanisms," Opt. Express 4, 490-495 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-μm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1133-1135 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, "Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 178-181 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30-40 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 162-169 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Modeling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fiber lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987-1994 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Jeong and J. K. Sahu, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Express 12, 6088-6092 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. M. J. F. Digonnet, "Theory of superfluorescent fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1631-1639 (1985).
  27. W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, "Two-mirror beam-shaping technique for high-power diode bars," Opt. Lett. 21, 375-377 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 162-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, "Diode-pumped fiber lasers:a new clinical tool?" Laser Surg. Med. 30, 184-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Modeling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fiber lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987-1994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, "'Field-usable' diode-pumped ∼120 nm wavelength-tunable cw mid-IR fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 791-792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, "Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Efficient high power operation of erbium 3 μm fiber laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 36, 223-224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, "980 nm diode-pumped continuous wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, "Two-mirror beam-shaping technique for high-power diode bars," Opt. Lett. 21, 375-377 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium-doped ZBLAN fibers," Opt. Commun. 116, 81-86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, "Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery," J. Derm. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).

1993 (1)

K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, "Lasers in medicine:a review," J. Med. Eng. Technol. 17, 51-57 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, "Energy transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-doped fluoride glass fibers and applications to lasing at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 445-447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, "Theory of superfluorescent fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1631-1639 (1985).

1980 (1)

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy:an invited view," Opt. Eng. 19, 945-960 (1980).

1965 (1)

W. W. Rigrod, "Saturation effects in high-gain lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2487-2490 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Allan, J. Y.

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, "Energy transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-doped fluoride glass fibers and applications to lasing at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 445-447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bedo, S.

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium-doped ZBLAN fibers," Opt. Commun. 116, 81-86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunea, G.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunea, M.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. F.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy:an invited view," Opt. Eng. 19, 945-960 (1980).

Cable, A.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, "'Field-usable' diode-pumped ∼120 nm wavelength-tunable cw mid-IR fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 791-792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dickson, B. C.

B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eng, R. S.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy:an invited view," Opt. Eng. 19, 945-960 (1980).

Feng, S. H.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, S. H. Feng, D. J. Mirell, and R. K. Jain, "A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417-419.

Ghisle, Ch.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghisler, Ch.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, K. F.

K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, "Lasers in medicine:a review," J. Med. Eng. Technol. 17, 51-57 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golding, P. S.

B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

Hartmann, A.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, "Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery," J. Derm. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).

Hibst, R.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, "Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery," J. Derm. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, "Diode-pumped fiber lasers:a new clinical tool?" Laser Surg. Med. 30, 184-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 162-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Modeling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fiber lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987-1994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Efficient high power operation of erbium 3 μm fiber laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 36, 223-224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-μm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1133-1135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, "'Field-usable' diode-pumped ∼120 nm wavelength-tunable cw mid-IR fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 791-792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, "Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power "watt-level" cw operation of diode-pumped 2.7 μm fiber lasers using efficient cross-relaxation and energy transfer mechanisms," Opt. Express 4, 490-495 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power (400 mW) diode-pumped 2.7 μm Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers using enhanced Er-Er cross-relaxation processes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1338-1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, "980 nm diode-pumped continuous wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, S. H. Feng, D. J. Mirell, and R. K. Jain, "A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417-419.

Janker, B.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Kaufmann, R.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, "Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery," J. Derm. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).

Kernohan, W. G.

K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, "Lasers in medicine:a review," J. Med. Eng. Technol. 17, 51-57 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, T. A.

B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Modeling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fiber lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987-1994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Efficient high power operation of erbium 3 μm fiber laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 36, 223-224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-μm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1133-1135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lauto, A.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, "Diode-pumped fiber lasers:a new clinical tool?" Laser Surg. Med. 30, 184-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Libatique, N. J. C.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, "'Field-usable' diode-pumped ∼120 nm wavelength-tunable cw mid-IR fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 791-792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, S. H. Feng, D. J. Mirell, and R. K. Jain, "A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417-419.

Linden, K. J.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy:an invited view," Opt. Eng. 19, 945-960 (1980).

Lu, J.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium-doped ZBLAN fibers," Opt. Commun. 116, 81-86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

Mirell, D. J.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, S. H. Feng, D. J. Mirell, and R. K. Jain, "A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417-419.

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, "Energy transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-doped fluoride glass fibers and applications to lasing at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 445-447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poigant, H.

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, "Energy transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-doped fluoride glass fibers and applications to lasing at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 27, 445-447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 162-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Efficient high power operation of erbium 3 μm fiber laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 36, 223-224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Modeling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fiber lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987-1994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-μm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1133-1135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium-doped ZBLAN fibers," Opt. Commun. 116, 81-86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, E.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power (400 mW) diode-pumped 2.7 μm Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers using enhanced Er-Er cross-relaxation processes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1338-1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, "980 nm diode-pumped continuous wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

Rigrod, W. W.

W. W. Rigrod, "Saturation effects in high-gain lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2487-2490 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spring, P.

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, B.

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, "Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power "watt-level" cw operation of diode-pumped 2.7 μm fiber lasers using efficient cross-relaxation and energy transfer mechanisms," Opt. Express 4, 490-495 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power (400 mW) diode-pumped 2.7 μm Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers using enhanced Er-Er cross-relaxation processes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1338-1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, "980 nm diode-pumped continuous wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tafoya, J.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, "'Field-usable' diode-pumped ∼120 nm wavelength-tunable cw mid-IR fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 791-792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power "watt-level" cw operation of diode-pumped 2.7 μm fiber lasers using efficient cross-relaxation and energy transfer mechanisms," Opt. Express 4, 490-495 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power (400 mW) diode-pumped 2.7 μm Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers using enhanced Er-Er cross-relaxation processes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1338-1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tafoya, J. D.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, S. H. Feng, D. J. Mirell, and R. K. Jain, "A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417-419.

Ueda, K.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, "'Field-usable' diode-pumped ∼120 nm wavelength-tunable cw mid-IR fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 791-792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium-doped ZBLAN fibers," Opt. Commun. 116, 81-86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, S.

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisle, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "150 mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode-fiber erbium cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, "980 nm diode-pumped continuous wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, "High-power (400 mW) diode-pumped 2.7 μm Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers using enhanced Er-Er cross-relaxation processes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1338-1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, "'Field-usable' diode-pumped ∼120 nm wavelength-tunable cw mid-IR fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 791-792 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Efficient high power operation of erbium 3 μm fiber laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 36, 223-224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 162-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. Spring, Ch. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Efficiency of erbium 3-μm crystal and fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, "Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 30-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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W. W. Rigrod, "Saturation effects in high-gain lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2487-2490 (1965).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, "Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery," J. Derm. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).

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M. J. F. Digonnet, "Theory of superfluorescent fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1631-1639 (1985).

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K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, "Lasers in medicine:a review," J. Med. Eng. Technol. 17, 51-57 (1993).
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S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, "Modeling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3 μm fiber lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1987-1994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, "Diode-pumped fiber lasers:a new clinical tool?" Laser Surg. Med. 30, 184-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, "Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium-doped ZBLAN fibers," Opt. Commun. 116, 81-86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, "Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 191, 315-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, "Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, S. H. Feng, D. J. Mirell, and R. K. Jain, "A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417-419.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of Er∕Pr:ZBLAN double-clad fiber lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration for the simulation of Er∕Pr:ZBLAN double-clad fiber lasers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of forward power, backward power, and gain factor in the 4 m fiber laser for single-end pumping with Fresnel reflections from both fiber ends (solid curve), single-end copropagating pumping with a dichroic mirror butted against the fiber end at z = 0 (dashed curve), and single-end counterpropagating pumping with a dichroic mirror butted against the fiber end at z = 0 (dotted curve). (a) Evolution of power. (b) Evolution of gain factor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of forward power, backward power, and gain factor in the 12 m fiber laser for single-end pumping with Fresnel reflections from both fiber ends (solid curve), single-end copropagating pumping with a dichroic mirror butted against the fiber end at z = 0 (dashed curve), and single-end counterpropagating pumping with a dichroic mirror butted against the fiber end at z = 0 (dotted curve). (a) Evolution of power. (b) Evolution of gain factor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of forward power, backward power, and gain factor in the 4 m fiber laser for dual-end pumping with Fresnel reflections from both fiber ends (solid curve), dual-end pumping with a dichroic mirror butted against fiber end at z = 0 (dashed curve), and single-end backward pumping with a highly reflective mirror butted against fiber end at z = 0 (dotted curve). (a) Evolution of power. (b) Evolution of gain factor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of forward power, backward power, and gain factor in the 12 m fiber laser for dual-end pumping with Fresnel reflections from both fiber ends (solid curve), dual-end pumping with a dichroic mirror butted against fiber end at z = 0 (dashed curve), and single-end backward pumping with a highly reflective mirror butted against fiber end at z = 0 (dotted curve). (a) Evolution of power. (b) Evolution of gain factor.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output power as a function of fiber length for different pumping designs when the pump power is 50 W and a custom-designed fiber is used. (a) Single-end pumping with Fresnel reflections (solid curve), single-end copropagating pumping (dashed curve), and single-end counterpropagating pumping (dotted curve). (b) Dual-end pumping with Fresnel reflections (solid curve), dual-end pumping with a dichroic mirror (dashed curve), and single-end backward pumping (dotted curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Gain factor as a function of relative position in fiber lasers with optimal length for dual-end pumping with Fresnel reflections ( 7 m ) , single-end backward pumping ( 3.5 m ) , and single-end pumping with Fresnel reflections ( 5 m ) . Dual-end pumping with Fresnel reflections (black solid curve), dual-end pumping with a dichroic mirror (black dashed curve), single-end pumping with a highly reflective mirror (black dotted curve), single-end pumping with Fresnel reflections (gray solid curve), single-end copropagating pumping (gray dashed curve), and single-end counterpropagating pumping (gray dotted curve).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output power of 4 m (diamond) and 12 m (circle) fiber lasers as a function of pump power for single-end pumping with Fresnel reflections (solid curve), single-end copropagating pumping (dashed curve), and single-end counterpropagating pumping (dotted curve).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Output power of 4 m (diamond) and 12 m (circle) fiber lasers as a function of pump power for dual-end pumping with Fresnel reflections (solid curve) and dual-end pumping with a dichroic mirror (dashed curve).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 PP(z) for the Six Pumping Designs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Slope Efficiencies of Er∕∕∕Pr:ZBLAN Double-Clad Fibers with Different Pumping Designs

Equations (5)

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d P + ( z ) d z = σ s τ f h ν p P p ( z ) F p A f × P 0 + P + ( z ) 1 + [ P + ( z ) + P ( z ) ] / P s α L P + ( z ) ,
d P ( z ) d z = σ s τ f h ν p P p ( z ) F p A f × P 0 + P ( z ) 1 + [ P + ( z ) + P ( z ) ] / P s + α L P ( z ) ,
γ ( z ) = σ s τ f h ν p P p ( z ) F p A f × 1 1 + [ P + ( z ) + P ( z ) ] / P s .
P + ( L f ) = P 0 ( 1 + R 2 ) + P 0     2 ( 1 + R 2 ) 2 + 4 R 2 P ( 0 ) ( P 0 + R 1 P ( 0 ) + P 0 R 1 ) 2 R 2 ,
P ( 0 ) = P 0 ( 1 + R 1 ) + P 0     2 ( 1 + R 1 ) 2 + 4 R 1 P + ( L f ) ( P 0 + R 2 P + ( L f ) + P 0 R 2 ) 2 R 1 .

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