Abstract

Our objective is to perform a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of the short-pulse laser interaction with a tissue medium with the goal of tumor–cancer diagnostics. For a short-pulse laser source, the shape of the output signal is a function of the optical properties of the medium, and hence the scattered temporal optical signal helps in understanding the medium characteristics. Initially experiments are performed on tissue phantoms embedded with inhomogeneities to optimize the time-resolved optical detection scheme. Both the temporal and the spatial profiles of the scattered reflected and transmitted optical signals are compared with the numerical modeling results obtained by solving the transient radiative transport equation using the discrete ordinates technique. Next experiments are performed on in vitro rat tissue samples to characterize the interaction of light with skin layers and to validate the time-varying optical signatures with the numerical model. The numerical modeling results and the experimental measurements are in excellent agreement for the different parameters studied. The final step is to perform in vivo imaging of anesthetized rats with tumor-promoting agents injected inside skin tissues and of an anesthetized mouse with mammary tumors to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for detecting tumors in an animal model.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

D. K. Rao, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and P. K. Gupta, "Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering: studies on image contrast," Pramana J. Phys. 64, 229-238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu and P. F. Hsu, "Reverse Monte Carlo simulations of light pulse propagation in nonhomogeneous media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 93, 349-368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Masciotti, G. Abdoulaev, J. Hur, J. Papa, J. Bae, J. Huang, D. Yamashiro, J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, "Combined optical tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor bearing mice," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue VI, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 5693, 74-81 (2005).

2003 (5)

P. D. Acton and H. F. Kung, "Small animal imaging with high resolution single photon emission tomography," Nucl. Med. Biol. 30, 889-895 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Rajeswari, A. Jain, A. Sharma, D. Singh, N. R. Jagannathan, U. Sharma, and M. N. Degaonkar, "Evaluation of skin tumors by magnetic resonance imaging," Lab. Invest. 83, 1279-1283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rath, S. C. Mishra, P. Mahanta, U. K. Saha, and K. Mitra, "Discrete transfer method applied to transient radiative transfer problems in participating medium," Num. Heat Transfer , Part A 44, 183-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera," J. Phys. D 36, 1675-1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Das, A. Trivedi, K. Mitra, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Experimental and numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interaction with tissue phantoms containing inhomogeneities," Appl. Opt. 42, 5173-5180 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. Sakami, K. Mitra, and P. Hsu, "Analysis of light-pulse transport through two-dimensional scattering-absorbing media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 73, 169-179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, J. Aber, B. A. Garetz, and S. Kumar, "Monte Carlo simulation and experiments of pulsed radiative transfer," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 73, 159-168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacy, T. Collier, J. E. Price, S. Dharmawardhane, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real-time in vivo confocal imaging of mouse mammary tumors," Front. Biosci. 7, 137-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (9)

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biologic tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo and S. Kumar, "Discrete-ordinates solution of short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional turbid media," Appl. Opt. 40, 3156-3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, "Validity of the diffusion approximation in bio-optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6356-6366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Tualle, E. Tinet, and S. Avrillier, "New and easy way to perform time-resolved measurements of the light scattered by a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 189, 211-220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Tan and P. F. Hsu, "An integral formulation of transient radiative transfer," ASME J. Heat Transfer 123, 466-475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo and S. Kumar, "Radiation element method for transient hyperbolic radiative transfer in plane-parallel in homogenous media," Numer. Heat Transfer , Part B 39, 371-387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and A. Liebert, "High count rate multichannel TCSPC for optical tomography," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence, Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels and M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. A. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnieres, "In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41-51 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. A. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "Detection of objects hidden in highly scattering media using time-gated imaging methods," in Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Manipulation for Biological and Biomedical Applications, R. Alfano, P. Ho, and A. Chiou, eds., Proc. SPIE 4082, 261-264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wu and S. H. Wu, "Integral equation formulation for transient radiative transfer in an anisotropically scattering medium," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 2009-2020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

K. Mitra and S. Kumar, "Development and comparison of models for light pulse transport through scattering absorbing media," Appl. Opt. 38, 188-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Vo-Dinh and P. N. Mathur, "Optical diagnostic and therapeutic technologies in pulmonary medcine," in Interventional Bronchoscopy, C. T. Bolliger and P. N. Mathur, eds., Prog. Respir. Res. Basel Karger 30, 267-279 (1999).

S. K. Gayen and R. R. Alfano, "Sensing lesions in tissues with light," Opt. Express 4, 475-480 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (5)

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine: II. Modeling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hall, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Deply, "Imaging very-low-contrast objects in breastlike scattering media with a time-resolved method," Appl. Opt. 36, 7270-7276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. Demos, "Advances in optical biopsy and optical mammography," Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 838, 248-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klintenberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815-818 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnostics," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, "Time-gated viewing studies on tissue-like phantoms," Appl. Opt. 35, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, K. Mitra, and Y. Yamada, "Hyperbolic damped-wave models for transient light-pulse propagation in scattering media," Appl. Opt. 35, 3372-3378 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Imaging of optical inhomogeneities in highly diffusive media: discrimination between scattering and absorption contribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4162-4164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (8)

A. M. K. Nilsson, R. Berg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Measurements of optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy," Appl. Opt. 34, 4609-4619 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Heelscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "Influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Proskurin, Y. Yamada, and Y. Takahashi, "Absorption coefficient measurements of strongly scattering media using time-resolved transmittance of a short pulse in near-infrared wavelength range," Opt. Rev. 2, 292-297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency domain diffusing photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, "Light-tissue interaction and optical imaging in biomedicine," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. Heat Transfer 6, 1-59 (1995).

J. C. Hebden, "Imaging through scattering media using characteristics of the temporal distribution of transmitted laser pulses," Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 263-268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Q. Brewster and Y. Yamada, "Optical properties of thick, turbid media from picosecond time-resolved light scattering measurements," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 38, 2569-2581 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, "Simultaneous reconstruction of optical absorption and scattering maps in turbid media from near-infrared frequency-domain data," Opt. Lett. 20, 2128-2130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

E. Gratton, W. M. Mantulin, M. J. vande Ven, J. B. Fishkin, M. B. Maris, and B. Chance, "A novel approach to laser tomography," Bioimaging 1, 40-46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast laser-pulse transmission and imaging through biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 32, 554-558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank and D. T. Delpy, "Design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infrared imaging and spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847-853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplacia," Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 15-21 (1992).

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotee, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

B. Chance and A. Katzir, eds., "Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissue," Proc. SPIE 1431 (1991).

K. W. Berndt and J. R. Lakowicz, "Detection and localization of absorbers in scattering media using frequency domain principles," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissue, B. Chance and A. Katzis, eds., Proc. SPIE 1431, 149-160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (5)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, "Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation," Science 248, 990-993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzzola, K. M. O'Brien, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, and L. I. Deckelbaum, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa-detection of adenomatous transformation," Gastroenterology 99, 150-157 (1990).
[PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe the photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1987 (1)

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, and E. Opher, "Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE23, 1806-1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Abdoulaev, G.

J. Masciotti, G. Abdoulaev, J. Hur, J. Papa, J. Bae, J. Huang, D. Yamashiro, J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, "Combined optical tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor bearing mice," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue VI, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 5693, 74-81 (2005).

Aber, J.

Z. Guo, J. Aber, B. A. Garetz, and S. Kumar, "Monte Carlo simulation and experiments of pulsed radiative transfer," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 73, 159-168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Acton, P. D.

P. D. Acton and H. F. Kung, "Small animal imaging with high resolution single photon emission tomography," Nucl. Med. Biol. 30, 889-895 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. A. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "Detection of objects hidden in highly scattering media using time-gated imaging methods," in Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Manipulation for Biological and Biomedical Applications, R. Alfano, P. Ho, and A. Chiou, eds., Proc. SPIE 4082, 261-264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Gayen and R. R. Alfano, "Sensing lesions in tissues with light," Opt. Express 4, 475-480 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano and S. Demos, "Advances in optical biopsy and optical mammography," Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 838, 248-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast laser-pulse transmission and imaging through biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 32, 554-558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe the photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Sha, J. Chen, C. H. Liu, S. J. Wahl, and R. R. Alfano, "Pulsed and cw laser fluorescence spectra from cancerous, normal, and chemically treated normal human breast and lung tissues," Appl. Opt. 28, 2337-2342 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, and E. Opher, "Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE23, 1806-1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arride, S.

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. A.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. A. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine: II. Modeling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

J. M. Tualle, E. Tinet, and S. Avrillier, "New and easy way to perform time-resolved measurements of the light scattered by a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 189, 211-220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bae, J.

J. Masciotti, G. Abdoulaev, J. Hur, J. Papa, J. Bae, J. Huang, D. Yamashiro, J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, "Combined optical tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor bearing mice," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue VI, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 5693, 74-81 (2005).

Becker, W.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and A. Liebert, "High count rate multichannel TCSPC for optical tomography," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence, Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels and M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R.

Bergmann, A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and A. Liebert, "High count rate multichannel TCSPC for optical tomography," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence, Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels and M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, K. W.

K. W. Berndt and J. R. Lakowicz, "Detection and localization of absorbers in scattering media using frequency domain principles," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissue, B. Chance and A. Katzis, eds., Proc. SPIE 1431, 149-160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Beuthan, J.

O. Minet, G. Muller, and J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications (SPIE, 1998).

Blackman, R.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Boyce, G. A.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brewster, M. Q.

M. Q. Brewster and Y. Yamada, "Optical properties of thick, turbid media from picosecond time-resolved light scattering measurements," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 38, 2569-2581 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biologic tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency domain diffusing photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gratton, W. M. Mantulin, M. J. vande Ven, J. B. Fishkin, M. B. Maris, and B. Chance, "A novel approach to laser tomography," Bioimaging 1, 40-46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance and A. Katzir, eds., "Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissue," Proc. SPIE 1431 (1991).

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

Chen, J.

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biologic tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Sha, J. Chen, C. H. Liu, S. J. Wahl, and R. R. Alfano, "Pulsed and cw laser fluorescence spectra from cancerous, normal, and chemically treated normal human breast and lung tissues," Appl. Opt. 28, 2337-2342 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chernomordik, V.

Cheung, R. L. T.

Choy, D. S. J.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, and E. Opher, "Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE23, 1806-1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Collier, T.

A. A. Lacy, T. Collier, J. E. Price, S. Dharmawardhane, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real-time in vivo confocal imaging of mouse mammary tumors," Front. Biosci. 7, 137-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comelli, D.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera," J. Phys. D 36, 1675-1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Compton, C. C.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotee, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R. M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera," J. Phys. D 36, 1675-1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Imaging of optical inhomogeneities in highly diffusive media: discrimination between scattering and absorption contribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4162-4164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cutruzzola, F. W.

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzzola, K. M. O'Brien, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, and L. I. Deckelbaum, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa-detection of adenomatous transformation," Gastroenterology 99, 150-157 (1990).
[PubMed]

D'Andrea, C.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera," J. Phys. D 36, 1675-1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Das, C.

Deckelbaum, L. I.

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzzola, K. M. O'Brien, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, and L. I. Deckelbaum, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa-detection of adenomatous transformation," Gastroenterology 99, 150-157 (1990).
[PubMed]

Degaonkar, M. N.

M. R. Rajeswari, A. Jain, A. Sharma, D. Singh, N. R. Jagannathan, U. Sharma, and M. N. Degaonkar, "Evaluation of skin tumors by magnetic resonance imaging," Lab. Invest. 83, 1279-1283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. A. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. A. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank and D. T. Delpy, "Design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infrared imaging and spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847-853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S.

R. R. Alfano and S. Demos, "Advances in optical biopsy and optical mammography," Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 838, 248-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deply, D. T.

Deutsch, T. F.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotee, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dharmawardhane, S.

A. A. Lacy, T. Collier, J. E. Price, S. Dharmawardhane, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real-time in vivo confocal imaging of mouse mammary tumors," Front. Biosci. 7, 137-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doxtader, M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Enriquez, R.

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzzola, K. M. O'Brien, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, and L. I. Deckelbaum, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa-detection of adenomatous transformation," Gastroenterology 99, 150-157 (1990).
[PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplacia," Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 15-21 (1992).

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank and D. T. Delpy, "Design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infrared imaging and spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847-853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fishkin, J. B.

E. Gratton, W. M. Mantulin, M. J. vande Ven, J. B. Fishkin, M. B. Maris, and B. Chance, "A novel approach to laser tomography," Bioimaging 1, 40-46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplacia," Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 15-21 (1992).

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flotee, T. J.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotee, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisoli, J. K.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotee, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, M.

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galland, P. A.

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. A. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "Detection of objects hidden in highly scattering media using time-gated imaging methods," in Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Manipulation for Biological and Biomedical Applications, R. Alfano, P. Ho, and A. Chiou, eds., Proc. SPIE 4082, 261-264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gandjbakhche, A.

Garetz, B. A.

Z. Guo, J. Aber, B. A. Garetz, and S. Kumar, "Monte Carlo simulation and experiments of pulsed radiative transfer," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 73, 159-168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

Gossage, K.

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biologic tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goujon, D.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnieres, "In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41-51 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

E. Gratton, W. M. Mantulin, M. J. vande Ven, J. B. Fishkin, M. B. Maris, and B. Chance, "A novel approach to laser tomography," Bioimaging 1, 40-46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grosenick, D.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and A. Liebert, "High count rate multichannel TCSPC for optical tomography," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence, Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels and M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grosjean, P.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnieres, "In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41-51 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunbaum, F. A.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, "Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation," Science 248, 990-993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, J. Aber, B. A. Garetz, and S. Kumar, "Monte Carlo simulation and experiments of pulsed radiative transfer," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 73, 159-168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo and S. Kumar, "Discrete-ordinates solution of short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional turbid media," Appl. Opt. 40, 3156-3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo and S. Kumar, "Radiation element method for transient hyperbolic radiative transfer in plane-parallel in homogenous media," Numer. Heat Transfer , Part B 39, 371-387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

D. K. Rao, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and P. K. Gupta, "Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering: studies on image contrast," Pramana J. Phys. 64, 229-238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. J.

Hayes, G. B.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastroint. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J.

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. A. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gandjbakhche, V. Chernomordik, J. C. Hebden, and R. Nossal, "Time-dependent contrast functions for quantitative imaging in time-resolved transillumination experiments," Appl. Opt. 37, 1973-1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine: II. Modeling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hall, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Deply, "Imaging very-low-contrast objects in breastlike scattering media with a time-resolved method," Appl. Opt. 36, 7270-7276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, "Imaging through scattering media using characteristics of the temporal distribution of transmitted laser pulses," Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 263-268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heelscher, A. H.

A. H. Heelscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "Influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

J. Masciotti, G. Abdoulaev, J. Hur, J. Papa, J. Bae, J. Huang, D. Yamashiro, J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, "Combined optical tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor bearing mice," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue VI, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 5693, 74-81 (2005).

Hillman, E.

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
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Hillman, E. M. C.

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Z. M. Tan and P. F. Hsu, "An integral formulation of transient radiative transfer," ASME J. Heat Transfer 123, 466-475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G. C.

G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Sha, J. Chen, C. H. Liu, S. J. Wahl, and R. R. Alfano, "Pulsed and cw laser fluorescence spectra from cancerous, normal, and chemically treated normal human breast and lung tissues," Appl. Opt. 28, 2337-2342 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, and E. Opher, "Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE23, 1806-1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Imaging of optical inhomogeneities in highly diffusive media: discrimination between scattering and absorption contribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4162-4164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Toricelli, A.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera," J. Phys. D 36, 1675-1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Imaging of optical inhomogeneities in highly diffusive media: discrimination between scattering and absorption contribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4162-4164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, A.

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J. M. Tualle, E. Tinet, and S. Avrillier, "New and easy way to perform time-resolved measurements of the light scattered by a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 189, 211-220 (2001).
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C. Das, A. Trivedi, K. Mitra, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Experimental and numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interaction with tissue phantoms containing inhomogeneities," Appl. Opt. 42, 5173-5180 (2003).
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T. Vo-Dinh, Biomedical Photonics Handbook (CRC, 2003).
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Wabnitz, H.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and A. Liebert, "High count rate multichannel TCSPC for optical tomography," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence, Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels and M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagnieres, G.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnieres, "In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41-51 (2001).
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A. H. Heelscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "Influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
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Zellweger, M.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnieres, "In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41-51 (2001).
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Zinth, W.

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J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, "Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation," Science 248, 990-993 (1990).
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F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast laser-pulse transmission and imaging through biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 32, 554-558 (1993).
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C. Das, A. Trivedi, K. Mitra, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Experimental and numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interaction with tissue phantoms containing inhomogeneities," Appl. Opt. 42, 5173-5180 (2003).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Imaging of optical inhomogeneities in highly diffusive media: discrimination between scattering and absorption contribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4162-4164 (1996).
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ASME J. Heat Transfer (1)

Z. M. Tan and P. F. Hsu, "An integral formulation of transient radiative transfer," ASME J. Heat Transfer 123, 466-475 (2001).
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Bioimaging (1)

E. Gratton, W. M. Mantulin, M. J. vande Ven, J. B. Fishkin, M. B. Maris, and B. Chance, "A novel approach to laser tomography," Bioimaging 1, 40-46 (1993).
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Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2)

M. Q. Brewster and Y. Yamada, "Optical properties of thick, turbid media from picosecond time-resolved light scattering measurements," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 38, 2569-2581 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wu and S. H. Wu, "Integral equation formulation for transient radiative transfer in an anisotropically scattering medium," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 2009-2020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. (1)

S. Arride, J. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Sys. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnieres, "In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41-51 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera," J. Phys. D 36, 1675-1681 (2003).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (3)

X. Lu and P. F. Hsu, "Reverse Monte Carlo simulations of light pulse propagation in nonhomogeneous media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 93, 349-368 (2005).
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M. Sakami, K. Mitra, and P. Hsu, "Analysis of light-pulse transport through two-dimensional scattering-absorbing media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 73, 169-179 (2002).
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Z. Guo, J. Aber, B. A. Garetz, and S. Kumar, "Monte Carlo simulation and experiments of pulsed radiative transfer," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 73, 159-168 (2002).
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Lab. Invest. (1)

M. R. Rajeswari, A. Jain, A. Sharma, D. Singh, N. R. Jagannathan, U. Sharma, and M. N. Degaonkar, "Evaluation of skin tumors by magnetic resonance imaging," Lab. Invest. 83, 1279-1283 (2003).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotee, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
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P. D. Acton and H. F. Kung, "Small animal imaging with high resolution single photon emission tomography," Nucl. Med. Biol. 30, 889-895 (2003).
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Num. Heat Transfer (1)

P. Rath, S. C. Mishra, P. Mahanta, U. K. Saha, and K. Mitra, "Discrete transfer method applied to transient radiative transfer problems in participating medium," Num. Heat Transfer , Part A 44, 183-197 (2003).
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Z. Guo and S. Kumar, "Radiation element method for transient hyperbolic radiative transfer in plane-parallel in homogenous media," Numer. Heat Transfer , Part B 39, 371-387 (2001).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

J. M. Tualle, E. Tinet, and S. Avrillier, "New and easy way to perform time-resolved measurements of the light scattered by a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 189, 211-220 (2001).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

S. Proskurin, Y. Yamada, and Y. Takahashi, "Absorption coefficient measurements of strongly scattering media using time-resolved transmittance of a short pulse in near-infrared wavelength range," Opt. Rev. 2, 292-297 (1995).
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Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplacia," Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 15-21 (1992).

Phys. Med. Biol. (6)

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klintenberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815-818 (1997).
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J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
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S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine: II. Modeling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. A. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
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M. Firbank and D. T. Delpy, "Design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infrared imaging and spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847-853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Heelscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "Influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe the photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pramana J. Phys. (1)

D. K. Rao, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and P. K. Gupta, "Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering: studies on image contrast," Pramana J. Phys. 64, 229-238 (2005).
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Proc. SPIE (4)

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. A. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "Detection of objects hidden in highly scattering media using time-gated imaging methods," in Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Manipulation for Biological and Biomedical Applications, R. Alfano, P. Ho, and A. Chiou, eds., Proc. SPIE 4082, 261-264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and A. Liebert, "High count rate multichannel TCSPC for optical tomography," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence, Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels and M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Berndt and J. R. Lakowicz, "Detection and localization of absorbers in scattering media using frequency domain principles," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissue, B. Chance and A. Katzis, eds., Proc. SPIE 1431, 149-160 (1991).
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Science (1)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, "Image reconstruction of the interior of bodies that diffuse radiation," Science 248, 990-993 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

T. Vo-Dinh, Biomedical Photonics Handbook (CRC, 2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics (SPIE, 2000).

T. Vo-Dinh and P. N. Mathur, "Optical diagnostic and therapeutic technologies in pulmonary medcine," in Interventional Bronchoscopy, C. T. Bolliger and P. N. Mathur, eds., Prog. Respir. Res. Basel Karger 30, 267-279 (1999).

O. Minet, G. Muller, and J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications (SPIE, 1998).

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. Hsu, K. Mitra, and M. Sakami, "A Monte Carlo study of the transient radiative transfer within the one-dimensional multi-layered slab," presented at the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Orlando, Florida, 5-10 November 2000.

A. Sawetprawichkul, P. Hsu, and K. Mitra, "Parallel computing of three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of transient radiative transfer in participating media," presented at the 8th AIAA-ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, June 2002.

A. J. Welch and M. J. C. Van Gemert, eds., Optical Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, 1995).

J. Masciotti, G. Abdoulaev, J. Hur, J. Papa, J. Bae, J. Huang, D. Yamashiro, J. Kandel, and A. H. Hielscher, "Combined optical tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor bearing mice," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue VI, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 5693, 74-81 (2005).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of a tissue phantom containing the inhomogeneity used for experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of an experimental setup for the measurement of a reflected signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of variation of the scattering coefficient of an embedded inhomogeneity on temporal transmitted signals for tissue phantoms containing an inhomogeneity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of variation of the absorption coefficient of an embedded inhomogeneity on temporal reflected signals for tissue phantoms containing an inhomogeneity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial transmitted intensity distribution for a tissue phantom containing an inhomogeneity at different time instants.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial reflected intensity distributions for a tissue phantom containing an inhomogeneity at different time instants.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spatial transmitted and reflected signals for a tissue phantom containing an inhomogeneity at the time instant with the best contrast.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between spatial transmitted and reflected signals for a tissue phantom containing two inhomogeneities at the best time instant.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal reflected signals for freshly excised rat tissue samples.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Schematic of the scanning location of an anesthetized rat injected with a tumor-promoting agent.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temporal reflected intensities for different tumor locations in an anesthetized rat.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spatial reflected intensities for different tumor locations in an anesthetized rat.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Schematic of scanning locations on an anesthetized mouse with a mammary tumor.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Temporal reflected signals at different fiber-optic probe positions with respect to the mammary tumor location in anesthetized mice.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Spatial reflected signals at different time instants for a mouse with two mammary tumors.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) (a) Pixel representation of reflected signals for an anesthetized healthy mouse without a tumor. (b) 3D distribution of the reflected intensity for an anesthetized healthy mouse without a tumor.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) (a) Pixel representation of the reflected signals for an anesthetized mouse with two mammary tumors. (b) 3D distribution of the reflected intensity for an anesthetized mouse with two mammary tumors.

Equations (1)

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1 c I ( x , y , Ω , t ) t + μ I ( x , y , Ω , t ) x + η I ( x , y , Ω , t ) y + k e I ( x , y , Ω , t ) = k s 4 π 4 π Φ ( Ω , Ω ) I ( x , y , Ω , t ) d Ω + S ( x , y , Ω , t ) ,

Metrics