Abstract

We present results from cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings at 100  K. The aims of these tests are to see whether the diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength is significantly different at a low temperature from that at room temperature and to see how the performance of a VPH grating is affected by a number of thermal cycles. We have completed ten cycles between room temperature and 100   K and find no clear evidence that the diffraction efficiency changes with temperature or with a successive thermal cycle.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S.D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355,866-876 (1998).
  2. S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, W. S. Colburn, and J. B. Williams, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and the efficiency of three simple volume-phase holographic gratings," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 809-820 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).
  4. G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).
  5. N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).
  7. M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).
  8. A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).
  9. S. Blais-Ouellette, D. Guzman, A. Elgamil, and R. Rallison, "Cryogenic VPH gratings for the CELT/TMT," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,278-284 (2004).
  10. P.-A. Blanche, P. Gailly, S. Habraken, P. Lemaire, and C. Jamar, "Mosaiced and high line frequency VPH gratings for astronomy" inOptical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,208-216 (2004).
  11. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell System Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

2003 (1)

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, W. S. Colburn, and J. B. Williams, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and the efficiency of three simple volume-phase holographic gratings," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 809-820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell System Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Akiyama, M.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Allington-Smith, J. R.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

Arns, J. A.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, W. S. Colburn, and J. B. Williams, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and the efficiency of three simple volume-phase holographic gratings," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 809-820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S.D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355,866-876 (1998).

Barden, S. C.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, W. S. Colburn, and J. B. Williams, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and the efficiency of three simple volume-phase holographic gratings," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 809-820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S.D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355,866-876 (1998).

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

Blackburn, C.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

Blais-Ouellette, S.

S. Blais-Ouellette, D. Guzman, A. Elgamil, and R. Rallison, "Cryogenic VPH gratings for the CELT/TMT," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,278-284 (2004).

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, P. Gailly, S. Habraken, P. Lemaire, and C. Jamar, "Mosaiced and high line frequency VPH gratings for astronomy" inOptical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,208-216 (2004).

Bridges, T.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Brzeski, J.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Churilov, V.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Colburn, W. S.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, W. S. Colburn, and J. B. Williams, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and the efficiency of three simple volume-phase holographic gratings," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 809-820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S.D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355,866-876 (1998).

Conconi, P.

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

Correll, D.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Crimi, G.

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

Dalton, G. B.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Dawson, J.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Dipper, N. A.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

Ebizuka, N.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).

Elgamil, A.

S. Blais-Ouellette, D. Guzman, A. Elgamil, and R. Rallison, "Cryogenic VPH gratings for the CELT/TMT," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,278-284 (2004).

Eto, S.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Frost, G.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Gailly, P.

P.-A. Blanche, P. Gailly, S. Habraken, P. Lemaire, and C. Jamar, "Mosaiced and high line frequency VPH gratings for astronomy" inOptical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,208-216 (2004).

Gillingham, P. R.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Giro, E.

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

Guzman, D.

S. Blais-Ouellette, D. Guzman, A. Elgamil, and R. Rallison, "Cryogenic VPH gratings for the CELT/TMT," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,278-284 (2004).

Habraken, S.

P.-A. Blanche, P. Gailly, S. Habraken, P. Lemaire, and C. Jamar, "Mosaiced and high line frequency VPH gratings for astronomy" inOptical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,208-216 (2004).

Haynes, R.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Iino, M.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Irisawa, M.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).

Iwamuro, F.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Iye, M.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).

Jamar, C.

P.-A. Blanche, P. Gailly, S. Habraken, P. Lemaire, and C. Jamar, "Mosaiced and high line frequency VPH gratings for astronomy" inOptical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,208-216 (2004).

Karoji, H.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Kashiwagi, M.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).

Kimura, M.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Kodate, K.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell System Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Lankshear, A.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Lemaire, P.

P.-A. Blanche, P. Gailly, S. Habraken, P. Lemaire, and C. Jamar, "Mosaiced and high line frequency VPH gratings for astronomy" inOptical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,208-216 (2004).

Luke, P.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

Maihara, T.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Mochida, D.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Molinari, E.

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

Moore, A. M.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Murray, G. J.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Noumaru, J.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Ohta, K.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Oka, K.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).

Pernechele, C.

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

Rallison, R.

S. Blais-Ouellette, D. Guzman, A. Elgamil, and R. Rallison, "Cryogenic VPH gratings for the CELT/TMT," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,278-284 (2004).

Robertson, D. J.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

Saunders, W.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Sharples, R. M.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

Shima, T.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Smith, G.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Smith, G. A.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Tamura, N.

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Tosh, I. A. J.

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

Waller, L.

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

Williams, J. B.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, W. S. Colburn, and J. B. Williams, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and the efficiency of three simple volume-phase holographic gratings," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 809-820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zerbi, F. M.

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

Bell System Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell System Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Exp. Astron. (1)

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings I. Results at 200 K," Exp. Astron. 15, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, W. S. Colburn, and J. B. Williams, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and the efficiency of three simple volume-phase holographic gratings," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 809-820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

M. Kashiwagi, K. Oka, M. Irisawa, N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, and K. Kodate, "Optimal design and fabrication of high-dispersion VPH grism for Subaru Telescope," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,217-227 (2004).

G. A. Smith, W. Saunders, T. Bridges, V. Churilov, A. Lankshear, J. Dawson, D. Correll, L. Waller, R. Haynes, and G. Frost, "AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,410-420 (2004).

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S.D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355,866-876 (1998).

N. Tamura, G. J. Murray, P. Luke, C. Blackburn, D. J. Robertson, N. A. Dipper, R. M. Sharples, and J. R. Allington-Smith, "Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings," in Ground-Based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A.F. M.Moorwood and M.Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492,634-642 (2004).

M. Kimura, T. Maihara, K. Ohta, F. Iwamuro, S. Eto, M. Iino, D. Mochida, T. Shima, H. Karoji, J. Noumaru, M. Akiyama, J. Brzeski, P. R. Gillingham, A. M. Moore, G. Smith, G. B. Dalton, I. A. J. Tosh, G. J. Murray, D. J. Robertson, and N. Tamura, "Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for Subaru Telescope," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M.Iye and A.F. M.Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841,974-984 (2003).

A. Bianco, E. Molinari, P. Conconi, G. Crimi, E. Giro, C. Pernechele, and F. M. Zerbi, "VPHG in the cold," in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, E.Atad-Ettedgui and S.D'Odorico, eds., Proc. SPIE 4842,22-30 (2003).

S. Blais-Ouellette, D. Guzman, A. Elgamil, and R. Rallison, "Cryogenic VPH gratings for the CELT/TMT," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,278-284 (2004).

P.-A. Blanche, P. Gailly, S. Habraken, P. Lemaire, and C. Jamar, "Mosaiced and high line frequency VPH gratings for astronomy" inOptical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E.Atad-Ettedgui and P.Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494,208-216 (2004).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Pictures of the VPH gratings investigated in this paper. The grating optimized for NIR is shown in the left panel. It has a diameter of 250   mm and a line density of 385   lines / mm . The grating for visible wavelengths is shown in the right panel. It has a size of 100   mm × 120   mm and a line density of 300   lines / mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of the fore optics. The inside of the cryogenic chamber is described in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Schematic of the inside of the cryogenic chamber. To the right, the mechanism to scan the incident beam angle to the VPH grating and the wavelength is described.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature variation of the VPH grating during a typical cooling cycle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency of the NIR VPH grating measured for an incident angle of 10° (left), 15° (center), and 20° (right). These plots show the measurements of the first-order ( m = + 1 ) diffraction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The differences in diffraction efficiency of the NIR VPH grating at one test from the first warm test are averaged over the wavelength range investigated and plotted against the cycle number. Open triangles and solid dots represent the data at 100   K and those at room temperature, respectively. The error bars indicate a combination of the standard deviation of a distribution of the differences around the average value and the typical uncertainty in the measurement of diffraction efficiency.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 5 but for the VPH grating for visible wavelengths. The measured diffraction efficiency for incident angles of 1°, 6°, and 11° is plotted against the wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 6 but for the VPH grating for visible wavelengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffraction efficiency of the NIR VPH grating for an incident angle of 15° is plotted as a function of the wavelength. The black solid curve indicates the diffraction efficiency calculated with the coupled-wave analysis for a line density of 385   lines / mm and a gelatin thickness of 12.00   μm . The dashed curve indicates the diffraction efficiency computed for a line density of 393   lines / mm and a gelatin thickness of 11.76   μm , representing that expected at 100   K . In both calculations, a fringe amplitude of 0.055 is assumed. These model predictions are compared with the actual measurements shown in the middle panel of Fig. 5, which are plotted with solid dots and open triangles.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Components Used for the Measurements

Metrics