Abstract

Raman scattering in single-mode optical fibers is exploited to generate multispectral light from a green nanolaser with high pulse repetition rate. Each pulse triggers a picosecond camera and measures the distance by time-of-flight in each of the 0.5  Mpixels. Three-dimensional images are then constructed with submillimeter accuracy for all visible colors. The generation of a series of Stokes peaks by Raman scattering in a Si fiber is discussed in detail and the laser radar technique is demonstrated. The data recording takes only a few seconds, and the high accuracy 3D color imaging works at ranges up to 200   m. Applications for optical tomography in highly scattering media such as water and human tissue are mentioned.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).
  3. M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. P. Hansen and R. E. Kristiansen, Application Note, Crystal Fibre A/S. (2005).
  6. O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and R. Richmond, "Eye-safe laser radar 3-D imaging," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 111-116 (2004).
  11. R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and S. Silverman, "Large format time-of-flight focal plane detector development," in Proc. SPIE 5791,288-292 (2005).
  12. J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, "Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar," Appl. Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  15. J. W. McLean and J. T. Murray, "Streak-tube lidar allows 3-D ocean surveillance," Laser Focus World, 34(11), 171-176 (1998).
  16. A. Nevis, R. J. Hilton, S. J. Taylor, B. Cordes, and J. W. McLean, "The advantages of three-dimensional electro-optic imaging sensors," in Proc. SPIE 5089, 225-237 (2003).
  17. J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, "Long distance high accuracy 3D laser radar and person identification," in Proc. SPIE 5791, 9-16 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011115 (2005).
  22. P.-L. Hsiung, Y. Chen, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, C. de Matos, S. Popov, J. Taylor, and V. Gapontsev, "Optical coherence tomography using a continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum light source," Opt. Express , 12, 5287-5295 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Pulsed terahertz tomography," J. Phys. D. 37, R1-R36 (2004).
  24. J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (5)

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and S. Silverman, "Large format time-of-flight focal plane detector development," in Proc. SPIE 5791,288-292 (2005).

J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, "Long distance high accuracy 3D laser radar and person identification," in Proc. SPIE 5791, 9-16 (2005).

P.-L. Hsiung, Y. Chen, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, C. de Matos, S. Popov, J. Taylor, and V. Gapontsev, "Optical coherence tomography using a continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum light source," Opt. Express , 12, 5287-5295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and R. Richmond, "Eye-safe laser radar 3-D imaging," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 111-116 (2004).

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, "Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar," Appl. Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Nevis, R. J. Hilton, S. J. Taylor, B. Cordes, and J. W. McLean, "The advantages of three-dimensional electro-optic imaging sensors," in Proc. SPIE 5089, 225-237 (2003).

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

R. Lange and P. Seitz, "Seeing distances--a fast time-of-flight 3D camera," Sens. Rev. 20, 212-217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Gleckler, "Multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar (MS-STIL) applications," in Proc. SPIE 4035, 266-278 (2000).

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engells, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, "Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

Ahlberg, S.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Albota, M. A.

Alfano, R. R.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, "Optical tomographic image reconstruction from ultrafast time-sliced transmission measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4237-4246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011115 (2005).

Alrubaiee, M.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, "Optical tomographic image reconstruction from ultrafast time-sliced transmission measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4237-4246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011115 (2005).

Andersen, J. F.

J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, "Long distance high accuracy 3D laser radar and person identification," in Proc. SPIE 5791, 9-16 (2005).

Andersson, P.

P. Andersson, Automatic Target Recognition From Laser Radar Data--Applications to Gated Viewing and Airborne 3D Laser Radar, Report FOI-R-0829-SE (Swedish Research Agency, 2003), be published.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Andersson-Engells, S.

Aruna, P.

Aull, B. F.

Bailey, H.

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and S. Silverman, "Large format time-of-flight focal plane detector development," in Proc. SPIE 5791,288-292 (2005).

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and R. Richmond, "Eye-safe laser radar 3-D imaging," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 111-116 (2004).

Barr, D. N.

Belyanin, A.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engells, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, "Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouteiller, J.-C.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brar, K.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bromage, J.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Busck, J.

J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, "Long distance high accuracy 3D laser radar and person identification," in Proc. SPIE 5791, 9-16 (2005).

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, "Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar," Appl. Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Capasso, F.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson., R. R.

Carlsson, T.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Chen, Y.

Cho, A. Y.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordes, B.

A. Nevis, R. J. Hilton, S. J. Taylor, B. Cordes, and J. W. McLean, "The advantages of three-dimensional electro-optic imaging sensors," in Proc. SPIE 5089, 225-237 (2003).

Cubukcu, E.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalgaard, T.

Dam, J. S.

de Matos, C.

Elmqvist, M.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Fabricius, P. E.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fini, J. M.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fouche, D. G.

Fujimoto, J.

Gapontsev, V.

Gayen, S. K.

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, and R. R. Alfano, "Optical tomographic image reconstruction from ultrafast time-sliced transmission measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4237-4246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011115 (2005).

Gleckler, D.

D. Gleckler, "Multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar (MS-STIL) applications," in Proc. SPIE 4035, 266-278 (2000).

Grönvall, C.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, K. P.

K. P. Hansen and R. E. Kristiansen, Application Note, Crystal Fibre A/S. (2005).

Heinrichs, R. M.

Heiselberg, H.

J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, "Long distance high accuracy 3D laser radar and person identification," in Proc. SPIE 5791, 9-16 (2005).

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, "Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar," Appl. Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henriksson, M.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Hilton, R. J.

A. Nevis, R. J. Hilton, S. J. Taylor, B. Cordes, and J. W. McLean, "The advantages of three-dimensional electro-optic imaging sensors," in Proc. SPIE 5089, 225-237 (2003).

Hsiung, P.-L.

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jarlman, O.

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engells, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, "Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klasen, L.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Ko, T.

Kocher, D. G.

Kristiansen, R. E.

K. P. Hansen and R. E. Kristiansen, Application Note, Crystal Fibre A/S. (2005).

Lange, R.

R. Lange and P. Seitz, "Seeing distances--a fast time-of-flight 3D camera," Sens. Rev. 20, 212-217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, H.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Lax, M.

Letalick, D.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, J. W.

A. Nevis, R. J. Hilton, S. J. Taylor, B. Cordes, and J. W. McLean, "The advantages of three-dimensional electro-optic imaging sensors," in Proc. SPIE 5089, 225-237 (2003).

J. W. McLean and J. T. Murray, "Streak-tube lidar allows 3-D ocean surveillance," Laser Focus World, 34(11), 171-176 (1998).

Mizerka, L. J.

Mooney, J.

Murray, J. T.

J. W. McLean and J. T. Murray, "Streak-tube lidar allows 3-D ocean surveillance," Laser Focus World, 34(11), 171-176 (1998).

Nevis, A.

A. Nevis, R. J. Hilton, S. J. Taylor, B. Cordes, and J. W. McLean, "The advantages of three-dimensional electro-optic imaging sensors," in Proc. SPIE 5089, 225-237 (2003).

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, M. E.

Paniccla, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, C. B.

Person, A.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Player, B. E.

Popov, S.

Richmond, R.

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and R. Richmond, "Eye-safe laser radar 3-D imaging," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 111-116 (2004).

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccla, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilling, W.

Seitz, P.

R. Lange and P. Seitz, "Seeing distances--a fast time-of-flight 3D camera," Sens. Rev. 20, 212-217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, S.

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and S. Silverman, "Large format time-of-flight focal plane detector development," in Proc. SPIE 5791,288-292 (2005).

Sivco, D. L.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söderman, U.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Steinvall, O.

O. Steinvall, L. Klasen, C. Grönvall, U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg, A. Person, M. Elmqvist, H. Larsson, D. Letalick, P. Andersson, T. Carlsson, and M. Henriksson, "3D laser sensing at FOI--overview and a system perspective," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 294-309 (2004).

Stettner, R.

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and S. Silverman, "Large format time-of-flight focal plane detector development," in Proc. SPIE 5791,288-292 (2005).

R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and R. Richmond, "Eye-safe laser radar 3-D imaging," in Proc. SPIE 5412, 111-116 (2004).

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engells, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, "Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

Taylor, S. J.

A. Nevis, R. J. Hilton, S. J. Taylor, B. Cordes, and J. W. McLean, "The advantages of three-dimensional electro-optic imaging sensors," in Proc. SPIE 5089, 225-237 (2003).

Templeton, G. C.

Troccoli, M.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Raman injection laser," Nature 433, 845-848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trussel, C. W.

Tynes, A. R.

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Pulsed terahertz tomography," J. Phys. D. 37, R1-R36 (2004).

Willard, B. C.

Xu, M.

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zevallos, M.

Zevallos, M. E.

M. E. Zevallos, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011115 (2005).

Zhang, X.-C.

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Pulsed terahertz tomography," J. Phys. D. 37, R1-R36 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Techol. (1)

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Techol. 22, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup used to couple the laser light into the fiber. The laser light is focused into the fiber through the microscope objective by the use of an xyz micrometer adjustment module.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Development of the Raman spectra as (average) laser power inside the fiber is increased from approximately 1 to 20   mW . Below SRS threshold at 1   mW only one peak at 532   nm is observed. Above threshold we observe 1 to 5 Stokes plus a continuous tail in the red and near-infrared part of the spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of a doll's head (approximately 20   cm in all directions) at a range of 7 8   m . The doll carries a heavy makeup for illustrative purposes. (a) Black and white intensity image at 532   nm , (b) range image, (c) color image constructed by a 3D image and three monochromatic images in red, yellow, and green, (d) same image but computer rotated in 3D. The colors are “false” (see text).

Equations (7)

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Δ λ = λ 1 λ 0 λ 0       2 Δ ν / c .
P peak                 th = 16 A eff g E L ,
P av         th = π 2 ln 2 × t FWHM × PRF × P peak                 th ,
I ( x , y ) = i = 1 n I i ( x , y ) ,
z ( x , y ) = c 2 I i = 1 n t i I i = c 2 [ t 0 + Δ t I i = 1 n i I i ] ,
σ 2 = t i     2 t i 2 σ pulse 2 + σ gate 2 .
Δ z 10 2 c σ Δ t SNR 0 SNR .

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