Abstract

We have designed and fabricated a 2D photonic crystal (PhC) asymmetric Mach–Zehnder (M-Z) device structure using W1 channel waveguides oriented along ΓK directions in silicon-on-insulator material. The asymmetric structure was designed using a PhC lattice with different filling factors. The asymmetry is obtained as a difference of two periods in the physical path length (ΔL=2a) between the arms, and it was sufficient to produce a π phase shift in the region of operation around λ=1500nm. The asymmetric M-Z structure is more sensitive than a symmetric M-Z structure to changes in the refractive index and therefore becomes an interesting platform for switching and sensor devices.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. F. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Status Solidi 197, 688-702 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 405-407 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. T. Tinker and J. B. Lee, "Thermal and optical simulation of a photonic crystal light modulator based on the thermo-optic shift of the cut-off frequency," Opt. Express 13, 7174-7188 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).
  10. Fimmwave software by Photon Design, http://www.photond.com.
  11. E. Camargo, A. S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 376-381 (2003).
  12. E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure," Opt. Express 12, 588-592 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. T. Tinker and J. B. Lee, "Thermal and optical simulation of a photonic crystal light modulator based on the thermo-optic shift of the cut-off frequency," Opt. Express 13, 7174-7188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure," Opt. Express 12, 588-592 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

T. F. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Status Solidi 197, 688-702 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 405-407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Camargo, E.

E. Camargo, A. S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 376-381 (2003).

Camargo, E. A.

E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure," Opt. Express 12, 588-592 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, J. R.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. J.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chong, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure," Opt. Express 12, 588-592 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R. M.

E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure," Opt. Express 12, 588-592 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Camargo, A. S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 376-381 (2003).

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[Crossref]

Griol, A.

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 405-407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Jugessur, A. S.

E. Camargo, A. S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 376-381 (2003).

Kim, W. J.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Status Solidi 197, 688-702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuang, W.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. B.

M. T. Tinker and J. B. Lee, "Thermal and optical simulation of a photonic crystal light modulator based on the thermo-optic shift of the cut-off frequency," Opt. Express 13, 7174-7188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marshall, W. K.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marti, J.

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 405-407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 405-407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntakis, I.

E. Camargo, A. S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 376-381 (2003).

O'Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O'Brien, J. D.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sanchis, P.

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 405-407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuppert, B.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shih, M. H.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tinker, M. T.

M. T. Tinker and J. B. Lee, "Thermal and optical simulation of a photonic crystal light modulator based on the thermo-optic shift of the cut-off frequency," Opt. Express 13, 7174-7188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yukawa, H.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zinke, T.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and W. K. Marshall, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure," Opt. Express 12, 588-592 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tinker and J. B. Lee, "Thermal and optical simulation of a photonic crystal light modulator based on the thermo-optic shift of the cut-off frequency," Opt. Express 13, 7174-7188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 405-407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

T. F. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Status Solidi 197, 688-702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Fimmwave software by Photon Design, http://www.photond.com.

E. Camargo, A. S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 376-381 (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of the asymmetric PhC M-Z with Nichrome film electrodes on both arms of the structure. The 2D PhC arm regions in the micrograph are covered by the electrode films. Insets, geometric path length difference of the asymmetric M-Z shorter and longer arms, shown as the highlighted hole markers. The PhC device region is almost completely surrounded by trenches that are intended to impede heat flow out of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured characteristic transmission spectra of the asymmetric PhC channel guide M-Z structure at three different levels of power applied to the structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized optical power versus electrical switching power measured at λ = 1540 nm.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P π = Δ T σ Si O 2 ( W th L th ) / d Si O 2 = 28   mW,

Metrics