Abstract

Because of the limitation of manufacturing capability, free-form glass optics cannot be produced in a large volume using traditional processes such as grinding, lapping, and polishing. Very recently compression molding of glass optics became a viable manufacturing process for the high-volume production of precision glass optical components. An ultraprecision diamond-turning machine retrofitted with a fast tool servo was used to fabricate a free-form optical mold on a nickel-plated surface. A nonuniform rational B-spline trajectory generator was developed to calculate the computer numerical control machine tool path. A specially formulated glass with low transition temperature (Tg) was used, since the nickel alloy mold cannot withstand the high temperatures required for regular optical glasses. We describe the details of this process, from optical surface geometry, mold making, molding experiment, to lens measurement.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. S. D. Jacobs, "Innovations in polishing of precision optics," in International Progress on Advanced Optics and Sensors, H. Ohmori and H. M. Shimizi, eds. (Universal Academy Press, 2003), pp. 3-14.
  18. R. Fletcher, Practical Methods of Optimization, Vol. 1 of Unconstrained Optimization, Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Scotland (Wiley, 1980).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and M. Heselhaus, "Komplexe optiken aus der presse," Photonik 4, 71-73 (2004), in German.

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

Y. D. Li and P. H. Gu, "Free-form surface inspection techniques state of the art review," Comput. Aided Des. 36, 1395-1417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and M. Heselhaus, "Komplexe optiken aus der presse," Photonik 4, 71-73 (2004), in German.

S. S. Sherif, W. T. Cathey, and E. R. Dowski, "Phase plate to extend the depth of field of incoherent hybrid imaging systems," Appl. Opt. 43, 2709-2721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

R. R. Shannon, J. P. Mills, H. M. Pollicove, P. A. Trotta, and L. N. Durvasula, "Optics that fit," Photonics Spectra 97, 86-88 (2001).

2000 (1)

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

L. W. Alvarez, "Development of variable-focus lenses and a new refractor," J Am. Optom. Assoc. 49, 24-29 (1978).

1950 (1)

Alvarez, L. W.

L. W. Alvarez, "Development of variable-focus lenses and a new refractor," J Am. Optom. Assoc. 49, 24-29 (1978).

L. W. Alvarez, "Variable-power lens and system," U.S. patent 3,507,565 (21 April 1970).

Andrysick, C. A.

Autschbach, L.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Bingham, R. G.

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brecher, C.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Brinksmeier, E.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Brooks, D.

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, L. L.

Cathey, W. T.

Dörner, D.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Dowski, E. R.

Durvasula, L. N.

R. R. Shannon, J. P. Mills, H. M. Pollicove, P. A. Trotta, and L. N. Durvasula, "Optics that fit," Photonics Spectra 97, 86-88 (2001).

Firestone, G. C.

Fletcher, R.

R. Fletcher, Practical Methods of Optimization, Vol. 1 of Unconstrained Optimization, Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Scotland (Wiley, 1980).

Freeman, R.

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, T. W.

Grewell, D.

D. Grewell, "Modeling of molecular healing for micro-laser welding of plastics with diffractive optical elements as spatial modulators," Ph.D. dissertation (Ohio State University, 2005).

Gu, P. H.

Y. D. Li and P. H. Gu, "Free-form surface inspection techniques state of the art review," Comput. Aided Des. 36, 1395-1417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hennig, J.

M. Weck, J. Hennig, and O. Wetter, "Long stroke fast tool servo with dynamic mass compensation and hydrostatic bearings," in Proceedings of Euspen Conference, Aachen (2003).

Heselhaus, M.

F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and M. Heselhaus, "Komplexe optiken aus der presse," Photonik 4, 71-73 (2004), in German.

Hujar, R. M.

Itoh, A.

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

S. D. Jacobs, "Innovations in polishing of precision optics," in International Progress on Advanced Optics and Sensors, H. Ohmori and H. M. Shimizi, eds. (Universal Academy Press, 2003), pp. 3-14.

Keller, H. B.

Keller, J. B.

Kim, D. H.

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klocke, F.

F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and M. Heselhaus, "Komplexe optiken aus der presse," Photonik 4, 71-73 (2004), in German.

Kobayashi, T.

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komatsuda, H.

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuki, M.

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lange, S.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Li, Y. D.

Y. D. Li and P. H. Gu, "Free-form surface inspection techniques state of the art review," Comput. Aided Des. 36, 1395-1417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maschmeyer, R. O.

Meissner, H. E.

Mills, J. P.

R. R. Shannon, J. P. Mills, H. M. Pollicove, P. A. Trotta, and L. N. Durvasula, "Optics that fit," Photonics Spectra 97, 86-88 (2001).

Muschaweck, J.

Nicholson, B. W.

Parker, C. J.

Pfeifer, T.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Piegel, L.

L. Piegel and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book (Springer-Verlag, 1997).

Plummer, W. T.

Pollicove, H. M.

R. R. Shannon, J. P. Mills, H. M. Pollicove, P. A. Trotta, and L. N. Durvasula, "Optics that fit," Photonics Spectra 97, 86-88 (2001).

Pongs, G.

F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and M. Heselhaus, "Komplexe optiken aus der presse," Photonik 4, 71-73 (2004), in German.

Ries, H.

Riley, D.

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, L. M.

Shannon, R. R.

R. R. Shannon, J. P. Mills, H. M. Pollicove, P. A. Trotta, and L. N. Durvasula, "Optics that fit," Photonics Spectra 97, 86-88 (2001).

Sherif, S. S.

Shibada, N.

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takino, H.

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tiller, W.

L. Piegel and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book (Springer-Verlag, 1997).

Tomhe, Y.

Y. Tomhe, "Machining of freeform optical surfaces by slow slide," in Proceedings of the American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), 18th Annual Meeting (ASPE, 2003).

Trotta, P. A.

R. R. Shannon, J. P. Mills, H. M. Pollicove, P. A. Trotta, and L. N. Durvasula, "Optics that fit," Photonics Spectra 97, 86-88 (2001).

Vozenilek, E. F.

Walker, D. D.

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weck, M.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

M. Weck, J. Hennig, and O. Wetter, "Long stroke fast tool servo with dynamic mass compensation and hydrostatic bearings," in Proceedings of Euspen Conference, Aachen (2003).

M. Weck, "New structured air bearings without nozzles," in Proceedings 1st Euspen Conference, Bremen, Germany (1999).

Wetter, O.

M. Weck, J. Hennig, and O. Wetter, "Long stroke fast tool servo with dynamic mass compensation and hydrostatic bearings," in Proceedings of Euspen Conference, Aachen (2003).

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Winterschladen, M.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Yi, A. Y.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Comput. Aided Des. (1)

Y. D. Li and P. H. Gu, "Free-form surface inspection techniques state of the art review," Comput. Aided Des. 36, 1395-1417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J Am. Optom. Assoc. (1)

L. W. Alvarez, "Development of variable-focus lenses and a new refractor," J Am. Optom. Assoc. 49, 24-29 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Takino, T. Kobayashi, N. Shibada, M. Kuki, A. Itoh, and H. Komatsuda, "Fabrication of a complex-shaped mirror for an extreme ultraviolet lithography illumination system," Opt. Eng. 42, 2676-2682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Spectra (1)

R. R. Shannon, J. P. Mills, H. M. Pollicove, P. A. Trotta, and L. N. Durvasula, "Optics that fit," Photonics Spectra 97, 86-88 (2001).

Photonik (1)

F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and M. Heselhaus, "Komplexe optiken aus der presse," Photonik 4, 71-73 (2004), in German.

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. G. Bingham, D. D. Walker, D. H. Kim, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, and D. Riley, "Novel automated process for freeform surfaces," in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093,445-450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

D. Grewell, "Modeling of molecular healing for micro-laser welding of plastics with diffractive optical elements as spatial modulators," Ph.D. dissertation (Ohio State University, 2005).

Toshiba High Precision Machine Tools, Toshiba Product Information Brochure (Shizuoka, Japan, 2001).

A. Y. Yi, "Optical fabrication," in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, P. K. Mallick, ed. (Dekker, 2003).

Y. Tomhe, "Machining of freeform optical surfaces by slow slide," in Proceedings of the American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), 18th Annual Meeting (ASPE, 2003).

L. W. Alvarez, "Variable-power lens and system," U.S. patent 3,507,565 (21 April 1970).

M. Weck, J. Hennig, and O. Wetter, "Long stroke fast tool servo with dynamic mass compensation and hydrostatic bearings," in Proceedings of Euspen Conference, Aachen (2003).

M. Weck, "New structured air bearings without nozzles," in Proceedings 1st Euspen Conference, Bremen, Germany (1999).

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, "Manufacturing of free-form surfaces in optical quality using an integrated NURBS data interface," in Proceedings of the ASPE Winter Topical Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

L. Piegel and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book (Springer-Verlag, 1997).

S. D. Jacobs, "Innovations in polishing of precision optics," in International Progress on Advanced Optics and Sensors, H. Ohmori and H. M. Shimizi, eds. (Universal Academy Press, 2003), pp. 3-14.

R. Fletcher, Practical Methods of Optimization, Vol. 1 of Unconstrained Optimization, Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Scotland (Wiley, 1980).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a lens molding process. (a) Lens molding, annealing, and release. (b) Plot showing mold position (in gray) and temperature history (in black).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of illumination principle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional design for a fast tool servo.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CNC tool path.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Finished nickel mold.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Free-form lens molding conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Molding results: (a) targeted design surface, (b) molded lens surface, (c) error.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Image reconstruction using the CMM measurement.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface roughness measured from the nickel mold.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Surface roughness measured from the molded glass lens.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Image formed by the molded free-form optics.

Equations (5)

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( S x , S y ) Newton ( u , v ) analytical ( S z ) .
| r ( u , v ) | 2 = | [ S x ( u , v ) S y ( u , v ) ] [ X w Y w ] | 2 .
κ i = [ f ( u i , v i ) g ( u i , v i ) ] = [ r ( u i , v i ) u S ( u i , v i ) r ( u i , v i ) v S ( u i , v i ) ] = 0 ,
[ u i + 1 v i + 1 ] = J i     1 κ i + [ u i v i ] ,
J i = [ u f v f u g v g ] .

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