We demonstrate a promising method to precisely introduce desired defects into large-area periodic structures by using a double-step laser scanning technique. A multiexposure two-beam interference technique is first used to create 2D periodic structures. A low power femtosecond laser combined with a high numerical aperture objective lens is then used to map the periodic structures to determine the positions and orientations of air holes or material cylinders without intermediate development. Based on the mapping results, the desired defects are written precisely into these structures by increasing the power of the femtosecond laser to induce a multiphoton polymerization effect. The experimental results show that defects are patterned with accurate positions and orientations. This proposed technique should be useful for fabrication of photonic crystals with well-defined defects.
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