Abstract

A vector version of the 6S (Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum) radiative transfer code (6SV1), which enables accounting for radiation polarization, has been developed and validated against a Monte Carlo code, Coulson's tabulated values, and MOBY (Marine Optical Buoy System) water-leaving reflectance measurements. The developed code was also tested against the scalar codes SHARM, DISORT, and MODTRAN to evaluate its performance in scalar mode and the influence of polarization. The obtained results have shown a good agreement of 0.7% in comparison with the Monte Carlo code, 0.2% for Coulson's tabulated values, and 0.001–0.002 for the 400550 nm region for the MOBY reflectances. Ignoring the effects of polarization led to large errors in calculated top-of-atmosphere reflectances: more than 10% for a molecular atmosphere and up to 5% for an aerosol atmosphere. This new version of 6S is intended to replace the previous scalar version used for calculation of lookup tables in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) atmospheric correction algorithm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Lyapustin, D. L. Williams, B. Markham, J. Irons, B. Holben, and Y. Wang, "A method for unbiased high-resolution aerosol retrieval from Landsat," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 1233-1244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, and C. O. Justice, "Atmospheric correction of MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results," Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 97-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyapustin, "Radiative transfer code SHARM-3D for radiance simulations over a non-Lambertian nonhomogeneous surface: intercomparison study," Appl. Opt. 41, 5607-5615 (2002).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "An overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).

2001 (1)

Y. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Zhang, N. El-Saleous, Y. Knyazikhin, E. Vermote, and R. B. Myneni, "Investigation of product accuracy as a function of input and model uncertainties: case study with SeaWiFS and MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm," Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 299-313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, "MODTRAN4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Muldashev, A. I. Lyapustin, and U. M. Sultangazin, "Spherical harmonics method in the problem of radiative transfer in the atmosphere-surface system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 393-404 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Evans, "The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 429-446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector versus scalar treatment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 135-138 (1998).

1997 (5)

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and J. J. Morcrette, "Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675-686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16989-17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Bréon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F.-M. Bréon, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039-17050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J.-L. Roujean, M. Leroy, and P.-Y. Dechamps, "A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth's surface for the correction of remote sensing data," J. Geophys. Res. 97D, 20455-20468 (1992).

F.-M Bréon, "Reflectance of broken cloud fields: simulation and parameterization," J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1221-1232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. F. Evans and G. L. Stephens, "A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 5, 413-423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. E. Hansen, "Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1515-1516 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abdou, W. A.

D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

Acharya, P. K.

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, "MODTRAN4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allred, C. L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, "MODTRAN4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "An overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).

Berk, A.

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, "MODTRAN4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bowker, C. F.

F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

Bréon, F.-M

F.-M Bréon, "Reflectance of broken cloud fields: simulation and parameterization," J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1221-1232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F.-M. Bréon, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039-17050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Bréon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "An overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).

Burg, R.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector versus scalar treatment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 135-138 (1998).

Castaño, D. J.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, "Foreword," inTables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering, K.L.Coulson, J.V.Dave, and Z.Sekera, (U. of California Press, 1960).

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector versus scalar treatment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 135-138 (1998).

Clark, D.

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F.-M. Bréon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17196 (1997).
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Jeong, L. S.

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D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "An overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).

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F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

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D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
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E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
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D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "An overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).

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F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
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A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector versus scalar treatment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 135-138 (1998).

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
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A. Lyapustin, D. L. Williams, B. Markham, J. Irons, B. Holben, and Y. Wang, "A method for unbiased high-resolution aerosol retrieval from Landsat," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 1233-1244 (2004).
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A. Lyapustin, D. L. Williams, B. Markham, J. Irons, B. Holben, and Y. Wang, "A method for unbiased high-resolution aerosol retrieval from Landsat," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 1233-1244 (2004).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
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Martonchik, J. V.

D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
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McDonald, D.

D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

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D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

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Milesi, C.

F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16989-17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Morcrette, J. J.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and J. J. Morcrette, "Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675-686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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T. Z. Muldashev, A. I. Lyapustin, and U. M. Sultangazin, "Spherical harmonics method in the problem of radiative transfer in the atmosphere-surface system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 393-404 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Myneni, R.

D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

Myneni, R. B.

Y. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Zhang, N. El-Saleous, Y. Knyazikhin, E. Vermote, and R. B. Myneni, "Investigation of product accuracy as a function of input and model uncertainties: case study with SeaWiFS and MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm," Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 299-313 (2001).
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F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

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Privette, J.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
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F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

Remer, L.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
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Richtsmeier, S. C.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
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A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
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E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roujean, J.-L.

J.-L. Roujean, M. Leroy, and P.-Y. Dechamps, "A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth's surface for the correction of remote sensing data," J. Geophys. Res. 97D, 20455-20468 (1992).

Running, S. W.

F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

Saleous, N. Z. El

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, and C. O. Justice, "Atmospheric correction of MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results," Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 97-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sekera, Z.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (U. California Press, 1960).

Shettle, E. P.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (A. Deepak Publishing, 1991).

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smimov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, "Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media," Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, "DISORT, a general-purpose FORTRAN program for Discrete-Ordinate-Method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology, version 1.1," (March, 2000), available as DISORTReport1.1.pdf at ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/MultiplelowbarScatt/.

Stamnes, K. H.

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, "MODTRAN4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, G. L.

F. F. Evans and G. L. Stephens, "A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 5, 413-423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sultangazin, U. M.

T. Z. Muldashev, A. I. Lyapustin, and U. M. Sultangazin, "Spherical harmonics method in the problem of radiative transfer in the atmosphere-surface system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 393-404 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

Tanré, D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Bréon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and J. J. Morcrette, "Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675-686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F.-M. Bréon, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039-17050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Zhang, N. El-Saleous, Y. Knyazikhin, E. Vermote, and R. B. Myneni, "Investigation of product accuracy as a function of input and model uncertainties: case study with SeaWiFS and MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm," Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 299-313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toublanc, D.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16989-17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, "Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media," Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, "DISORT, a general-purpose FORTRAN program for Discrete-Ordinate-Method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology, version 1.1," (March, 2000), available as DISORTReport1.1.pdf at ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/MultiplelowbarScatt/.

Tsay, S.-C.

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, "MODTRAN4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, 1980).

van der Mee, C.

J. W. Hovenier, C. van der Mee, and H. Domke, Transfer of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres: Basic Concepts and Practical Methods (Kluwer Academic, 2004).

Vermote, E.

Y. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Zhang, N. El-Saleous, Y. Knyazikhin, E. Vermote, and R. B. Myneni, "Investigation of product accuracy as a function of input and model uncertainties: case study with SeaWiFS and MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm," Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 299-313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, and C. O. Justice, "Atmospheric correction of MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results," Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 97-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and J. J. Morcrette, "Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675-686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Votava, P.

F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

Wang, Y.

A. Lyapustin, D. L. Williams, B. Markham, J. Irons, B. Holben, and Y. Wang, "A method for unbiased high-resolution aerosol retrieval from Landsat," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 1233-1244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Zhang, N. El-Saleous, Y. Knyazikhin, E. Vermote, and R. B. Myneni, "Investigation of product accuracy as a function of input and model uncertainties: case study with SeaWiFS and MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm," Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 299-313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

West, R. A.

D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

Williams, D. L.

A. Lyapustin, D. L. Williams, B. Markham, J. Irons, B. Holben, and Y. Wang, "A method for unbiased high-resolution aerosol retrieval from Landsat," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 1233-1244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W.

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, "Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media," Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, "DISORT, a general-purpose FORTRAN program for Discrete-Ordinate-Method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology, version 1.1," (March, 2000), available as DISORTReport1.1.pdf at ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/MultiplelowbarScatt/.

Yarbrough, M. A.

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "An overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Zhang, N. El-Saleous, Y. Knyazikhin, E. Vermote, and R. B. Myneni, "Investigation of product accuracy as a function of input and model uncertainties: case study with SeaWiFS and MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm," Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 299-313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE (1)

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "An overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing Systems VI, Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and J. J. Morcrette, "Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675-686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (5)

J. E. Hansen, "Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1515-1516 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyapustin, D. L. Williams, B. Markham, J. Irons, B. Holben, and Y. Wang, "A method for unbiased high-resolution aerosol retrieval from Landsat," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 1233-1244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.-M Bréon, "Reflectance of broken cloud fields: simulation and parameterization," J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1221-1232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Evans, "The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 429-446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

F.-M. Bréon, J.-L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F.-M. Bréon, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039-17050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16989-17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Roujean, M. Leroy, and P.-Y. Dechamps, "A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth's surface for the correction of remote sensing data," J. Geophys. Res. 97D, 20455-20468 (1992).

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector versus scalar treatment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 135-138 (1998).

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Privette, L. Remer, J.-C. Roger, and D. Tanré, "Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131-17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (4)

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurements requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Evans and G. L. Stephens, "A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 5, 413-423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Muldashev, A. I. Lyapustin, and U. M. Sultangazin, "Spherical harmonics method in the problem of radiative transfer in the atmosphere-surface system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 393-404 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, "MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, "MODTRAN4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN," in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III,Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

Y. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Zhang, N. El-Saleous, Y. Knyazikhin, E. Vermote, and R. B. Myneni, "Investigation of product accuracy as a function of input and model uncertainties: case study with SeaWiFS and MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm," Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 299-313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, and C. O. Justice, "Atmospheric correction of MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results," Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 97-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

J. W. Hovenier, C. van der Mee, and H. Domke, Transfer of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres: Basic Concepts and Practical Methods (Kluwer Academic, 2004).

G. A. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (A. Deepak Publishing, 1991).

K.-N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, 1980).

D. Clark, MOBY principal investigator, Ocean Science Team Member (personal communication), http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/scilowbarteam/directory/.

D. J. Diner, W. A. Abdou, H. R. Gordon, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, J. V. Martonchik, D. McDonald, S. McMuldroch, R. Myneni, and R. A. West, MISR Level 2 Ancillary Products and Datasets Algorithm Theoretical Basis, NASA EOS-MISR Document JPL D-13402, Rev. B (NASA JPL, 1999).

J.Lenoble, ed., Radiative Transfer in Scattering and Absorbing Atmospheres: Standard Computational Procedures (A. Deepak Publishing, 1985).

S. Chandrasekhar, "Foreword," inTables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering, K.L.Coulson, J.V.Dave, and Z.Sekera, (U. of California Press, 1960).

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (U. California Press, 1960).

F. A. Heinsch, M. Reeves, C. F. Bowker, P. Votava, S. Kang, C. Milesi, M. Zhao, J. Galssy, W. M. Jolly, J. S. Kimball, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "User's Guide, GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3), NASA MODIS Land Algorithm, Version 1.2," www.ntsg.umt.edu/modis/MOD17UsersGuide.pdf (2003).

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, 1980).

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, "DISORT, a general-purpose FORTRAN program for Discrete-Ordinate-Method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology, version 1.1," (March, 2000), available as DISORTReport1.1.pdf at ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/MultiplelowbarScatt/.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Validation scheme of 6SV1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Validation of 6SV1 in scalar mode against (a) SHARM and (b) MODTRAN for a molecular atmosphere. (a) SZA = {0.0°; 10.0°; 23.07°; 45.0°; 58.67°; 75.0°}, AZ = {0.0°; 90.0°; 180.0°}, VZA = { 0 ° 7 9 ° } , optical thickness of τ = { 0.1 ; 0.3445 } , surface reflectance of ρ = 0 . (b) SZA and VZA sets do not include angles beyond 70°, τ = { 0.097 ; 0.232 } , ρ = 0 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Validation of 6SV1 in scalar mode against (a) DISORT and (b) MODTRAN for an aerosol atmosphere. (a) Standard continental aerosol model. SZA = { 0.0 ° ; 10.0 ° ; 2 3 . 0 7 ° ; 4 5 . 0 ° ; 5 8 . 6 7 ° ; 7 5 . 0 ° } , AZ = { 0.0 ° ; 90.0 ° ; 1 8 0 . 0 ° } , VZA = { 0 ° 7 9 ° } , optical thickness of τ = { 0.210 ; 0.778 ; 2.0 } , surface reflectance of ρ = 0 . (b) Clean continental aerosol model. SZA and VZA sets do not include values beyond 70°, τ = 0.236 , ρ = 0 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Validation of 6SV1 in vector mode for a molecular atmosphere against Coulson's tabulated values. SZA = { 0.0 ° ; 23.07 ° ; 36.87 ° ; 53.13 ° ; 66.42 ° ; 78.46 ° } , AZ = { 0.0 ° ; 9 0 .0 ° ; 180.0 ° } , VZA = { 0 ° - 7 9 ° } , τ = { 0.1 ; 0.25 } , ρ = 0 . (b) Validation of 6SV1 in vector mode for a molecular atmosphere against the Monte Carlo simulations. SZA = { 0.0 ° ; 2 3 . 0 ° ; 5 0 . 0 ° } , τ = { 0.1 ; 0 . 2 5 } , ρ = 0 . The hemispherical space at the top of atmosphere is divided into a number of solid angles, specified by VZA and AZ values. The boundary VZA values are shown as angular coordinates. The relative difference between the outputs of the codes is presented as the radius coordinate. (c) TOA reflectances calculated by 6SV1 in vector mode for comparison with the Monte Carlo code, illustrated in (b). The reflectances are shown as the radius coordinates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Validation of 6SV1 in vector mode for an aerosol atmosphere against the Monte Carlo simulations. The atmosphere is represented with the clean maritime model. SZA = {0.0°; 23.0°; 50.0°}, τ = {0.2; 0.7}, ρ = 0. The hemispherical space at the top of atmosphere is divided into a number of solid angles, specified by VZA and AZ values. The boundary VZA values are shown as angular coordinates. The relative difference between the outputs of the codes is presented as the radius coordinate. (b) TOA reflectances calculated by 6SV1 in vector mode for comparison with the Monte Carlo code, illustrated in Fig. 5(a). Reflectances are shown as the radius coordinates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effects of polarization for a molecular atmosphere. SZA = {0.0°; 10.0°; 23.07°; 45.0°; 58.67°; 75.0°}, AZ = {0.0°; 90.0°; 180.0°}, VZA = {0°–79°}, τ = {0.1; 0.3445}, ρ = 0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Average volume size distribution of particles for a biomass burning smoke aerosol model. (b) Effects of polarization for an aerosol atmosphere represented by the biomass burning smoke. SZA = { 0.0 ° ; 11.48 ° ; 23.07 ° ; 32.86 ° ; 58.67 ° } , AZ = { 0 ° ; 90 ° ; 180 ° } , VZA = { 0 ° 7 9 ° } , τ = 0.728 (hazy conditions), λ = { 470 ; 670 }  nm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Effects of polarization for a mixed (molecular + aerosol) atmosphere. The aerosol constituent is represented by the biomass burning smoke model. SZA = {0.0°; 11.48°; 23.07°; 32.86°; 58.67°}, AZ = {0°; 90°; 180°}, VZA = {0°–79°}, τ aer = 0.728 (hazy conditions), τ mol = 0.177 for λ = 470  nm , and τ mol = 0.042 for λ = 670  nm . (b) TOA reflectances for the mixed atmosphere. The same geometrical conditions as in (a), except that AZ = 90 ° . θS designates SZA.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Corrected MODIS Aqua water-leaving reflectances versus the MOBY-measured water-leaving reflectances for λ = {412; 443; 490; 530; 550} nm. MOBY data were collected off the coast of Lanai Island, Hawaii, during 2003.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Two Aerosol Models Used for the Validation of 6SV1 against the Other RT Codes

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Differences between the Stokes Parameters Q and U Calculated with 6SV1 and Extracted from Coulson's Tables a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ ( z ) = τ mol,tot   exp ( z / H mol ) + τ aer,tot   exp ( z / H aer ) ,
η mol ( z ) = τ mol ( z ) / [ τ mol ( z ) + τ aer ( z ) ] ,
η aer ( z ) = τ aer ( z ) / [ τ mol ( z ) + τ aer ( z ) ] .

Metrics