Abstract

Chromatic dispersion of optical filters is characterized by what is believed to be novel broadband spectral interferometry, which is based on dual-wavelength heterodyne measurement of spectral phase. High phase stability is achieved by differential phase detection using two lasers for wavelength-swept probe and phase-tracking reference. The technique provides self-tracking interferometry by passive stabilization of optical phase and allows real-time measurement of spectral phase and group delay with a low phase drift of less than 0.04π. A fiber Bragg grating and a thin-film filter are characterized by this method.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of the dispersion of multiple fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 230-232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Ogawa and T. Lay, "Broadband self-tracking fiber interferometer with 1-GHz spectral resolution and 1-s measurement time," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuO7.

2001 (1)

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of the dispersion of multiple fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 230-232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Nagamuna and H. Yasaka, "Group delay and α-parameter measurement of 1.3 μm semiconductor traveling-wave optical amplifier using the interferometric method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1280-1287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

L. G. Cohen, "Comparison of single-mode fiber dispersion measurement techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 958-966 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, "Phase-shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1509-1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Cohen, L. G.

L. G. Cohen, "Comparison of single-mode fiber dispersion measurement techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 958-966 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Costa, B.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, "Phase-shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1509-1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, S. D.

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of the dispersion of multiple fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 230-232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C. A.

Hoanca, B.

A. E. Willner and B. Hoanca, "Fixed and tunable management of fiber chromatic dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-B: Systems and Impairments, I.P.Kaminow and T.Li, eds. (Academic, 2002), Chap. 14.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laude, J.-P.

J.-P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications (Artech House, 2002).

Lay, T.

K. Ogawa and T. Lay, "Broadband self-tracking fiber interferometer with 1-GHz spectral resolution and 1-s measurement time," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuO7.

Li, K. D.

Mazzoni, D.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, "Phase-shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1509-1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nagamuna, K.

K. Nagamuna and H. Yasaka, "Group delay and α-parameter measurement of 1.3 μm semiconductor traveling-wave optical amplifier using the interferometric method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1280-1287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, K.

K. Ogawa and T. Lay, "Broadband self-tracking fiber interferometer with 1-GHz spectral resolution and 1-s measurement time," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuO7.

Pearson, N. M.

Puleo, M.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, "Phase-shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1509-1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of the dispersion of multiple fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 230-232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vezzoni, E.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, "Phase-shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1509-1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner and B. Hoanca, "Fixed and tunable management of fiber chromatic dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-B: Systems and Impairments, I.P.Kaminow and T.Li, eds. (Academic, 2002), Chap. 14.

Yasaka, H.

K. Nagamuna and H. Yasaka, "Group delay and α-parameter measurement of 1.3 μm semiconductor traveling-wave optical amplifier using the interferometric method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1280-1287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, "Phase-shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1509-1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagamuna and H. Yasaka, "Group delay and α-parameter measurement of 1.3 μm semiconductor traveling-wave optical amplifier using the interferometric method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1280-1287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of the dispersion of multiple fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 230-232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. G. Cohen, "Comparison of single-mode fiber dispersion measurement techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 958-966 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Ogawa and T. Lay, "Broadband self-tracking fiber interferometer with 1-GHz spectral resolution and 1-s measurement time," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 88 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuO7.

A. E. Willner and B. Hoanca, "Fixed and tunable management of fiber chromatic dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-B: Systems and Impairments, I.P.Kaminow and T.Li, eds. (Academic, 2002), Chap. 14.

J.-P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications (Artech House, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

STINGRAY setup for real-time measurement and display of spectral magnitude phase Δ Φ ( ν ) and group delay Δ τ ( ν ) . AOFS, acousto-optic frequency shifter; DUT, device under test; PC, polarization controller; PD, photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral fringes due to 2.5   cm excess in fiber length in the sample path after measurements with a single sweep and an average of 135 sweeps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase drift without rejection of common phase fluctuation in a single-beam heterodyne fiber interferometer (untracked) and with the rejection in STINGRAY (tracked). The data points are circled in the tracked case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral power, phase, and group delay in a FBG.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral power, phase, and group delay in a TFF.

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