Abstract

A camera based on the digital micromirror device (DMD) technology has been previously developed. In this optical system, the correspondence of each mirror of the DMD to each pixel of the CCD cannot readily be done since the pixel sizes of the DMD and the CCD are very small. An accurate pixel-to-pixel correspondence adjustment in the DMD camera by means of the phase-shifting moiré method is proposed. To perform high accurate adjustment of the optical system, the phase distribution of a moiré fringe pattern is analyzed when the CCD pixels and the DMD mirrors have a mismatch and∕or misalignment with each other. This technique does not need a complicated setting or complex image processing to generate the moiré fringe pattern, and it needs only one captured image. In the adjustment experiment, the proposed method provided very accurate adjustment whose error was less than 1/25pixel. An experiment of phase analysis to demonstrate the usefulness was performed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurment using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Profilometry by temporal phase unwrapping and spatial light modulator based fringe projector," Opt. Eng. 36, 610-615 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Kakunai, T. Sakamoto, and K. Iwata, "Profile measurement taken with liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Opt. 38, 2824-2828 (1999).
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  5. C. Joenathan, "Phase-measuring interferometry: new methods and error analysis," Appl. Opt. 33, 4147-4155 (1994).
  6. H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects," Appl. Opt. 36, 2770-2775 (1997).
  7. M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto and W. G. Kim, "Development of real-time display system for contour line and equal-displacement line by phase shifting scanning moiré method (in Japanese)," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 66, 1221-1225 (2000).
  8. Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, "Real-time Shape Measurement by Integrated Phase-Shifting Method," in Proc. SPIE 3744, 118-125 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Morimoto and M. Fujigaki, "Means and equipment of real-time shape measurement using a DMD reflection-type CCD camera," Japan patent 3507865 (9 January 2004).
  10. Q. Gao, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Application of digital micro-mirror device to deformation measurement," Key Eng. Mater. 243, 189-194 (2003).
  11. M. Fujigaki, Q. Gao, and Y. Morimoto, "High-speed phase-shifting method for shape measurement using digital micro-mirror device," ATEM03, JSME-MMD, OS01W0414 (CD-ROM), (2003).
  12. S. K. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, "Programmable Imaging using a Digital Micromirror Array," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 436-443.
  13. S. Ri, M. Fujigaki, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, "Pixel-to-pixel corresopondence adjustment in DMD camera by moiré methodology," Exp. Mech. 46,67-75 (2006).
  14. L. J. Hornbeck, "Deformable-mirror spatial light modulators," SPIE Critical Review Series 1150, 86-102 (1989).
  15. J. B. Sampsell, "An overview of the digital micromirror device (DMD) and its application to projection displays," Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Paper 24, 1012-1015 (1993).
  16. L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," in Proc. SPIE 3013, 27-40 (1997).
  17. J. M. Florence and L. A. Yoder, "Display system architectures for digital micromirror device (DMDTM) -based projectors," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 193-208 (1996).
  18. M. R. Douglass and D. M. Kozuch, "DMD reliability assessment for large-area displays," in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 1995), Vol. 26, 49-52.
  19. K. J. Kearney and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a digital micromirror device for use as an optical mask in imaging and spectroscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3292, 81-92 (1998).
  20. C. E. MacAulay and A. L. P. Dlugan, "Use of digital micromirror devices in quantitative microscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3260, 201-206 (1998).
  21. A. L. P. Dlugan, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, "Improvements to quantitative microscopy through the use of digital micromirror devices," in Proc. SPIE 3921, 6-11 (2000).
  22. T. Fukano and A. Miyawaki, "Whole-field fluorescence microscope with digital micromirror device: imaging of biological samples," Appl. Opt. 42, 4119-4124 (2003).
  23. R. S. Nesbitt, S. L. Smith, R. A. Molnar, and S. A. Benton, "Holographic recording using a digital micromirror device," Proc. SPIE 3637, 12-20 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).
  25. ViALUX GmbH, ALP Product Sheet, Chemnitz (2003).
  26. W. Osten, T. Haist, and K. Korner, "Active Approaches in Optical Metrology," in Proceedings of International Conference On Laser Applications and Optical Metrology, (2003), pp. 9-19.
  27. A. S. Kobayashi, Handbook on Experimental Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1993), Chap. 6, pp. 267-296.
  28. G. Cloud, "Geometric moiré phenomena and simulations," Exp. Tech. 29, 15-18 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. S. Kobayashi, "Digital image processing," in Handbook on Experimental Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1993), Chap. 21, pp. 1018-1026.
  30. M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and S. Ri, "Improvement of accuracy of shape measurement using DMD Reflection-type CCD camera," in Proc. SPIE 5852, 552-558 (2005).

2005

G. Cloud, "Geometric moiré phenomena and simulations," Exp. Tech. 29, 15-18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and S. Ri, "Improvement of accuracy of shape measurement using DMD Reflection-type CCD camera," in Proc. SPIE 5852, 552-558 (2005).

2003

Q. Gao, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Application of digital micro-mirror device to deformation measurement," Key Eng. Mater. 243, 189-194 (2003).

T. Fukano and A. Miyawaki, "Whole-field fluorescence microscope with digital micromirror device: imaging of biological samples," Appl. Opt. 42, 4119-4124 (2003).

2001

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

2000

A. L. P. Dlugan, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, "Improvements to quantitative microscopy through the use of digital micromirror devices," in Proc. SPIE 3921, 6-11 (2000).

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurment using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto and W. G. Kim, "Development of real-time display system for contour line and equal-displacement line by phase shifting scanning moiré method (in Japanese)," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 66, 1221-1225 (2000).

1999

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, "Real-time Shape Measurement by Integrated Phase-Shifting Method," in Proc. SPIE 3744, 118-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Nesbitt, S. L. Smith, R. A. Molnar, and S. A. Benton, "Holographic recording using a digital micromirror device," Proc. SPIE 3637, 12-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kakunai, T. Sakamoto, and K. Iwata, "Profile measurement taken with liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Opt. 38, 2824-2828 (1999).

1998

K. J. Kearney and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a digital micromirror device for use as an optical mask in imaging and spectroscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3292, 81-92 (1998).

C. E. MacAulay and A. L. P. Dlugan, "Use of digital micromirror devices in quantitative microscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3260, 201-206 (1998).

1997

L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," in Proc. SPIE 3013, 27-40 (1997).

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Profilometry by temporal phase unwrapping and spatial light modulator based fringe projector," Opt. Eng. 36, 610-615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects," Appl. Opt. 36, 2770-2775 (1997).

1996

J. M. Florence and L. A. Yoder, "Display system architectures for digital micromirror device (DMDTM) -based projectors," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 193-208 (1996).

1994

1993

J. B. Sampsell, "An overview of the digital micromirror device (DMD) and its application to projection displays," Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Paper 24, 1012-1015 (1993).

1989

L. J. Hornbeck, "Deformable-mirror spatial light modulators," SPIE Critical Review Series 1150, 86-102 (1989).

1984

Bartlett, T. A.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Benton, S. A.

R. S. Nesbitt, S. L. Smith, R. A. Molnar, and S. A. Benton, "Holographic recording using a digital micromirror device," Proc. SPIE 3637, 12-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boult, T. E.

S. K. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, "Programmable Imaging using a Digital Micromirror Array," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 436-443.

Branzoi, V.

S. K. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, "Programmable Imaging using a Digital Micromirror Array," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 436-443.

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurment using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurment using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cloud, G.

G. Cloud, "Geometric moiré phenomena and simulations," Exp. Tech. 29, 15-18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dlugan, A. L. P.

A. L. P. Dlugan, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, "Improvements to quantitative microscopy through the use of digital micromirror devices," in Proc. SPIE 3921, 6-11 (2000).

C. E. MacAulay and A. L. P. Dlugan, "Use of digital micromirror devices in quantitative microscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3260, 201-206 (1998).

Douglass, M. R.

M. R. Douglass and D. M. Kozuch, "DMD reliability assessment for large-area displays," in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 1995), Vol. 26, 49-52.

Duncan, W. M.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Florence, J. M.

J. M. Florence and L. A. Yoder, "Display system architectures for digital micromirror device (DMDTM) -based projectors," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 193-208 (1996).

Fujigaki, M.

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and S. Ri, "Improvement of accuracy of shape measurement using DMD Reflection-type CCD camera," in Proc. SPIE 5852, 552-558 (2005).

Q. Gao, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Application of digital micro-mirror device to deformation measurement," Key Eng. Mater. 243, 189-194 (2003).

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto and W. G. Kim, "Development of real-time display system for contour line and equal-displacement line by phase shifting scanning moiré method (in Japanese)," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 66, 1221-1225 (2000).

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, "Real-time Shape Measurement by Integrated Phase-Shifting Method," in Proc. SPIE 3744, 118-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujigaki, Q. Gao, and Y. Morimoto, "High-speed phase-shifting method for shape measurement using digital micro-mirror device," ATEM03, JSME-MMD, OS01W0414 (CD-ROM), (2003).

Y. Morimoto and M. Fujigaki, "Means and equipment of real-time shape measurement using a DMD reflection-type CCD camera," Japan patent 3507865 (9 January 2004).

S. Ri, M. Fujigaki, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, "Pixel-to-pixel corresopondence adjustment in DMD camera by moiré methodology," Exp. Mech. 46,67-75 (2006).

Fukano, T.

Gao, Q.

Q. Gao, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Application of digital micro-mirror device to deformation measurement," Key Eng. Mater. 243, 189-194 (2003).

M. Fujigaki, Q. Gao, and Y. Morimoto, "High-speed phase-shifting method for shape measurement using digital micro-mirror device," ATEM03, JSME-MMD, OS01W0414 (CD-ROM), (2003).

Haist, T.

W. Osten, T. Haist, and K. Korner, "Active Approaches in Optical Metrology," in Proceedings of International Conference On Laser Applications and Optical Metrology, (2003), pp. 9-19.

Halioua, M.

Hornbeck, L. J.

L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," in Proc. SPIE 3013, 27-40 (1997).

L. J. Hornbeck, "Deformable-mirror spatial light modulators," SPIE Critical Review Series 1150, 86-102 (1989).

Huntley, J. M.

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Profilometry by temporal phase unwrapping and spatial light modulator based fringe projector," Opt. Eng. 36, 610-615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects," Appl. Opt. 36, 2770-2775 (1997).

Iwata, K.

Joenathan, C.

Kakunai, S.

Kearney, K. J.

K. J. Kearney and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a digital micromirror device for use as an optical mask in imaging and spectroscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3292, 81-92 (1998).

Kim, W. G.

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto and W. G. Kim, "Development of real-time display system for contour line and equal-displacement line by phase shifting scanning moiré method (in Japanese)," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 66, 1221-1225 (2000).

Kobayashi, A. S.

A. S. Kobayashi, Handbook on Experimental Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1993), Chap. 6, pp. 267-296.

Koontz, E. M.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Korner, K.

W. Osten, T. Haist, and K. Korner, "Active Approaches in Optical Metrology," in Proceedings of International Conference On Laser Applications and Optical Metrology, (2003), pp. 9-19.

Kozuch, D. M.

M. R. Douglass and D. M. Kozuch, "DMD reliability assessment for large-area displays," in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 1995), Vol. 26, 49-52.

Lane, P. M.

A. L. P. Dlugan, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, "Improvements to quantitative microscopy through the use of digital micromirror devices," in Proc. SPIE 3921, 6-11 (2000).

Lee, B. L.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Liu, C.

MacAulay, C. E.

A. L. P. Dlugan, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, "Improvements to quantitative microscopy through the use of digital micromirror devices," in Proc. SPIE 3921, 6-11 (2000).

C. E. MacAulay and A. L. P. Dlugan, "Use of digital micromirror devices in quantitative microscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3260, 201-206 (1998).

Matui, T.

S. Ri, M. Fujigaki, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, "Pixel-to-pixel corresopondence adjustment in DMD camera by moiré methodology," Exp. Mech. 46,67-75 (2006).

Miyawaki, A.

Molnar, R. A.

R. S. Nesbitt, S. L. Smith, R. A. Molnar, and S. A. Benton, "Holographic recording using a digital micromirror device," Proc. SPIE 3637, 12-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, Y.

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and S. Ri, "Improvement of accuracy of shape measurement using DMD Reflection-type CCD camera," in Proc. SPIE 5852, 552-558 (2005).

Q. Gao, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Application of digital micro-mirror device to deformation measurement," Key Eng. Mater. 243, 189-194 (2003).

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto and W. G. Kim, "Development of real-time display system for contour line and equal-displacement line by phase shifting scanning moiré method (in Japanese)," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 66, 1221-1225 (2000).

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, "Real-time Shape Measurement by Integrated Phase-Shifting Method," in Proc. SPIE 3744, 118-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujigaki, Q. Gao, and Y. Morimoto, "High-speed phase-shifting method for shape measurement using digital micro-mirror device," ATEM03, JSME-MMD, OS01W0414 (CD-ROM), (2003).

Y. Morimoto and M. Fujigaki, "Means and equipment of real-time shape measurement using a DMD reflection-type CCD camera," Japan patent 3507865 (9 January 2004).

S. Ri, M. Fujigaki, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, "Pixel-to-pixel corresopondence adjustment in DMD camera by moiré methodology," Exp. Mech. 46,67-75 (2006).

Nayar, S. K.

S. K. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, "Programmable Imaging using a Digital Micromirror Array," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 436-443.

Nesbitt, R. S.

R. S. Nesbitt, S. L. Smith, R. A. Molnar, and S. A. Benton, "Holographic recording using a digital micromirror device," Proc. SPIE 3637, 12-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ninkov, Z.

K. J. Kearney and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a digital micromirror device for use as an optical mask in imaging and spectroscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3292, 81-92 (1998).

Osten, W.

W. Osten, T. Haist, and K. Korner, "Active Approaches in Optical Metrology," in Proceedings of International Conference On Laser Applications and Optical Metrology, (2003), pp. 9-19.

Powell, D.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Rancuret, P.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Ri, S.

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and S. Ri, "Improvement of accuracy of shape measurement using DMD Reflection-type CCD camera," in Proc. SPIE 5852, 552-558 (2005).

S. Ri, M. Fujigaki, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, "Pixel-to-pixel corresopondence adjustment in DMD camera by moiré methodology," Exp. Mech. 46,67-75 (2006).

Sakamoto, T.

Saldner, H. O.

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Profilometry by temporal phase unwrapping and spatial light modulator based fringe projector," Opt. Eng. 36, 610-615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects," Appl. Opt. 36, 2770-2775 (1997).

Sampsell, J. B.

J. B. Sampsell, "An overview of the digital micromirror device (DMD) and its application to projection displays," Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Paper 24, 1012-1015 (1993).

Sawyers, B. D.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Smith, S. L.

R. S. Nesbitt, S. L. Smith, R. A. Molnar, and S. A. Benton, "Holographic recording using a digital micromirror device," Proc. SPIE 3637, 12-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

So, J.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

Song, M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurment using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

Toda, H.

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, "Real-time Shape Measurement by Integrated Phase-Shifting Method," in Proc. SPIE 3744, 118-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, L. A.

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

J. M. Florence and L. A. Yoder, "Display system architectures for digital micromirror device (DMDTM) -based projectors," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 193-208 (1996).

Appl. Opt.

Exp. Tech.

G. Cloud, "Geometric moiré phenomena and simulations," Exp. Tech. 29, 15-18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng.

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto and W. G. Kim, "Development of real-time display system for contour line and equal-displacement line by phase shifting scanning moiré method (in Japanese)," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 66, 1221-1225 (2000).

Key Eng. Mater.

Q. Gao, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Application of digital micro-mirror device to deformation measurement," Key Eng. Mater. 243, 189-194 (2003).

Opt. Eng.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurment using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Profilometry by temporal phase unwrapping and spatial light modulator based fringe projector," Opt. Eng. 36, 610-615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, and H. Toda, "Real-time Shape Measurement by Integrated Phase-Shifting Method," in Proc. SPIE 3744, 118-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Nesbitt, S. L. Smith, R. A. Molnar, and S. A. Benton, "Holographic recording using a digital micromirror device," Proc. SPIE 3637, 12-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Paper

J. B. Sampsell, "An overview of the digital micromirror device (DMD) and its application to projection displays," Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Paper 24, 1012-1015 (1993).

SPIE Critical Review Series

L. J. Hornbeck, "Deformable-mirror spatial light modulators," SPIE Critical Review Series 1150, 86-102 (1989).

Other

L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," in Proc. SPIE 3013, 27-40 (1997).

J. M. Florence and L. A. Yoder, "Display system architectures for digital micromirror device (DMDTM) -based projectors," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 193-208 (1996).

M. R. Douglass and D. M. Kozuch, "DMD reliability assessment for large-area displays," in Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 1995), Vol. 26, 49-52.

K. J. Kearney and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a digital micromirror device for use as an optical mask in imaging and spectroscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3292, 81-92 (1998).

C. E. MacAulay and A. L. P. Dlugan, "Use of digital micromirror devices in quantitative microscopy," in Proc. SPIE 3260, 201-206 (1998).

A. L. P. Dlugan, C. E. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, "Improvements to quantitative microscopy through the use of digital micromirror devices," in Proc. SPIE 3921, 6-11 (2000).

M. Fujigaki, Q. Gao, and Y. Morimoto, "High-speed phase-shifting method for shape measurement using digital micro-mirror device," ATEM03, JSME-MMD, OS01W0414 (CD-ROM), (2003).

S. K. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, "Programmable Imaging using a Digital Micromirror Array," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 436-443.

S. Ri, M. Fujigaki, T. Matui, and Y. Morimoto, "Pixel-to-pixel corresopondence adjustment in DMD camera by moiré methodology," Exp. Mech. 46,67-75 (2006).

L. A. Yoder, W. M. Duncan, E. M. Koontz, J. So, T. A. Bartlett, B. L. Lee, B. D. Sawyers, D. Powell, and P. Rancuret, "DLP technolgy: applications in optical networking," in Proc. SPIE 4457, 54-61 (2001).

ViALUX GmbH, ALP Product Sheet, Chemnitz (2003).

W. Osten, T. Haist, and K. Korner, "Active Approaches in Optical Metrology," in Proceedings of International Conference On Laser Applications and Optical Metrology, (2003), pp. 9-19.

A. S. Kobayashi, Handbook on Experimental Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1993), Chap. 6, pp. 267-296.

Y. Morimoto and M. Fujigaki, "Means and equipment of real-time shape measurement using a DMD reflection-type CCD camera," Japan patent 3507865 (9 January 2004).

A. S. Kobayashi, "Digital image processing," in Handbook on Experimental Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1993), Chap. 21, pp. 1018-1026.

M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and S. Ri, "Improvement of accuracy of shape measurement using DMD Reflection-type CCD camera," in Proc. SPIE 5852, 552-558 (2005).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of DMD mirrors reflected directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DMD reflection-type CCD camera (DMD camera) (a) Schematic of the structure, and (b) photograph of general view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Relationship between DMD on–off pattern and captured image by the DMD camera as illustration, (a) original image, (b) DMD on–off pattern (:on, :off), and (c) captured image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the DMD camera configuration: a calibration grating pattern of periodic binary line grating with 4-pixel pitch both in the x and the y directions is displayed on the DMD device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic representation of mismatch and misalignment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Appearance of the moiré pattern generated by the phase-shifting moiré method. Thinned-out images show phase-shifted moiré fringe patterns according to the thinning-out index N and the phase ϕ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase analysis of the moiré fringe pattern obtained by the phase-shifting moiré method: (a) image taken by the DMD camera, phase-shifting images (b) α = 0 , (c) α = π / 2 , (d) α = π , (e) α = 3 π / 2 , which thinned out at every four pixels, and (f) the phase distribution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results of the phase distribution of moiré patterns by using the composed grating pattern shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The system setup. (a) Diagram of the experimental setup and (b) photograph of general view.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental result by DMD-type integrated phase-shifting method using correlations. (a) Trapezoid specimen and (b) image captured with one shot by the DMD camera. Small image window on the right side shows further details; (c) one of four phase-shifted grating images ( α = 0 ) produced from (b), (d) phase distribution and (e) height distribution.

Equations (47)

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1 / 25 pixel
12 °
+ 12 °
48 °
Lens 2
6.25 μm × 6.25 μm
13.7 μm × 13.7 μm
20 μs .
6918 frames / s
162 frames / s
1.7 GHz
30 μs
1 / 1000
f A
f B
( f A f B )
π / 2
π / 2
I 0 ( x , y ) = I b ( x , y ) + I a ( x , y ) cos { ϕ ( x , y ) } ,
I 1 ( x , y ) = I b ( x , y ) + I a ( x , y ) cos { ϕ ( x , y ) + π / 2 } ,
I 2 ( x , y ) = I b ( x , y ) + I a ( x , y ) cos { ϕ ( x , y ) + π } ,
I 3 ( x , y ) = I b ( x , y ) + I a ( x , y ) cos { ϕ ( x , y ) + 3 π / 2 } ,
I b ( x , y )
I a ( x , y )
ϕ ( x , y )
tan ϕ ( x , y ) = I 3 ( x , y ) I 1 ( x , y ) I 0 ( x , y ) I 2 ( x , y ) .
2 π
π / 2
Δϕ
m = p Δϕ 2 π .
αβθ
π / 2
αβθ
π / 4
0.043 rad
1 / 25 pixel
1 / 37 pixel
1380 mm
100 mm × 75 mm
( α = 0 )
z = 0 mm
0.15 mm
α = 0
α = π / 2
α = π
α = 3 π / 2
( α = 0 )

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