Abstract

The high bandwidth available in optoelectronic interconnects is often suggested as making them suitable for use in high-performance computer systems. However, it will be shown that for problems where message sizes are small, the latency of an optoelectronic interprocessor interconnect will place a lower limit on the number of processors required to produce performance enhancement over a traditional electronic interconnect.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Hennessy and D. Patterson, Computer Architecture: a Quantitative Approach, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 1996).
  3. J. V. Campenhout, "Computing structures and optical interconnects: friends or foes?" in Crucial Technologies for the Future of Computing, S. Bains and L. Irakliotis, eds., Proc. SPIE 4109, 206-216 (2000).
  4. I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. Russell, "Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high bandwidth optical interconnect," Comput. Concurrency: Practice Experience 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
  5. J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).
  7. G. Russell, "Analysis and modelling of optically interconnected computing systems," Ph.D. thesis (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, U.K., 2004).
  8. R. Raheem, W. Hossack, G. Russell, K. Symington, and J. Snowdon, "A reconfigurable optical demonstrator using large free space optical components," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2004 (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004).
  9. P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Symington, "Optically interconnected computing systems," Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, U.K., 2001).
  11. S. Kumpatla, J. Casswell, and J. Snowdon, "Bonding," in Proceedings of Information Photonics 2005 (Charlotte, N.C., 2005).
  12. J. Faist, "Optoelectronics: silicon shines on," Nature 433, 691-692 (2005).
  13. A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).
  14. Xilinx, Incorporated, "What is programmable logic?" (2005), http://www.xilinx.com/company/about/programmable.html.
  15. Y. Tissot, G. A. Russell, K. J. Symington, and J. F. Snowdon, "Optimization of reconfigurable optically interconnected systems for parallel computing," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 66, 238-247 (2006).
  16. J. Dambre, M. V. Marck, and J. V. Campenhout, "Quantifying the impact of optical interconnect latency on the performance of optoelectronic FPGAs," in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (1999).
  17. V. Kumar, A. Grama, A. Gupta, and G. Karypis, Introduction to Parallel Computing:Design and Analysis of Algorithms (Benjamin/Cummings, 1994).
  18. D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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2003

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M.

E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).

Baillie, D.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Barbieri, R.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benabes, P.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, E.

E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).

Bierhoff, T.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Campenhout, J. V.

J. V. Campenhout, "Computing structures and optical interconnects: friends or foes?" in Crucial Technologies for the Future of Computing, S. Bains and L. Irakliotis, eds., Proc. SPIE 4109, 206-216 (2000).

J. Dambre, M. V. Marck, and J. V. Campenhout, "Quantifying the impact of optical interconnect latency on the performance of optoelectronic FPGAs," in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (1999).

Casswell, J.

S. Kumpatla, J. Casswell, and J. Snowdon, "Bonding," in Proceedings of Information Photonics 2005 (Charlotte, N.C., 2005).

Dambre, J.

J. Dambre, M. V. Marck, and J. V. Campenhout, "Quantifying the impact of optical interconnect latency on the performance of optoelectronic FPGAs," in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (1999).

Davy, J.

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Desmulliez, M.

J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Dew, P.

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dew, P. M.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. Russell, "Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high bandwidth optical interconnect," Comput. Concurrency: Practice Experience 16, 1247-1270 (2004).

Dines, J.

J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Djemame, K.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. Russell, "Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high bandwidth optical interconnect," Comput. Concurrency: Practice Experience 16, 1247-1270 (2004).

Dobson, S.

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, "Optoelectronics: silicon shines on," Nature 433, 691-692 (2005).

Forbes, M.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Gauthier, A.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodeve, D.

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gourlay, I.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. Russell, "Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high bandwidth optical interconnect," Comput. Concurrency: Practice Experience 16, 1247-1270 (2004).

Gourlay, J.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Grama, A.

V. Kumar, A. Grama, A. Gupta, and G. Karypis, Introduction to Parallel Computing:Design and Analysis of Algorithms (Benjamin/Cummings, 1994).

Gupta, A.

V. Kumar, A. Grama, A. Gupta, and G. Karypis, Introduction to Parallel Computing:Design and Analysis of Algorithms (Benjamin/Cummings, 1994).

Hennessy, J.

J. Hennessy and D. Patterson, Computer Architecture: a Quantitative Approach, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 1996).

Hossack, W.

R. Raheem, W. Hossack, G. Russell, K. Symington, and J. Snowdon, "A reconfigurable optical demonstrator using large free space optical components," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2004 (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004).

Jahns, J.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jarczynski, M.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jesshope, C.

J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kara, M.

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karypis, G.

V. Kumar, A. Grama, A. Gupta, and G. Karypis, Introduction to Parallel Computing:Design and Analysis of Algorithms (Benjamin/Cummings, 1994).

Kirk, A.

E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).

Kumar, V.

V. Kumar, A. Grama, A. Gupta, and G. Karypis, Introduction to Parallel Computing:Design and Analysis of Algorithms (Benjamin/Cummings, 1994).

Kumpatla, S.

S. Kumpatla, J. Casswell, and J. Snowdon, "Bonding," in Proceedings of Information Photonics 2005 (Charlotte, N.C., 2005).

Lacroix, F.

E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).

Lukowicz, P.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marck, M. V.

J. Dambre, M. V. Marck, and J. V. Campenhout, "Quantifying the impact of optical interconnect latency on the performance of optoelectronic FPGAs," in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (1999).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nash, J.

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Patterson, D.

J. Hennessy and D. Patterson, Computer Architecture: a Quantitative Approach, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 1996).

Plant, D.

E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).

Pottier, F.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Prince, S.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Raheem, R.

R. Raheem, W. Hossack, G. Russell, K. Symington, and J. Snowdon, "A reconfigurable optical demonstrator using large free space optical components," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2004 (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004).

Russell, G.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Raheem, W. Hossack, G. Russell, K. Symington, and J. Snowdon, "A reconfigurable optical demonstrator using large free space optical components," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2004 (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004).

G. Russell, "Analysis and modelling of optically interconnected computing systems," Ph.D. thesis (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, U.K., 2004).

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. Russell, "Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high bandwidth optical interconnect," Comput. Concurrency: Practice Experience 16, 1247-1270 (2004).

Russell, G. A.

Y. Tissot, G. A. Russell, K. J. Symington, and J. F. Snowdon, "Optimization of reconfigurable optically interconnected systems for parallel computing," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 66, 238-247 (2006).

Schrage, J.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shafarenko, A.

J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Smith, G.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Snowdon, J.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Raheem, W. Hossack, G. Russell, K. Symington, and J. Snowdon, "A reconfigurable optical demonstrator using large free space optical components," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2004 (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004).

S. Kumpatla, J. Casswell, and J. Snowdon, "Bonding," in Proceedings of Information Photonics 2005 (Charlotte, N.C., 2005).

Snowdon, J. F.

Y. Tissot, G. A. Russell, K. J. Symington, and J. F. Snowdon, "Optimization of reconfigurable optically interconnected systems for parallel computing," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 66, 238-247 (2006).

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. Russell, "Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high bandwidth optical interconnect," Comput. Concurrency: Practice Experience 16, 1247-1270 (2004).

Stanley, C.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Süllau, W.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Symington, K.

R. Raheem, W. Hossack, G. Russell, K. Symington, and J. Snowdon, "A reconfigurable optical demonstrator using large free space optical components," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2004 (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004).

K. Symington, "Optically interconnected computing systems," Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, U.K., 2001).

Symington, K. J.

Y. Tissot, G. A. Russell, K. J. Symington, and J. F. Snowdon, "Optimization of reconfigurable optically interconnected systems for parallel computing," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 66, 238-247 (2006).

Taghizadeh, M.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Tissot, Y.

Y. Tissot, G. A. Russell, K. J. Symington, and J. F. Snowdon, "Optimization of reconfigurable optically interconnected systems for parallel computing," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 66, 238-247 (2006).

Tooley, F.

E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).

Tröster, G.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, I.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Vogele, B.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Waddie, A.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Wadsworth, C.

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Wilkinson, L.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Williams, R.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Wirz, M.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.-Y.

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Süllau, J. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput.

J. Dines, J. Snowdon, M. Desmulliez, A. Shafarenko, and C. Jesshope, "Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Goodeve, S. Dobson, J. Nash, J. Davy, P. Dew, M. Kara, and C. Wadsworth, "Towards a model for shared data abstraction with performance," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 49, 156-167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

Virtex-II Pro Platform FPGAs: Functional Description (Xilinx, Incorporated. 2003), DS083-2, v2.8.

ML310 User Guide (Xilinx, Incorporated, 2004), UG068, v1.1.1.

E. Bernier, F. Lacroix, M. Ayliffe, F. Tooley, D. Plant, and A. Kirk, "Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2000 (Quebec City, Canada, 2000).

G. Russell, "Analysis and modelling of optically interconnected computing systems," Ph.D. thesis (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, U.K., 2004).

R. Raheem, W. Hossack, G. Russell, K. Symington, and J. Snowdon, "A reconfigurable optical demonstrator using large free space optical components," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing 2004 (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004).

J. Hennessy and D. Patterson, Computer Architecture: a Quantitative Approach, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 1996).

J. V. Campenhout, "Computing structures and optical interconnects: friends or foes?" in Crucial Technologies for the Future of Computing, S. Bains and L. Irakliotis, eds., Proc. SPIE 4109, 206-216 (2000).

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. Russell, "Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high bandwidth optical interconnect," Comput. Concurrency: Practice Experience 16, 1247-1270 (2004).

K. Symington, "Optically interconnected computing systems," Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, U.K., 2001).

S. Kumpatla, J. Casswell, and J. Snowdon, "Bonding," in Proceedings of Information Photonics 2005 (Charlotte, N.C., 2005).

J. Faist, "Optoelectronics: silicon shines on," Nature 433, 691-692 (2005).

A. Walker, T.-Y. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, M. Forbes, S. Prince, D. Baillie, D. Neilson, R. Williams, L. Wilkinson, G. Smith, M. Desmulliez, G. Buller, M. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, and W. Sibbett, "Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 37, 2822-2830 (1998).

Xilinx, Incorporated, "What is programmable logic?" (2005), http://www.xilinx.com/company/about/programmable.html.

Y. Tissot, G. A. Russell, K. J. Symington, and J. F. Snowdon, "Optimization of reconfigurable optically interconnected systems for parallel computing," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 66, 238-247 (2006).

J. Dambre, M. V. Marck, and J. V. Campenhout, "Quantifying the impact of optical interconnect latency on the performance of optoelectronic FPGAs," in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Parallel Interconnects (1999).

V. Kumar, A. Grama, A. Gupta, and G. Karypis, Introduction to Parallel Computing:Design and Analysis of Algorithms (Benjamin/Cummings, 1994).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic consept of an OH showing an arbitrary interconnect pattern between processing nodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Diagram of one possible implementation of a free-space OH.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Four-processor reducing sum operation. Time is shown as running from left to right with the four processors shown top to bottom with their local total shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graph of processing costs. T elect , T CCN , and T SPA , normalized to the main processor speed; ω elec , for increasing numbers of processors in a network. Values assumed are M = 256 , N elec = 32 , B elect = 1   Gbit∕s , N SPA = 1 , B SPA = 10   Gbit∕s , L elec = L SPA = 100 ns , and ω elec = 1   Gflop∕s .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graph of processing costs T elect , T CCN , T SPA , and T NLP , normalized to the main processor speed; ω elec , for increasing numbers of processors in a network. Values assumed are M = 256 , N elec = 32 , B elect = 1   Gbit∕s , N SPA = 1 , B SPA = 10   Gbit∕s , L elec = L SPA = 100   ns , and ω elec = ω SPA = 1   Gflop∕s .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Graph of processing costs. T elect , T CCN , and T NLP , normalized to the main processor speed; ω elec for increasing numbers of processors in a network. Values assumed are M = 256 , N elec = 1 , B elect = 1   Gbit∕s , N SPA = 1 , B SPA = 10   Gbit∕s , L elec = L SPA = 1 0 0   ns , and ω elec = ω SPA = 1   Gflop∕s .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graph of L SPA as a fraction of L elec for networks of between p = 5 and p = 32 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Simulated time for bitwise rotation communication pattern for, from right to left, 1-, 4-, 8-, 64-bit-wide optical channels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated time for bitwise rotation communication pattern for 4-bit wide optical channels without cross-FPGA routing ( −+− ) , with cross-FPGA routing ( --×-- ) and fully electronic ( ... ... ) .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulated time for bitwise rotation communication pattern FFT algorithm. The dashed curve with the filled black squares is the total cost for the electronic interconnected system and the dotted curve with asterisks is the total cost for the optical case.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = L + M N B .
T = log 2 ( p ) ( 1 ω + L + M N B ) .
T = log 2 ( p ) ( 1 ω + M N B ) + γ L .
T elec = log 2 ( p ) ( 1 ω elec + M N elec B elec ) + p L elec .
T SPA = log 2 ( p ) ( 1 ω elec + M N elec B elec + M N SPA B SPA + 2 L elec + L SPA ) .
T NLP = 2 ( M N elec B elec + L elec + L SPA ) + [ log 2 ( p ) 1 ] × ( 1 ω SPA + M B SPA + L SPA ) + 1 ω elec .
L SPA < log 2 ( p ) 2 log 2 ( p ) + 1 L elec .

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