Abstract

To calculate aerosol extinction from Raman lidar data, it is necessary to evaluate the derivative of a molecular Raman signal with respect to range. The typical approach taken in the lidar community is to make an a priori assumption about the functional behavior of the data to calculate the derivative. It has previously been shown that the use of the chi-squared technique to determine the most likely functional behavior of the data prior to actually calculating the derivative eliminates the need for making a priori assumptions. Here that technique is validated through numerical simulation and by application to a significant body of Raman lidar measurements. In general, we show that the chi-squared approach for evaluating extinction yields lower extinction uncertainty than traditional techniques. We also use the technique to study the feasibility of developing a general characterization of the extinction uncertainty that could permit the uncertainty in Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements to be estimated accurately without the need of the chi-squared technique.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).
  16. W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. J. Barlow, Statistics: A Guide to the Use of Statistical Methods in the Physical Sciences (Wiley, 1989).

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, "Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations," Appl. Opt. 42, 2571-2592 (2003).

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, T. Berkoff, H. Plotkin, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, and G. Pappalardo, "Performance modeling of an airborne Raman water vapor lidar," Appl. Opt. 40, 375-390 (2001).

1999 (2)

D. N. Whiteman and S. H. Melfi, "Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31411-31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, "Application of statistical methods to the determination of slope in lidar data," Appl. Opt. 38, 3360-3369 (1999).

1994 (2)

W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Stacey, "Rayleigh's legacy to modern physics: high resolution spectroscopy," Eur. J. Phys. 15, 236-242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).

1990 (1)

1965 (1)

G. Marsaglia, "Ratios of normal variables and ratios of sums of uniform variables," J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 60, 193-204 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

Amodeo, A.

Ansmann, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, Leonce Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, "Measurements of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar," Opt. Lett. 15, 746-748 (1990).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Barlow, R. J.

R. J. Barlow, Statistics: A Guide to the Use of Statistical Methods in the Physical Sciences (Wiley, 1989).

Barnard, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T.

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

Böckmann, C.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Bosenberg, J.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, Leonce Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, T. A.

W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Clough, S.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Tomasi, F.

Demoz, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eldred, R. A.

W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).

Feltz, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Frioud, M.

Goldsmith, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gutman, S.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gutman, S. I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hågård, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Halthore, R.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D.

W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Iarlori, M.

Jedlovec, G. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komguem, Leonce

Lesht, B.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liljegren, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Linne, H.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malm, W. C.

W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marsaglia, G.

G. Marsaglia, "Ratios of normal variables and ratios of sums of uniform variables," J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 60, 193-204 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, V.

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman and S. H. Melfi, "Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31411-31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).

Michalsky, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Morris, V.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pandolfi, M.

Papayannis, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, Leonce Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Pappalardo, G.

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Plotkin, H.

Porch, W.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Revercomb, H. E.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, S.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

Rocadenbosch, F.

Schmid, B.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Schwemmer, G.

Schwemmer, G. K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sisler, J. F.

W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Splitt, M.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, D. N.

D. N. Stacey, "Rayleigh's legacy to modern physics: high resolution spectroscopy," Eur. J. Phys. 15, 236-242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Starr, D. O'C.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Turner, D. D.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Hove, T.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Wandinger, U.

Wang, X.

Weitkamp, C.

Westwater, E.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, "Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations," Appl. Opt. 42, 2571-2592 (2003).

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, T. Berkoff, H. Plotkin, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, and G. Pappalardo, "Performance modeling of an airborne Raman water vapor lidar," Appl. Opt. 40, 375-390 (2001).

D. N. Whiteman, "Application of statistical methods to the determination of slope in lidar data," Appl. Opt. 38, 3360-3369 (1999).

D. N. Whiteman and S. H. Melfi, "Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31411-31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).

Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Wietkamp, C.

C. Wietkamp, Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer Science & Business Media, 2005).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bosenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linne, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, "The ARM program's water vapor intensive observation periods--Overview, initial accomplishments, and future challenges," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

D. N. Stacey, "Rayleigh's legacy to modern physics: high resolution spectroscopy," Eur. J. Phys. 15, 236-242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).

J. Am. Stat. Assoc. (1)

G. Marsaglia, "Ratios of normal variables and ratios of sums of uniform variables," J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 60, 193-204 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

D. N. Whiteman and S. H. Melfi, "Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31411-31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, "Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Malm, J. F. Sisler, D. Huffman, R. A. Eldred, and T. A. Cahill, "Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1347-1370 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

R. J. Barlow, Statistics: A Guide to the Use of Statistical Methods in the Physical Sciences (Wiley, 1989).

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis (Cambridge U. Press, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A.Dabas, C.Loth, and J.Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

C. Wietkamp, Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer Science & Business Media, 2005).

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