Abstract

What we believe to be a novel two-dimensional spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging technique determining pressure distribution in elastohydrodynamic lubricant films is presented. This technique makes use of the spectral characteristics associated with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, and it provides more spectral information in refractive index mapping than conventional contrast SPR imaging. Two-dimensional imaging is demonstrated and applied to a highly pressurized liquid lubricant trapped inside an elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) dimple. The hydrostatic pressure inside the EHL dimple causes a localized change of the refractive index of the lubrication oil. This also results in a shift in the spectral SPR absorption dip. By monitoring the color changes within the SPR image and calibrating with lubricants of known refractive index profiles, we can obtain a direct measurement of the refractive index distribution within the EHL dimple. PB 2400 lubricant dimples were studied in our experiments. The proposed SPR imaging approach is irrespective of the absolute lubricant film thickness h, therefore overcoming the major limitations of a conventional optical interference technique. With further development of the two-dimensional refractive index mapping technique, widespread applications in various fields are possible, including high-throughput sensors and the detection of bioaffinity interactions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  9. E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005 (1)

2003 (4)

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, and C. Feng, "The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram," Tribol. Int. 36, 497-504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, and S. S. Yee, "A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection," Sens. Actuators B 45, 161-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, and K. Cammann, "Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 34, 328-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Neri, S. Montigiani, and P. M. Kirkham, "Biophysical methods for the determination of antibody-antigen affinities," Trends Biotechnol. 14, 465-470 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. Dowson, "Elastohydrodynamic and micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication," Wear 190, 125-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Carmeron, "The high pressure impact microviscometer," in STLE Tribol. Trans. 35, 500-508 (1992).

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Cameron, "A simplified impact microviscometer," Tribol. Int. 25, 363-366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yeatman and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, and M. R. Philpott, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies," Surf. Sci. 74, 237-244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. Otto, "Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

R. Gohar and A. Cameron, "The mapping of elastohydrodynamic contacts," ASLE Trans. 10, 215-225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron and R. Gohar, "Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A. 291, 520-536 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ash, E.

E. Yeatman and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boismann, P.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, and K. Cammann, "Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 34, 328-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bose, T.

T. Bose, Digital Signal and Image Processing (Wiley, 2004), pp. 606-609.

Boyie, R.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, and R. Boyie, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, 2nd ed. (PWS, 1999), pp. 23-26.

Cahill, C. P.

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, and S. S. Yee, "A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection," Sens. Actuators B 45, 161-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, A.

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Cameron, "A simplified impact microviscometer," Tribol. Int. 25, 363-366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Gohar and A. Cameron, "The mapping of elastohydrodynamic contacts," ASLE Trans. 10, 215-225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron and R. Gohar, "Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A. 291, 520-536 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Cammann, K.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, and K. Cammann, "Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 34, 328-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carmeron, A.

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Carmeron, "The high pressure impact microviscometer," in STLE Tribol. Trans. 35, 500-508 (1992).

Chan, K. S.

Corn, R. M.

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. J.

A. J. Dekker, Solid State Physics (Macmillan, 1958).

Dowson, D.

D. Dowson, "Elastohydrodynamic and micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication," Wear 190, 125-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, M. G.

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, C.

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, and C. Feng, "The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram," Tribol. Int. 36, 497-504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gohar, R.

R. Gohar and A. Cameron, "The mapping of elastohydrodynamic contacts," ASLE Trans. 10, 215-225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron and R. Gohar, "Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A. 291, 520-536 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, T. T.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. G.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, and M. R. Philpott, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies," Surf. Sci. 74, 237-244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, and C. Feng, "The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram," Tribol. Int. 36, 497-504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hlavac, V.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, and R. Boyie, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, 2nd ed. (PWS, 1999), pp. 23-26.

Ho, H. P.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jahne, B.

B. Jahne, Digital Image Processing--Concepts, Algorithms, and Scientific Applications, 4th ed. (Springer, 1997), pp. 155-159.

Jahnston, K. S.

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, and S. S. Yee, "A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection," Sens. Actuators B 45, 161-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Katerkamp, A.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, and K. Cammann, "Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 34, 328-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kiessling, L. L.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkham, P. M.

D. Neri, S. Montigiani, and P. M. Kirkham, "Biophysical methods for the determination of antibody-antigen affinities," Trends Biotechnol. 14, 465-470 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. 23A, 2135-2136 (1968).

Kumasawa, H.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyo, M.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. J.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmons resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lingard, S.

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Cameron, "A simplified impact microviscometer," Tribol. Int. 25, 363-366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Carmeron, "The high pressure impact microviscometer," in STLE Tribol. Trans. 35, 500-508 (1992).

Lundström, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmons resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).

Marriott, G.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montigiani, S.

D. Neri, S. Montigiani, and P. M. Kirkham, "Biophysical methods for the determination of antibody-antigen affinities," Trends Biotechnol. 14, 465-470 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakatani, K.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neri, D.

D. Neri, S. Montigiani, and P. M. Kirkham, "Biophysical methods for the determination of antibody-antigen affinities," Trends Biotechnol. 14, 465-470 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, and K. Cammann, "Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 34, 328-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmons resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).

Otto, A.

A. Otto, "Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 275-358.

Pellmann, M.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, and K. Cammann, "Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 34, 328-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Philpott, M. R.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, and M. R. Philpott, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies," Surf. Sci. 74, 237-244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, and M. R. Philpott, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies," Surf. Sci. 74, 237-244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. 23A, 2135-2136 (1968).

Reinbold, J.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, and K. Cammann, "Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 34, 328-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothenhäusler, B.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Saito, I.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. A.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonka, M.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, and R. Boyie, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, 2nd ed. (PWS, 1999), pp. 23-26.

Swalen, J. D.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, and M. R. Philpott, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies," Surf. Sci. 74, 237-244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, W. D.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulijasz, A. T.

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, F.

F. van der Heijden, Image Based Measurement System (Wiley, 1994), pp. 76-77.

Wegner, G. J.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisblum, B.

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. L.

Wong, P. L.

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, and C. Feng, "The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram," Tribol. Int. 36, 497-504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Carmeron, "The high pressure impact microviscometer," in STLE Tribol. Trans. 35, 500-508 (1992).

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, and A. Cameron, "A simplified impact microviscometer," Tribol. Int. 25, 363-366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

Yeatman, E.

E. Yeatman and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Formation of a highly pressurized EHL dimple.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SPR absorption spectra of lubricant samples for calibration. RIU, refractive index units.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibration curve for imaging H–RI conversion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral SPR imaging of the lubricant PB 2400 dimple. (a) Image before dimple production, (b) image after dimple production, (c) image obtained under atmospheric pressure (control image).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Hue profile of the lubricant PB 2400 dimple, (b) hue profile of control image, (c) SPR wavelength dip profile of the lubricant PB 2400 dimple, (d) SPR wavelength dip profile of the control image, (e) RI profile of the lubricant PB 2400 dimple, and (f) RI profile of the control image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pressure–RI plot of the lubricant PB 2400.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Pressure profile of the lubricant PB 2400 dimple, (b) pressure profile of the control image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Optical interferogram of the PB 2400 lubricant dimple, (b) optical thickness nh determined by the conventional optical interferogram.

Equations (5)

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N λ = 2 n h cos θ ,
h = cos - 1 1 / 2 [ ( r g ) + ( r b ) ] [ ( r g ) 2 + ( r b ) ( g b ) ] 1 / 2 ,
hue = h 1 ( 255 ) ,
r = R R + G + B , g = G R + G + B , b = B R + G + B .
n s = ε m ( λ ) n p ( λ ) 2 sin 2 θ ε m ( λ ) n p ( λ ) 2 sin 2 θ ,

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