Abstract

What we believe to be a new instrument for measuring the end-face geometrical parameters of fiber connectors is described. In this apparatus, a Mirau-type interferometric objective is employed to measure a small area of the connector end face and generate an interferogram corresponding to the surface profile. Various new technologies are used to ensure excellent performance and high measurement repeatability. A multipoint method is proposed to adjust the inclination of the physical contact sample stage. The physical contact angle of the sample stage is adjusted directly on the instrument by use of a special tool whose angle is calibrated with the reversal method. Measurement results of important parameters of the fiber connector end face are compared with those inspected by a commercial profiler or with a standard sample. Optical insertion losses of connectors inspected by the developed system are also evaluated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, "Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM and non-contact optical profiler," Wear 190, 76-88 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Abdulhalim, "Theory for double beam interference microscopes with coherence effects and verification using the Linnik microscope," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 279-302 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Biegen and R. A. Smythe, "High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology," in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE 1009, 35-44 (1989).
  4. S. Wang, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, I. Reading, and Z. Fang, "Measurement of a fiber-end surface profile by use of phase-shifting laser interferometry," Appl. Opt. 43, 49-56 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, "Fourier transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156-160 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Ge and M. Takeda, "Coordinate transform technique for closed fringe analysis using Fourier transform method," Appl. Opt. 40, 1649-1657 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb, and T. Eiju, "Digital phase-shifting interferometry: a simple error-compensating phase calculation algorithm," Appl. Opt. 26, 2504-2505 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Brunining, D. R. Herriott, J. E. Gallager, D. P. Rosenfel, A. D. White, and D. J. Brangaccio, "Digital wave front measuring interferometer for testing optical surfaces and lenses," Appl. Opt. 13, 2693-2703 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Ge and M. Takeda, "High-resolution two-dimensional angle measurement technique based on fringe analysis," Appl. Opt. 42, 6859-6868 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

Z. Ge and M. Takeda, "Coordinate transform technique for closed fringe analysis using Fourier transform method," Appl. Opt. 40, 1649-1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, "Theory for double beam interference microscopes with coherence effects and verification using the Linnik microscope," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 279-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, "Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM and non-contact optical profiler," Wear 190, 76-88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. F. Biegen and R. A. Smythe, "High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology," in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE 1009, 35-44 (1989).

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

1974 (1)

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, "Theory for double beam interference microscopes with coherence effects and verification using the Linnik microscope," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 279-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, "Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM and non-contact optical profiler," Wear 190, 76-88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biegen, J. F.

J. F. Biegen and R. A. Smythe, "High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology," in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE 1009, 35-44 (1989).

Brangaccio, D. J.

Brunining, H.

Eiju, T.

Fang, Z.

Gallager, J. E.

Ge, Z.

Hariharan, P.

Herriott, D. R.

Ina, H.

Kobayashi, S.

Oreb, B. F.

Poon, C. Y.

C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, "Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM and non-contact optical profiler," Wear 190, 76-88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quan, C.

Reading, I.

Rosenfel, D. P.

Smythe, R. A.

J. F. Biegen and R. A. Smythe, "High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology," in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE 1009, 35-44 (1989).

Takeda, M.

Tay, C. J.

Wang, S.

White, A. D.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. Abdulhalim, "Theory for double beam interference microscopes with coherence effects and verification using the Linnik microscope," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 279-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Wear (1)

C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, "Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM and non-contact optical profiler," Wear 190, 76-88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. F. Biegen and R. A. Smythe, "High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology," in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE 1009, 35-44 (1989).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Geometry of a PC connector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Geometry of an APC connector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Key error of an APC connector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Measurement system. BS, beam splitter; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferogram.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Relation between the apex offset and inclination of the measured ferrule: (a) interferogram when tilt is adjusted, (b) interferogram when tilt is misaligned.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Reversal method for angle calibration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Relation of key error and apex offset.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Deviations of the measured data from the calculated curve.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Measurement of NIST traceable step-height sample: (a) interferogram of the sample, (b) 3D profile of the sample.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Measurement result of the UA3P.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Measurement result of the Fujinon system.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Insertion loss of random mating of inspected connectors when the apex offset is screened by less than 50   μ m .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Insertion loss of random mating of inspected connectors when the apex offset is screened by less than 30   μ m .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Repeatability of a SC∕PC Connector Measurement

Tables Icon

Table 2 Repeatability of a FC∕APC Connector Measurement

Tables Icon

Table 3 Fiber Height Measurement Results of the UA3P and the Fujinon System

Tables Icon

Table 4 Radius of Curvature Measurement Results of the UA3P and the Fujinon System

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g j ( x , y ) = a ( x , y ) + b ( x , y ) cos [ φ ( x , y ) + δ j ] ( j = 0 , 1 , , 4 ) ,
δ j = j π 2 ( j = 0 , 1 , , 4 ) .
φ ( x , y ) = tan 1 [ 2 ( g 1 g 3 ) 2 g 2 ( g 0 + g 4 ) ] .
{ x = [ 2 ( y 1 y 3 ) c 1 2 ( y 1 y 2 ) c 2 ] M y = [ 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) c 2 2 ( x 1 x 3 ) c 1 ] M ,
M = 4 [ ( x 1 x 2 ) ( y 1 y 3 ) ( y 1 y 2 ) ( x 1 x 3 ) ] ,
c 1 = x 1 2 x 2 2 + y 1 2 y 2 2 ,
c 2 = x 1 2 x 3 2 + y 1 2 y 3 2 .
L = ( x 1 x ) 2 + ( y 1 y ) 2 .
φ ( x , y ) = p x + q y + c ,
{ θ x = arctan ( p ) θ y = arctan ( q ) .
{ θ x = p θ y = q .
{ α x = γ x + θ x α y = γ y + θ y ,
{ β x = 180 γ x + θ x β y = 180 γ y + θ y ,
{ θ x = α x + β x 180 2 θ y = α y + β y 180 2 ,
{ γ x = 180 + α x β x 2 γ y = 180 + α y β y 2 .

Metrics