Abstract

Experimental demonstration of small angle (0.8°–5°) direct UV-written X couplers in silica-on-silicon is presented. Maximum and minimum coupling ratios of 95% (±0.8%) and 1.9%(±1%), respectively, were recorded. The structures also display very low polarization and wavelength dependence. A typical excess loss of 1.0dB (±0.5dB) was recorded. Device modeling using the beam propagation method and an analytical model showed good agreement with experimental results over a broad crossing angle and wavelength range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Laser writing of waveguides in photosensitive glasses," Opt. Mater. 25, 109-115 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984-1000 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Kawachi, "Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 1996), pp. 257-262.
    [Crossref]
  6. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Svalgaard, "Direct writing of planar waveguide power splitters and directional couplers using a focussed ultraviolet laser beam," Electron. Lett. 33, 1694-1695 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. A. Guilhot, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, D. P. Shepherd, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Single-mode direct-ultraviolet-written channel waveguide laser in neodymium-doped silica on silicon," Opt. Lett. 29, 947-949 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Przyembel and B. Kuhlow, "Waveguide crossings with low crosstalk at small angles," Electron. Lett. 38, 1533-1535 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, "Thermooptical digital switch arrays in silica-on-silicon with defined zero-voltage state," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 395-400 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
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  16. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express 10, 645-652 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  17. H. G. Bukkems, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, "Minimization of the loss of intersecting waveguides in InP-based photonic integrated circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1420-1422 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Durr and H. Renner, "Analytical design of X-couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 876-885 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Gevorgyan and A. Hovsepyan, "Power distribution in symmetric integrated optic X junction," Electron. Lett. 26, 788-789 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 911-919 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  21. N. Agrawal, L. McCaughan, and S. R. Seshadri, "A multiple scattering interaction analysis of intersecting waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2187-2193 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Svalgaard and M. Kristensen, "Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low loss," Electron. Lett. 33, 861-863 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, "Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers," Opt. Express 13, 8390-8399 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2005 (3)

I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Durr and H. Renner, "Analytical design of X-couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 876-885 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, "Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers," Opt. Express 13, 8390-8399 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

H. G. Bukkems, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, "Minimization of the loss of intersecting waveguides in InP-based photonic integrated circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1420-1422 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

M. Svalgaard and M. Kristensen, "Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low loss," Electron. Lett. 33, 861-863 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard, "Direct writing of planar waveguide power splitters and directional couplers using a focussed ultraviolet laser beam," Electron. Lett. 33, 1694-1695 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. Gevorgyan and A. Hovsepyan, "Power distribution in symmetric integrated optic X junction," Electron. Lett. 26, 788-789 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984-1000 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

N. Agrawal, L. McCaughan, and S. R. Seshadri, "A multiple scattering interaction analysis of intersecting waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2187-2193 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 911-919 (1986).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, N.

N. Agrawal, L. McCaughan, and S. R. Seshadri, "A multiple scattering interaction analysis of intersecting waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2187-2193 (1987).
[Crossref]

Albanis, V.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Austin, M.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bonar, J. R.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

Borel, P. I.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boswell, R.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bukkems, H. G.

H. G. Bukkems, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, "Minimization of the loss of intersecting waveguides in InP-based photonic integrated circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1420-1422 (1999).
[Crossref]

Durandet, A.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Durr, F.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Laser writing of waveguides in photosensitive glasses," Opt. Mater. 25, 109-115 (2004).
[Crossref]

Emmerson, G. D.

I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. A. Guilhot, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, D. P. Shepherd, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Single-mode direct-ultraviolet-written channel waveguide laser in neodymium-doped silica on silicon," Opt. Lett. 29, 947-949 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Faith, M.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Forber, R. A.

R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 911-919 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gawith, C. B. E.

I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. A. Guilhot, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, D. P. Shepherd, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Single-mode direct-ultraviolet-written channel waveguide laser in neodymium-doped silica on silicon," Opt. Lett. 29, 947-949 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

Gevorgyan, S.

S. Gevorgyan and A. Hovsepyan, "Power distribution in symmetric integrated optic X junction," Electron. Lett. 26, 788-789 (1990).
[Crossref]

Groen, F. H.

H. G. Bukkems, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, "Minimization of the loss of intersecting waveguides in InP-based photonic integrated circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1420-1422 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guilhot, D. A.

Hartl, I.

Herben, C. G. P.

H. G. Bukkems, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, "Minimization of the loss of intersecting waveguides in InP-based photonic integrated circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1420-1422 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M.

Hovsepyan, A.

S. Gevorgyan and A. Hovsepyan, "Power distribution in symmetric integrated optic X junction," Electron. Lett. 26, 788-789 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hubner, J.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, "Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 1996), pp. 257-262.
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kemeny, P.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kopka, P.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Kristensen, M.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard and M. Kristensen, "Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low loss," Electron. Lett. 33, 861-863 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kuhlow, B.

G. Przyembel and B. Kuhlow, "Waveguide crossings with low crosstalk at small angles," Electron. Lett. 38, 1533-1535 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ladouceur, F.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Laming, R. I.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Love, J.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Marom, E.

R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 911-919 (1986).
[Crossref]

Mc McMeekin, S. G.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

McCaughan, L.

N. Agrawal, L. McCaughan, and S. R. Seshadri, "A multiple scattering interaction analysis of intersecting waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2187-2193 (1987).
[Crossref]

McMeekin, S. G.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Moerman, I.

H. G. Bukkems, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, "Minimization of the loss of intersecting waveguides in InP-based photonic integrated circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1420-1422 (1999).
[Crossref]

Olivero, M.

Perry, A.

A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, M. R.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

Povlsen, J. H.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Przyembel, G.

G. Przyembel and B. Kuhlow, "Waveguide crossings with low crosstalk at small angles," Electron. Lett. 38, 1533-1535 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984-1000 (1988).
[Crossref]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Renner, H.

Rottwitt, K.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

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I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
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[Crossref]

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M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Watts, S. P.

I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. A. Guilhot, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, D. P. Shepherd, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Single-mode direct-ultraviolet-written channel waveguide laser in neodymium-doped silica on silicon," Opt. Lett. 29, 947-949 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

Williams, R. B.

I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. A. Guilhot, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, D. P. Shepherd, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Single-mode direct-ultraviolet-written channel waveguide laser in neodymium-doped silica on silicon," Opt. Lett. 29, 947-949 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
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[Crossref]

I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Agrawal, L. McCaughan, and S. R. Seshadri, "A multiple scattering interaction analysis of intersecting waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2187-2193 (1987).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Eng. (1)

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
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H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Laser writing of waveguides in photosensitive glasses," Opt. Mater. 25, 109-115 (2004).
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G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the coupler device showing the UV-induced refractive index structure. Note the raised index close to the overlap region (β = crossing angle).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscope and surface profiler images of a UV-written X coupler that has been etched to reveal the device structure. (a) Microscope (10×) image of an X coupler and (b), (c) surface profiler image of the same structure indicating smooth crossing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coupling ratio against crossing angle (open circles with error bars, measured; solid circles, BPM model; dotted curves analytical model (Ref. 18); solid curve, curve of best fit for BPM). The BPM data show excellent agreement with those measured, while the analytical model curve agrees well as small angles only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Wavelength dependency of X couplers for three different crossing angles (open circles, measured; solid circles, BPM). Inset: typical through (dark curve) and coupled (gray curve) power spectrum showing intensity dips at approximately 1370, 1480, and 1600 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Examples of BPM simulation of 1° crossing-angle X couplers with various waist index values. The topmost schematic shows the control case X coupler and the locations of the launch field and the various power monitors. The solid curve graphs are obtained using the total power monitor. (a) and (b) show at least 30 % radiated power, while case (c) corresponding to the ideal case show less than 5 % radiated loss.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Graph showing the coupling ratio against the crossing angle using polarized input light. The solid curve is the curve of best fit for the BPM data. Note the good agreement between the measured and the BPM data, and the low polarization dependence of the structure.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison between Various X-Coupler Experimental Studies

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F = I UV . a ν SCAN ,
Coupling     ratio = P X P X + P = ,

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