Abstract

We present a simple method to correct for nonlinearities in the detection of terahertz (THz) transients by electro-optic sampling. The THz-induced phase shift of the optical probe beam is calibrated with an additional biasing phase from a variable wave plate. All the parameters that are needed for the determination of this phase shift can be directly measured, which makes the method insensitive to errors resulting from residual birefringences of the electro-optic material or imperfections of the wave plate. We show that the THz-induced phase shift is correctly revealed for a wide range of the biasing phase.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1186-1191 (2004).
  6. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and T. Wenckebach, "Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313-317 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1186-1191 (2004).

2003 (1)

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and T. Wenckebach, "Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, H. J.

Berry, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biaggio, I.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boden, E. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, M.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günter, P.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1186-1191 (2004).

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koeberg, M.

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koide, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T.-M.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, A.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Minami, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nienhuys, H.-K.

Ogawa, Y.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1186-1191 (2004).

Pan, F.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phelps, P. D.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Schall, M.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siebbeles, L. D. A.

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, K. R.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuno, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, G. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1186-1191 (2004).

Wenckebach, T.

Winnewisser, C.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Yakymyshyn, C. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zinovev, N. N.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1186-1191 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L414-L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. M. Schins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Ultrafast charge generation in a semiconducting polymer with THz emission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 70, 033202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E. 53, 3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of EO sampling. The arrows and ellipses indicate the polarization state of the probe beam at the given positions. The dashed lines are the main axes of the compensator and of the EO crystal in the presence of Thz field E, which has the same linear polarization as the probe beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio R(E) from Eq. (4) as a function of delay time t of the same THz field for six different compensator settings, i.e., six different values of ϕ c , in logarithmic scale. For three of the waveforms, the sign of the induced modulation is inverted because ϕ c < 0 . The THz pulses were generated by optical rectification in a 0.69  mm thick crystal of the nonlinear organic crystal DAST and detected in L = 0.5  mm of ZnTe. The laser pulses had a duration of 150  fs and a wavelength λ of 776  nm . The experimental setup has been described elsewhere (Ref. 11).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representation of the electric fields E ( t ) of the THz wave with the same six biasing phases, ϕ c as in Fig. 2, calculated using Eqs. (3) and (7).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modulation depth [ R ( E ) R 0 ] / R 0 as a function of R 0 according to Eq. (6) for the peak in Fig. 3 at t = 0.2  ps . Positive values: 0 < ϕ c < π ; negative values: π < ϕ c < 0 . The theoretical curve is from Eq. (6) with the fitted parameter ϕ T ( E ) = ± 0.052 for the positive and the negative branches, respectively, and the independently measured amplitude ratio a h / a v = 0.74 . Upper x scale: The total biasing phase shift ϕ c , calculated from R 0 using Eq. (5).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S h ( E ) = a h sin 2 [ ϕ T ( E ) + ϕ c 2 ] + b h ,
S v ( E ) = a v cos 2 [ ϕ T ( E ) + ϕ c 2 ] + b v .
ϕ T ( E ) = 2 π L λ n 3 r 41 E ,
R ( E ) = S h ( E ) b h S v ( E ) b v = a h a v tan 2 [ ϕ T ( E ) + ϕ c 2 ] .
tan   ϕ c 2 = a v a h R 0 ,
R ( E ) = a h a v { R 0 ( a v / a h ) + tan [ ϕ T ( E ) / 2 ] 1 R 0 ( a v / a h ) tan [ ϕ T ( E ) / 2 ] } 2 .
ϕ T ( E ) = 2 arctan [ a h a v R ( E ) R 0 a h / a v + R 0 R ( E ) ] .
ϕ T ( E ) = 2 arctan [ a h a v R ( E ) + R 0 a h / a v R 0 R ( E ) ] .

Metrics