Abstract

Unattended fingerprint identification systems need to reject input attempts by a replica. Previously, we proposed detecting the color changes of a finger during an input action as a signature of liveliness. To improve its reliability, a dual-LED imaging system is investigated. It employs two LEDs with peak emissions at 530 and 630  nm to cover the spectral ranges where live fingers show characteristic changes. Using nine types of replicas and the live fingers of 42 participants, we have recorded and analyzed 153 input trials. The two groups of data are successfully separated by some defined criteria.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: don't get your finger burned," inProceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.
  2. K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, inThe 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan (23-26 January 2001).
  3. L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.
  4. K. A. Nixon and R. K. Rowe, "Multispectral fingerprint imaging for spoof detection," in Biometric Technology for Human Identification II, A.K.Jain and N.K.Ratha, eds., Proc. SPIE 5779,214-225 (2005).
  5. I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M.M.Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677,177-185 (2005).
  6. I. Fujieda and H. Haga, "Fingerprint input based on scattered light detection," Appl. Opt. 36, 9152-9156 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Tai, M. Kurita, and I. Fujieda, "Recognition of living fingers with a sensor based on scattered-light detection," Appl. Opt. 45, 419-424 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Kurita, K. Tai, and I. Fujieda, "Multi-spectral imaging of fingerprints for secure biometric systems," in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID, 13th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2005), pp. 251-255.
  9. I. Fujieda, K. Tai, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Dual-LED imaging system for secure fingerprint identification," in Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT 2005) Proc. SPIE 6049,60490B-1-60490B-9 (2005).
  10. M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002), in Japanese.

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002), in Japanese.

1997 (1)

Fujieda, I.

K. Tai, M. Kurita, and I. Fujieda, "Recognition of living fingers with a sensor based on scattered-light detection," Appl. Opt. 45, 419-424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fujieda and H. Haga, "Fingerprint input based on scattered light detection," Appl. Opt. 36, 9152-9156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kurita, K. Tai, and I. Fujieda, "Multi-spectral imaging of fingerprints for secure biometric systems," in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID, 13th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2005), pp. 251-255.

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M.M.Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677,177-185 (2005).

I. Fujieda, K. Tai, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Dual-LED imaging system for secure fingerprint identification," in Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT 2005) Proc. SPIE 6049,60490B-1-60490B-9 (2005).

Haga, H.

Keuning, J.

T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: don't get your finger burned," inProceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002), in Japanese.

Krissler, J.

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

Kurita, M.

K. Tai, M. Kurita, and I. Fujieda, "Recognition of living fingers with a sensor based on scattered-light detection," Appl. Opt. 45, 419-424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M.M.Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677,177-185 (2005).

I. Fujieda, K. Tai, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Dual-LED imaging system for secure fingerprint identification," in Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT 2005) Proc. SPIE 6049,60490B-1-60490B-9 (2005).

M. Kurita, K. Tai, and I. Fujieda, "Multi-spectral imaging of fingerprints for secure biometric systems," in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID, 13th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2005), pp. 251-255.

Matsumoto, H.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, inThe 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan (23-26 January 2001).

Matsumoto, T.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, inThe 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan (23-26 January 2001).

Matsuyama, E.

I. Fujieda, K. Tai, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Dual-LED imaging system for secure fingerprint identification," in Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT 2005) Proc. SPIE 6049,60490B-1-60490B-9 (2005).

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M.M.Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677,177-185 (2005).

Nixon, K. A.

K. A. Nixon and R. K. Rowe, "Multispectral fingerprint imaging for spoof detection," in Biometric Technology for Human Identification II, A.K.Jain and N.K.Ratha, eds., Proc. SPIE 5779,214-225 (2005).

Rowe, R. K.

K. A. Nixon and R. K. Rowe, "Multispectral fingerprint imaging for spoof detection," in Biometric Technology for Human Identification II, A.K.Jain and N.K.Ratha, eds., Proc. SPIE 5779,214-225 (2005).

Tai, K.

K. Tai, M. Kurita, and I. Fujieda, "Recognition of living fingers with a sensor based on scattered-light detection," Appl. Opt. 45, 419-424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fujieda, K. Tai, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Dual-LED imaging system for secure fingerprint identification," in Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT 2005) Proc. SPIE 6049,60490B-1-60490B-9 (2005).

M. Kurita, K. Tai, and I. Fujieda, "Multi-spectral imaging of fingerprints for secure biometric systems," in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID, 13th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2005), pp. 251-255.

Thalheim, L.

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

van der Putte, T.

T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: don't get your finger burned," inProceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, inThe 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan (23-26 January 2001).

Ziegler, P.-M.

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. (1)

M. Kobayashi, "Color reproduction/color management/color appearance," J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 26, 18-29 (2002), in Japanese.

Other (7)

T. van der Putte and J. Keuning, "Biometrical fingerprint recognition: don't get your finger burned," inProceedings of the Fourth Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2000), pp. 289-303.

K. Yamada, H. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto, "Can we make artificial fingers that fool fingerprint systems?" part 3, inThe 2001 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, Oiso, Japan (23-26 January 2001).

L. Thalheim, J. Krissler, and P.-M. Ziegler, "Body check," translated by Robert W. Smith, http://www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/.

K. A. Nixon and R. K. Rowe, "Multispectral fingerprint imaging for spoof detection," in Biometric Technology for Human Identification II, A.K.Jain and N.K.Ratha, eds., Proc. SPIE 5779,214-225 (2005).

I. Fujieda, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific and Industrial Applications VI, M.M.Blouke, ed., Proc. SPIE 5677,177-185 (2005).

M. Kurita, K. Tai, and I. Fujieda, "Multi-spectral imaging of fingerprints for secure biometric systems," in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID, 13th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2005), pp. 251-255.

I. Fujieda, K. Tai, E. Matsuyama, and M. Kurita, "Dual-LED imaging system for secure fingerprint identification," in Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT 2005) Proc. SPIE 6049,60490B-1-60490B-9 (2005).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffuse reflectance spectra of a live finger depend on the force exerted to it. The experimental setup is shown in the upper area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffuse reflectance spectra of the replica change their intensities when the force applied to it is varied. However, their shapes remain almost the same.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectrum of a dual-LED is composed of the spectrum of each LED. In this example, the peak intensity ratio is set to G : R = 0.65 : 1 . The configuration of the fingerprint sensor based on scattered light detection is illustrated in the upper area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

When the intensity ratio a is to 0.65, the color distance Dxy as defined in the text takes a maximum value for most of the live fingers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

When a finger is pressed on the sensor, the area A increases and the chromaticity coordinate x decreases as indicated by the arrow. The area signal A reaches a maximum value A max when the finger is pressed firmly on the sensor. During the releasing period, the signal x remains relatively unchanged. The signal y behaves similarly although its trajectory is upside down as shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Replicas are prepared with various materials for evaluating the liveliness detection of our imaging system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Coordinates x and y obtained with the live fingers show a common trend. The color change during the finger-pressing period is significant and quick. The trajectories more or less overlap when the live fingers are firmly being pressed on the sensor. The coordinate y reaches a maximum when the finger deformation becomes the largest.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Replicas show various behaviors that differ significantly from the common trend observed for the live fingers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Trajectories of the coordinate x and y show a hysteresis for the live finger while such a hysteresis is much smaller for the replica.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

By requiring the index Δ y i to be larger than a certain threshold value, we can completely reject the input trials by the replicas while accepting all the trials by the live fingers. The separation between the two groups is defined as a margin.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Index Δ R n i also provides a wide margin for separating the live fingers and the replicas.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nine Types of Replicas

Tables Icon

Table 2 Margin Δ for Separating the Two Groups (the Live Fingers and the Replicas)

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D x y = ( x a x b ) 2 + ( y a y b ) 2 .
x = X X + Y + Z ,
y = Y X + Y + Z ,
X = k vis R ( λ ) P ( λ ) x ¯ ( λ ) d λ , Y = k vis R ( λ ) P ( λ ) y ¯ ( λ ) d λ , Z = k vis R ( λ ) P ( λ ) z ¯ ( λ ) d λ ,
k = 100 vis P ( λ ) y ¯ ( λ ) d λ .
R n = R R + G ,
G n = G R + G .

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