Abstract

Experimental demonstration of small angle (0.8°–5°) direct UV-written X couplers in silica-on-silicon is presented. Maximum and minimum coupling ratios of 95% (±0.8%) and 1.9%(±1%), respectively, were recorded. The structures also display very low polarization and wavelength dependence. A typical excess loss of 1.0dB (±0.5dB) was recorded. Device modeling using the beam propagation method and an analytical model showed good agreement with experimental results over a broad crossing angle and wavelength range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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