Abstract

We demonstrate a promising method to precisely introduce desired defects into large-area periodic structures by using a double-step laser scanning technique. A multiexposure two-beam interference technique is first used to create 2D periodic structures. A low power femtosecond laser combined with a high numerical aperture objective lens is then used to map the periodic structures to determine the positions and orientations of air holes or material cylinders without intermediate development. Based on the mapping results, the desired defects are written precisely into these structures by increasing the power of the femtosecond laser to induce a multiphoton polymerization effect. The experimental results show that defects are patterned with accurate positions and orientations. This proposed technique should be useful for fabrication of photonic crystals with well-defined defects.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  5. K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "Colloidal crystal films: advances in universality and perfection," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589-15598 (2003).
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    [Crossref]
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2006 (1)

N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, P. W. Chen, J. L. Tang, and C. C. Hsu, "Controlling aspect ratio of focal spots of micro-focus-region of high numerical aperture objective lens in multi-photon absorption process," Opt. Commun. 258, 97-102 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

2004 (4)

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range," Opt. Lett. 29, 2061-2063 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Moormann, J. Bolten, and H. Kurz, "Spatial phase-locked combination lithography for photonic crystal devices," Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 417-422 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, and Y. Fainman, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write," Appl. Opt. 42, 5450-5456 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "Colloidal crystal films: advances in universality and perfection," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589-15598 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, and P. V. Braun, "Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Straub and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, and D. Deppe, "High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, "Photonic band gaps and holography," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P. E.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, "Photonic band gaps and holography," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[Crossref]

Blanco, A.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bolten, J.

C. Moormann, J. Bolten, and H. Kurz, "Spatial phase-locked combination lithography for photonic crystal devices," Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 417-422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Braun, P. V.

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, and P. V. Braun, "Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. M.

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. W.

N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, P. W. Chen, J. L. Tang, and C. C. Hsu, "Controlling aspect ratio of focal spots of micro-focus-region of high numerical aperture objective lens in multi-photon absorption process," Opt. Commun. 258, 97-102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chenand, H.

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, and D. Deppe, "High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chow, E.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costard, E.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, "Photonic band gaps and holography," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[Crossref]

de Ridder, R. M.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deppe, D.

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, and D. Deppe, "High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[Crossref]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Diviliansky, I. B.

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

Doll, T.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

Egan, G. L.

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

Enkrich, C.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Flück, E.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Freymann, G. V.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, "Photonic band gaps and holography," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Han, Y.-J.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hietala, V.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. C.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Juodkazis, S.

V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range," Opt. Lett. 29, 2061-2063 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, K.

Kawata, S.

H. B. Sun, A. Nakamura, K. Kaneko, S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Direct laser writing defects in holographic lithography-created photonic lattices," Opt. Lett. 30, 881-883 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kitaev, V.

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "Colloidal crystal films: advances in universality and perfection," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589-15598 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, W.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuipers, L.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

C. Moormann, J. Bolten, and H. Kurz, "Spatial phase-locked combination lithography for photonic crystal devices," Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 417-422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lai, N. D.

Lee, W.

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, and P. V. Braun, "Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liang, W. P.

Lin, C. H.

Lin, J. H.

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maldovan, M.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mallouk, T. E.

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mayer, T. S.

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Meisel, D. C.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Miklyaev, Y. V.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range," Opt. Lett. 29, 2061-2063 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mizeikis, V.

Moormann, C.

C. Moormann, J. Bolten, and H. Kurz, "Spatial phase-locked combination lithography for photonic crystal devices," Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 417-422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, W.

Nakamura, A.

Natarajan, L. V.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, D.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nijdam, W.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ozin, G. A.

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "Colloidal crystal films: advances in universality and perfection," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589-15598 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pang, L.

Pearsall, T. P.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruzinsky, S. A.

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, and P. V. Braun, "Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, and D. Deppe, "High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

Seet, K. K.

Segerink, F. B.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishido, A.

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shoji, S.

H. B. Sun, A. Nakamura, K. Kaneko, S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Direct laser writing defects in holographic lithography-created photonic lattices," Opt. Lett. 30, 881-883 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sopaheluwakan, A.

A. Sopaheluwakan, "Defect states and defect modes in 1D photonic crystals," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Twente, The Netherlands, 2003).

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

Straub, M.

Su, H. M.

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

H. B. Sun, A. Nakamura, K. Kaneko, S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Direct laser writing defects in holographic lithography-created photonic lattices," Opt. Lett. 30, 881-883 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. L.

N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, P. W. Chen, J. L. Tang, and C. C. Hsu, "Controlling aspect ratio of focal spots of micro-focus-region of high numerical aperture objective lens in multi-photon absorption process," Opt. Commun. 258, 97-102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thomas, E. L.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullal, C. K.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Hulst, N. F.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

van Wolferen, H. A. G. M.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogelaar, L.

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, and D. Deppe, "High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Z.

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Wong, S.

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "Colloidal crystal films: advances in universality and perfection," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589-15598 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, and D. Deppe, "High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Z. H.

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y. Y. C.

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. A.

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, and P. V. Braun, "Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Flück, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography," Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y.-J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. C. Zhong, S. A. Zhu, H. M. Su, H. Z. Wang, J. M. Chen, Z. H. Zeng, and Y. L. Chen, "Photonic crystal with diamondlike structure fabricated by holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061103 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, and D. Deppe, "High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Shishido, I. B. Diviliansky, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, S. Nishimura, G. L. Egan, and T. E. Mallouk, "Direct fabrication of two-dimensional titania arrays using interference photolithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3332-3334 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "Colloidal crystal films: advances in universality and perfection," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589-15598 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, "Photonic band gaps and holography," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

C. Moormann, J. Bolten, and H. Kurz, "Spatial phase-locked combination lithography for photonic crystal devices," Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 417-422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, P. W. Chen, J. L. Tang, and C. C. Hsu, "Controlling aspect ratio of focal spots of micro-focus-region of high numerical aperture objective lens in multi-photon absorption process," Opt. Commun. 258, 97-102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

A. Sopaheluwakan, "Defect states and defect modes in 1D photonic crystals," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Twente, The Netherlands, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of multiphoton polymerization microfabrication system used to pattern desired defects. It is also used for mapping images of 2D periodic structures before introducing defects. L i ( i = 1, 2, 3, 4), lenses; OL, objective lens; M j ( j = 1, 2), mirrors; λ∕2, half-wave plate; λ∕4, quarter-wave plate; PBS, polarized beam splitter. Inset is the illustration of the laser mapping technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) AFM images of 2D periodic square structures, Λ = 3 μm. Results were obtained when the samples were irradiated by a double exposure of a two-beam interference pattern at α = 0° and α = 90° and PEB at 115 °C for 1 min without developing. (a) Air hole structure obtained after exposure with 1.5 s + 1.5 s. (b) Cylinder structure obtained after exposure with 0.5 s + 0.5 s. The power of each beam is equal to 260 μW. The pictures at the top of (a) and (b) show the modulation depth of the periodic structures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) SEM images of 2D periodic structures embedding well-defined defects and their corresponding mapping images. (a), (b), (c) Point, lines, and 90° bending defects, respectively. The positions and orientations of the designed defects are added to the mapping images on the left-hand side of each SEM picture. Note that the line and 90° bending denoted as B and D in (b) and (c), respectively, are invisible since these defects are designed to overlap with the solid line of the periodic structures. The large square frames around the defects are added intentionally for identification.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Simulation results of optical property of 2D square periodic structure embedding with a point defect. (a) Transmittance curve obtained from simulation; (b) electric field profile in the crystal for the normalized frequency at 0.375064, corresponding to the defect mode; a is the lattice constant; λ is the wavelength.

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