Abstract

W∕C and Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings have been fabricated by depositing a multilayer coating on the surface of laminar-type holographic master gratings. The diffraction efficiency was measured by reflectometers in the energy region of 0.68.0  keV at synchrotron radiation facilities as well as with an x-ray diffractometer at 8.05   keV. The Co/SiO2 and W∕C multilayer gratings showed peak diffraction efficiencies of 0.47 and 0.38 at 6.0 and 8.0   keV, respectively. To our knowledge, the peak efficiency of the W∕C multilayer grating is the highest measured with hard x rays. The diffraction efficiency of the Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings was higher than that of the W∕C multilayer grating in the energy range of 2.56.0  keV. However, it decreased significantly in the energy above the K absorption edge of Co (7.71   keV). For the Co/SiO2 multilayer grating, the measured diffraction efficiencies agreed with the calculated curves assuming a rms roughness of 1  nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. C. Koningsberger, X-Ray Absorption: Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES, R. Prins, ed. (Wiley, 1988).
  2. F. Sette, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Poate, and J. E. Rowe, "Local structure of S impurities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2637-2640 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Fuggle and J. E. Inglesfield, Unoccupied Electronic States: Fundamentals for XANES, EELS, IPS and BIS (Springer, 1992).
  4. P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Combined microstructure x-ray optics (invited)," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1588-1595 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, "Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV," Phys. Scr. 41, 418-521 (1990).
  7. E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yakshin, and Yu. A. Agafonov, "Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3150, 2-8 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. V. Martynov and Yu. Platonov, "Deep multilayer gratings with adjustable bandpass for spectroscopy and monochromatization," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1551-1553 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. K. Warburton, "On the diffraction properties of multilayer coated plane gratings," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 278-285 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, "Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays," Proc. SPIE 3150, 195-204 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Koike, M. Ishino, and H. Sasai, "Design of a high efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, "Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162-5168 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Ruterana, P. Houdy, and P. Boher, "A transmission electron microscopy study of low-temperature reaction at the Co-Si interface," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1033-1037 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Miura, E. Ma, and V. Thompson, "Initial sequence and kinetics of silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous-silicon multilayer films," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4287-4294 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Y. Shim, S. W. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous silicon, amorphous Co-Si and bias-induced Co-Si films," Thin Solid Films 292, 31-39 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. M. Fallon, C. A. Faunce, and P. J. Grundy, "Microstructure of sputter-deposited Co/Si multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2400-2407 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Ishino and O. Yoda, "Optimization of the silicon oxide layer thicknesses inserted in the Mo/Si multilayer interfaces for high heat stability and high reflectivity," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4952-4958 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, and P. J. Batson, "Beamline for metrology of x-ray/EUV optics at the Advanced Light Source," Proc. SPIE 3113, 214-221 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. GSOLVER V4.2b, Grating Solver Development Co., Allen, Texas.
  27. B. Pardo, J.-M. Andrè, and A. Summar, "Dynamical theory of diffraction at in-depth multilayered gratings," J. Opt. 22, 141-148 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Nevière, "Bragg-Fresnel multilayer gratings: electromagnetic theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1835-1845 (1994).
  29. E. Spiller, Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE Press, 1994).
  30. K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Koike, M. Ishino, and H. Sasai, "Design of a high efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Ishino and O. Yoda, "Optimization of the silicon oxide layer thicknesses inserted in the Mo/Si multilayer interfaces for high heat stability and high reflectivity," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4952-4958 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Martynov and Yu. Platonov, "Deep multilayer gratings with adjustable bandpass for spectroscopy and monochromatization," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. M. Fallon, C. A. Faunce, and P. J. Grundy, "Microstructure of sputter-deposited Co/Si multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2400-2407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yakshin, and Yu. A. Agafonov, "Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3150, 2-8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, "Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays," Proc. SPIE 3150, 195-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Shim, S. W. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous silicon, amorphous Co-Si and bias-induced Co-Si films," Thin Solid Films 292, 31-39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, and P. J. Batson, "Beamline for metrology of x-ray/EUV optics at the Advanced Light Source," Proc. SPIE 3113, 214-221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

H. Miura, E. Ma, and V. Thompson, "Initial sequence and kinetics of silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous-silicon multilayer films," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4287-4294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Pardo, J.-M. Andrè, and A. Summar, "Dynamical theory of diffraction at in-depth multilayered gratings," J. Opt. 22, 141-148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, "Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162-5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Ruterana, P. Houdy, and P. Boher, "A transmission electron microscopy study of low-temperature reaction at the Co-Si interface," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1033-1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Warburton, "On the diffraction properties of multilayer coated plane gratings," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 278-285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, "Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV," Phys. Scr. 41, 418-521 (1990).

1989 (2)

T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Combined microstructure x-ray optics (invited)," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1588-1595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. Sette, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Poate, and J. E. Rowe, "Local structure of S impurities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2637-2640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Agafonov, Yu. A.

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yakshin, and Yu. A. Agafonov, "Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3150, 2-8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andrè, J.-M.

B. Pardo, J.-M. Andrè, and A. Summar, "Dynamical theory of diffraction at in-depth multilayered gratings," J. Opt. 22, 141-148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

J. Y. Shim, S. W. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous silicon, amorphous Co-Si and bias-induced Co-Si films," Thin Solid Films 292, 31-39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, "Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV," Phys. Scr. 41, 418-521 (1990).

T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Combined microstructure x-ray optics (invited)," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1588-1595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, and P. J. Batson, "Beamline for metrology of x-ray/EUV optics at the Advanced Light Source," Proc. SPIE 3113, 214-221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boher, P.

P. Ruterana, P. Houdy, and P. Boher, "A transmission electron microscopy study of low-temperature reaction at the Co-Si interface," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1033-1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Craig, W. W.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, "Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV," Phys. Scr. 41, 418-521 (1990).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R. W.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fallon, J. M.

J. M. Fallon, C. A. Faunce, and P. J. Grundy, "Microstructure of sputter-deposited Co/Si multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2400-2407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faunce, C. A.

J. M. Fallon, C. A. Faunce, and P. J. Grundy, "Microstructure of sputter-deposited Co/Si multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2400-2407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y. P.

I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, "Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays," Proc. SPIE 3150, 195-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frigo, S. P.

I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, "Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays," Proc. SPIE 3150, 195-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuggle, J. C.

J. C. Fuggle and J. E. Inglesfield, Unoccupied Electronic States: Fundamentals for XANES, EELS, IPS and BIS (Springer, 1992).

Furuzawa, A.

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glover, T. E.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grundy, P. J.

J. M. Fallon, C. A. Faunce, and P. J. Grundy, "Microstructure of sputter-deposited Co/Si multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2400-2407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, and P. J. Batson, "Beamline for metrology of x-ray/EUV optics at the Advanced Light Source," Proc. SPIE 3113, 214-221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harada, Y.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, P. A.

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hellwege, K.-H.

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Houdy, P.

P. Ruterana, P. Houdy, and P. Boher, "A transmission electron microscopy study of low-temperature reaction at the Co-Si interface," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1033-1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, "Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV," Phys. Scr. 41, 418-521 (1990).

Inglesfield, J. E.

J. C. Fuggle and J. E. Inglesfield, Unoccupied Electronic States: Fundamentals for XANES, EELS, IPS and BIS (Springer, 1992).

Ishigro, E.

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishino, M.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, and H. Sasai, "Design of a high efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishino and O. Yoda, "Optimization of the silicon oxide layer thicknesses inserted in the Mo/Si multilayer interfaces for high heat stability and high reflectivity," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4952-4958 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jankowski, A. F.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, "Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162-5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koeda, M.

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, and H. Sasai, "Design of a high efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, and P. J. Batson, "Beamline for metrology of x-ray/EUV optics at the Advanced Light Source," Proc. SPIE 3113, 214-221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koningsberger, D. C.

D. C. Koningsberger, X-Ray Absorption: Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES, R. Prins, ed. (Wiley, 1988).

Kunieda, H.

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lindenberg, A. M.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, E.

H. Miura, E. Ma, and V. Thompson, "Initial sequence and kinetics of silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous-silicon multilayer films," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4287-4294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Makowiecki, D. M.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, V. V.

V. V. Martynov and Yu. Platonov, "Deep multilayer gratings with adjustable bandpass for spectroscopy and monochromatization," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yakshin, and Yu. A. Agafonov, "Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3150, 2-8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, "Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays," Proc. SPIE 3150, 195-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Missalla, T.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miura, H.

H. Miura, E. Ma, and V. Thompson, "Initial sequence and kinetics of silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous-silicon multilayer films," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4287-4294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, T. M.

I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, "Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays," Proc. SPIE 3150, 195-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morales, R. I.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moriya, N.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, T.

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nevière, M.

Padmore, H. A.

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yakshin, and Yu. A. Agafonov, "Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3150, 2-8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, B.

B. Pardo, J.-M. Andrè, and A. Summar, "Dynamical theory of diffraction at in-depth multilayered gratings," J. Opt. 22, 141-148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. W.

J. Y. Shim, S. W. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous silicon, amorphous Co-Si and bias-induced Co-Si films," Thin Solid Films 292, 31-39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

F. Sette, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Poate, and J. E. Rowe, "Local structure of S impurities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2637-2640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Yu.

V. V. Martynov and Yu. Platonov, "Deep multilayer gratings with adjustable bandpass for spectroscopy and monochromatization," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poate, J. M.

F. Sette, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Poate, and J. E. Rowe, "Local structure of S impurities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2637-2640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, "Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV," Phys. Scr. 41, 418-521 (1990).

Rowe, J. E.

F. Sette, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Poate, and J. E. Rowe, "Local structure of S impurities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2637-2640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ruterana, P.

P. Ruterana, P. Houdy, and P. Boher, "A transmission electron microscopy study of low-temperature reaction at the Co-Si interface," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1033-1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sano, K.

M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasai, H.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, and H. Sasai, "Design of a high efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schrawyer, L. R.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, "Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162-5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sette, F.

F. Sette, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Poate, and J. E. Rowe, "Local structure of S impurities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2637-2640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. Y.

J. Y. Shim, S. W. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous silicon, amorphous Co-Si and bias-induced Co-Si films," Thin Solid Films 292, 31-39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE Press, 1994).

Summar, A.

B. Pardo, J.-M. Andrè, and A. Summar, "Dynamical theory of diffraction at in-depth multilayered gratings," J. Opt. 22, 141-148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, H.

M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, V.

H. Miura, E. Ma, and V. Thompson, "Initial sequence and kinetics of silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous-silicon multilayer films," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4287-4294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, and P. J. Batson, "Beamline for metrology of x-ray/EUV optics at the Advanced Light Source," Proc. SPIE 3113, 214-221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wall, M. A.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, "Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162-5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, W. K.

W. K. Warburton, "On the diffraction properties of multilayer coated plane gratings," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 278-285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A.

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yakshin, and Yu. A. Agafonov, "Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3150, 2-8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, O.

M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishino and O. Yoda, "Optimization of the silicon oxide layer thicknesses inserted in the Mo/Si multilayer interfaces for high heat stability and high reflectivity," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4952-4958 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, T.

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Nachr. (1)

T. Yoshioka, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, and K. Haga, "Development of multilayer coated gratings for high energy x-ray spectroscopy," Astron. Nachr. 320, 384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

P. Ruterana, P. Houdy, and P. Boher, "A transmission electron microscopy study of low-temperature reaction at the Co-Si interface," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1033-1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Miura, E. Ma, and V. Thompson, "Initial sequence and kinetics of silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous-silicon multilayer films," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4287-4294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fallon, C. A. Faunce, and P. J. Grundy, "Microstructure of sputter-deposited Co/Si multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2400-2407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishino and O. Yoda, "Optimization of the silicon oxide layer thicknesses inserted in the Mo/Si multilayer interfaces for high heat stability and high reflectivity," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4952-4958 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, "Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162-5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

B. Pardo, J.-M. Andrè, and A. Summar, "Dynamical theory of diffraction at in-depth multilayered gratings," J. Opt. 22, 141-148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, and D. M. Makowiecki, "Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914-2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

W. K. Warburton, "On the diffraction properties of multilayer coated plane gratings," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 278-285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A (1)

P. A. Heimann, A. M. Lindenberg, I. Kang, S. Johnson, T. Missalla, Z. Chang, R. W. Falcone, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, and H. A. Padmore, "Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 467-468, 986-989 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Sette, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Poate, and J. E. Rowe, "Local structure of S impurities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2637-2640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, "Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV," Phys. Scr. 41, 418-521 (1990).

Proc. SPIE (3)

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yakshin, and Yu. A. Agafonov, "Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3150, 2-8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, Y. P. Feng, S. P. Frigo, and T. M. Mooney, "Multilayer spherical grating monochromator for 1-4 keV x-rays," Proc. SPIE 3150, 195-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, and P. J. Batson, "Beamline for metrology of x-ray/EUV optics at the Advanced Light Source," Proc. SPIE 3113, 214-221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (6)

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, M. Ishino, and H. Sasai, "Design of a high efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Martynov and Yu. Platonov, "Deep multilayer gratings with adjustable bandpass for spectroscopy and monochromatization," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Ishigro, T. Kawashima, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Sato, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, and K. Sano, "Multilayer coated laminar grating in the soft x-ray region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2112-2115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Combined microstructure x-ray optics (invited)," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1588-1595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

M. Ishino, O. Yoda, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, and M. Koike, "Heat stability of Mo/Si multilayers inserted with compound layers," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 628-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Y. Shim, S. W. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Silicide formation in cobalt/amorphous silicon, amorphous Co-Si and bias-induced Co-Si films," Thin Solid Films 292, 31-39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

GSOLVER V4.2b, Grating Solver Development Co., Allen, Texas.

E. Spiller, Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE Press, 1994).

D. C. Koningsberger, X-Ray Absorption: Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES, R. Prins, ed. (Wiley, 1988).

J. C. Fuggle and J. E. Inglesfield, Unoccupied Electronic States: Fundamentals for XANES, EELS, IPS and BIS (Springer, 1992).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

First-order Bragg reflectivities calculated for various multilayer mirrors. A 6.64   nm period length and 30 periods were assumed for the multilayers. Calculations are made for s-polarized x rays and ideal multilayer structures. The incidence angles were varied with the photon energy to satisfy the Bragg condition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a multilayer grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry of the experimental setup for efficiency measurements. α, incidence angle; β, diffraction angle; θ D , detector angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured diffraction efficiencies of the W∕C and Co / SiO 2 multilayer gratings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and calculated efficiencies are compared for the Co / SiO 2 multilayer grating. Results for the zeroth and first diffraction orders ( m = 0 , + 1 ) are shown. The symbols show the measured diffraction efficiencies and the curves indicate the calculated diffraction efficiencies with various Debye–Waller factors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured and calculated efficiencies are compared for the W∕C multilayer grating. Results for the zeroth and first diffraction orders ( m = 0 , + 1 ) are shown. The symbols show the measured diffraction efficiencies and the curves indicate the calculated diffraction efficiencies with various Debye–Waller factors.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = R 0 exp [ ( 4 π σ cos α / λ ) 2 ] ,
λ / 2 = 2 h cos α .

Metrics