Abstract

We evaluate vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) reliability for next-generation high-productivity computers wherein several hundreds of terabits of bandwidth are envisioned. VCSEL failure rates are modeled, and an empirical relationship for VCSEL scaling versus bit rate and aperture is presented to explore the reliability of VCSEL-based links. The effects of VSCEL sparing, water cooling, and redundancy at the system level are analyzed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. van der Steen and Jack J. Dongarra, "Overview of recent supercomputers," http://www.top500.org.
  2. P. A. Tobias and D. C. Trindade, Applied Reliability (CRC Press, 1995), Chap. 2.
  3. S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, "Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013-1019 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R. W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, "Reliability of oxide VCSELs at emcore," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., (2004), Proc. SPIE 5364,34-46 (2004).
  5. J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).
  6. D. K. McElfresh, L. D. Lopez, R. Melanson, and D. Vacar, "VCSEL reliability--a user's perspective," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,101-108 (2005).
  7. C. Carlsson, H. Martinsson, R. Schatz, J. Halonen, and A. Larsson, "Analog modulation properties of oxide confined VCSELs at microwave frequencies," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1740-1749 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.
  9. L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic, Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995), Chap. 2.
  10. B. Hawkins, R. Hawthorne, J. Guenter, J. Tatum, and J. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 540-550.
  11. J. R. Black, "Electromigration failure models in aluminum metallization for semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 57, 1587-1594 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A 10 year VCSEL lifetime is often considered adequate for many systems applications because it exceeds the useful life of many telecom-datacom systems. For more insight, see, for example, the link: http://www.screamingapple.com/interviews/agilent.asp?bhcd2=1107698014.
  13. C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.
  14. R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

2003

2002

1969

J. R. Black, "Electromigration failure models in aluminum metallization for semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 57, 1587-1594 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aeby, I.

C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R. W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, "Reliability of oxide VCSELs at emcore," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., (2004), Proc. SPIE 5364,34-46 (2004).

Banas, J. J.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

Biard, J.

B. Hawkins, R. Hawthorne, J. Guenter, J. Tatum, and J. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 540-550.

Black, J. R.

J. R. Black, "Electromigration failure models in aluminum metallization for semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 57, 1587-1594 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, C.

Chamberlin, D.

Chow, A.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Cohen, D.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic, Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995), Chap. 2.

Cook, C.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic, Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995), Chap. 2.

Cunningham, J. E.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Dongarra, Jack J.

A. J. van der Steen and Jack J. Dongarra, "Overview of recent supercomputers," http://www.top500.org.

Drost, R.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Forrest, C.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Ger, G.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Girolami, G.

Goossen, K.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Guenin, B.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Guenter, J.

B. Hawkins, R. Hawthorne, J. Guenter, J. Tatum, and J. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 540-550.

Guenter, J. K.

J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).

Halonen, J.

Hammons, B. E.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

Hargrove, A.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Hawkins, B.

B. Hawkins, R. Hawthorne, J. Guenter, J. Tatum, and J. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 540-550.

Hawkins, B. M.

J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).

Hawthorne, R.

B. Hawkins, R. Hawthorne, J. Guenter, J. Tatum, and J. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 540-550.

Hawthorne, R. A.

J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).

Helms, C.

C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R. W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, "Reliability of oxide VCSELs at emcore," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., (2004), Proc. SPIE 5364,34-46 (2004).

Herrick, R. W.

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, "Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013-1019 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R. W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, "Reliability of oxide VCSELs at emcore," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., (2004), Proc. SPIE 5364,34-46 (2004).

Hietala, V. M.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

Ho, R.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Hou, H. Q.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

Jan, W.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Johnson, R. H.

J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).

Kilcoyne, S. P.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

Kim, H.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Kim, S.

Krause, R.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Larsson, A.

Lauterbach, G.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Lear, K. L.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

Lopez, L. D.

D. K. McElfresh, L. D. Lopez, R. Melanson, and D. Vacar, "VCSEL reliability--a user's perspective," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,101-108 (2005).

Luo, W.

C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R. W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, "Reliability of oxide VCSELs at emcore," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., (2004), Proc. SPIE 5364,34-46 (2004).

Manges, M.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Martinsson, H.

Mathes, D. T.

J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).

Mayonte, M.

McElfresh, D. K.

D. K. McElfresh, L. D. Lopez, R. Melanson, and D. Vacar, "VCSEL reliability--a user's perspective," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,101-108 (2005).

McHugo, S.

Melanson, R.

D. K. McElfresh, L. D. Lopez, R. Melanson, and D. Vacar, "VCSEL reliability--a user's perspective," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,101-108 (2005).

Morrissey, M.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Ochiai, M.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

Perinpanayagam, M.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Persuad, A.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Rosner, S. J.

Schatz, R.

Shevchuk, G.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Sinyansky, V.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

Sutherland, I.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Tatum, J.

B. Hawkins, R. Hawthorne, J. Guenter, J. Tatum, and J. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 540-550.

Tatum, J. A.

J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).

Tobias, P. A.

P. A. Tobias and D. C. Trindade, Applied Reliability (CRC Press, 1995), Chap. 2.

Tourancheau, B.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Trindade, D. C.

P. A. Tobias and D. C. Trindade, Applied Reliability (CRC Press, 1995), Chap. 2.

Vacar, D.

D. K. McElfresh, L. D. Lopez, R. Melanson, and D. Vacar, "VCSEL reliability--a user's perspective," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,101-108 (2005).

van der Steen, A. J.

A. J. van der Steen and Jack J. Dongarra, "Overview of recent supercomputers," http://www.top500.org.

Widjaja, W.

Xie, S.

Yuen, A.

C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R. W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, "Reliability of oxide VCSELs at emcore," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., (2004), Proc. SPIE 5364,34-46 (2004).

Zingher, A.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

Zolper, J. C.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Proc. IEEE

J. R. Black, "Electromigration failure models in aluminum metallization for semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 57, 1587-1594 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other

A 10 year VCSEL lifetime is often considered adequate for many systems applications because it exceeds the useful life of many telecom-datacom systems. For more insight, see, for example, the link: http://www.screamingapple.com/interviews/agilent.asp?bhcd2=1107698014.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. Ger, K. Goossen, W. Jan, H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persuad, G. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," in Proceedings IEEE JSTQE (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 9, pp. 387-399.

R. Drost, C. Forrest, B. Guenin, R. Ho, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. Cohen, J. E. Cunningham, B. Tourancheau, A. Zingher, A. Chow, G. Lauterbach, and I. Sutherland, "Challenges in building a flat-bandwidth memory hierarchy for a large-scale computer with proximity communication," in Proceedings of the IEEE Hot Interconnects Symposium, Palo Alto (IEEE, August, 2005).

A. J. van der Steen and Jack J. Dongarra, "Overview of recent supercomputers," http://www.top500.org.

P. A. Tobias and D. C. Trindade, Applied Reliability (CRC Press, 1995), Chap. 2.

K. L. Lear, V. M. Hietala, H. Q. Hou, M. Ochiai, J. J. Banas, B. E. Hammons, J. C. Zolper, and S. P. Kilcoyne, "Small and large signal modulation of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Vol. 15 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 69-74.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic, Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995), Chap. 2.

B. Hawkins, R. Hawthorne, J. Guenter, J. Tatum, and J. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," in Proceedings of the 52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 540-550.

C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R. W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, "Reliability of oxide VCSELs at emcore," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., (2004), Proc. SPIE 5364,34-46 (2004).

J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, R. A. Hawthorne III, R. H. Johnson, D. T. Mathes, and B. M. Hawkins, "A plot twist: the continuing story of VCSELs at AOC," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,20-34 (2005).

D. K. McElfresh, L. D. Lopez, R. Melanson, and D. Vacar, "VCSEL reliability--a user's perspective," in Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, C.Lei and K.D.Choquette, eds., Proc. SPIE 5737,101-108 (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Successive improvements in VCSEL reliability. The solid curves represent the three reliability regions (see text for details). The upward-pointing dark arrow below the horizontal axis points to the target product life. The right-pointing dark arrow to the left of the vertical axis points to the target maximum hazard rate marked by the dashed lines, and the gray arrows indicate the magnitude and direction of various reliability improvements with the dotted curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured variance of VCSEL failures for various array sizes. Singlets and linear arrays were measured from Vendor 1. Two-dimensional arrays were measured from Vendor 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

D parameter dependence on aperture diameter. Solid black squares, data from Vendor A; open circle, data from Vendor B; and open square, world record.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scaling of the MTTF versus aperture for Honeywell VCSELS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Module lifetime at 3.3   Gbits∕s with 72 channels versus sparing. σ = 0.80 in our analysis. The metallized ceramic module option would require VCSELs to be bonded directly to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor which is then water cooled; efficiency is 0.2 ° / W . MCM is a Multi-Chip-Module.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

System life as a function of link.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Characteristic Life (MTTF as Well) of an N Element Array Relative to that of an Individual VCSEL for Different Shape Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 MTTF of an N Element Array Relative to that of an Individual VCSEL a

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Table 3 σ of an N Element Array Relative to that of an Individual VCSEL

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R System = R Individual     Element .
R ( t ) = exp [ ( t η ) β ] ,
R array ( t ) = { exp [ ( t η ) β ] } N .
η array = η single N ( 1 / β ) ,
R ( t ) = 1 0 t 1 σ t 2 π e ( 1 / 2 σ 2 ) ( ln   t ln T 50 ) 2 d t ,
DR D ( I I th ) 1 / 2 ( Gbits / s / GHz ) ,
F j 2 e ( E a / k T ) .
MTTF ( d 4 I 2 ) e ( E a / k T ) ,
MTTF ( D DR ) 4 e ( E a / k T ) .

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