Abstract

A doubly Q-switched laser can obtain a shorter pulse with a stable repetition rate and high pulse peak power, which has been experimentally proved. By taking into account the Gaussian spatial distributions of the intracavity photon density and the initial population-inversion density as well as the influence of the acousto-optic (AO) Q switch, we introduce the coupled rate equations for a doubly Q-switched laser with both an AO modulator and a Cr4+-doped saturable absorber. These coupled rate equations are solved numerically. The key parameters of an optimally coupled doubly Q-switched laser are determined based on maximizing the peak power, which include the optimal normalized coupling parameter, the optimal normalized saturable absorber parameters, and the normalized parameters of the AO Q switch. The optimal normalized peak power, the corresponding normalized energy, and the normalized pulse width are also given, and a group of general curves are generated for the first time to our knowledge. The curves can give us a good understanding of the dependence of the optimal key parameters on the parameters of the gain medium, the saturable absorber, the AO Q switch, the resonator, and the spatial distributions of the intracavity photon density. The optimal calculations for a diode-pumped Nd3+:YVO4 laser with both an AO modulator and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber are presented to demonstrate the use of the curves and the related formulas.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Plassmann, K. S. Yamada, C. E. Rich, and W. M. Grossman, "Subnanosecond pulse generation from diode-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched solid-state lasers," Appl. Opt. 32, 6616-6619 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Spariosu, W. Chen, R. Stultz, M. Bimbaum, and A. V. Shestakov, "Dual Q switching and laser action at 1.06 and 1.44 μm in a Nd3+:YAG-Cr4+:YAG oscillator at 300 K," Opt. Lett. 18, 814-816 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Bimbaum, "Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657-663 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. YangS. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Compression of pulse duration in a laser-diode, end-pumped, double Q-switched laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 271-277 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, "Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs," Opt. Express 13, 1178-1187 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Yang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, "Pulse symmetry and pulse duration compression in a diode-pumped doubly passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 lasers with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 633-636 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Zayhowski, and P. L. Kelley, "Optimization of Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220-2225 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 214-220 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1890-1901 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Lukac, "Output energy characteristics of optimally pumped rotating mirror Q-switch laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2094-2097 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 927-942 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166-1175 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of peak power of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
    [CrossRef]

2005

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. YangS. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Compression of pulse duration in a laser-diode, end-pumped, double Q-switched laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 271-277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, "Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs," Opt. Express 13, 1178-1187 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, "Pulse symmetry and pulse duration compression in a diode-pumped doubly passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 lasers with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 633-636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 927-942 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 214-220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Bimbaum, "Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657-663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

M. Lukac, "Output energy characteristics of optimally pumped rotating mirror Q-switch laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2094-2097 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zayhowski, and P. L. Kelley, "Optimization of Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220-2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1890-1901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bimbaum, M.

Chen, W.

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 214-220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1890-1901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, W. M.

Huang, D. X.

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. F.

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Bimbaum, "Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657-663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. L.

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, P. L.

J. J. Zayhowski, and P. L. Kelley, "Optimization of Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220-2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. K.

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Bimbaum, "Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657-663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 927-942 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, "Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs," Opt. Express 13, 1178-1187 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of peak power of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, "Pulse symmetry and pulse duration compression in a diode-pumped doubly passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 lasers with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 633-636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 927-942 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. YangS. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Compression of pulse duration in a laser-diode, end-pumped, double Q-switched laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 271-277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, "Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs," Opt. Express 13, 1178-1187 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of peak power of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, G. C.

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lukac, M.

M. Lukac, "Output energy characteristics of optimally pumped rotating mirror Q-switch laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2094-2097 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moore, N.

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozygus, B.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166-1175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Plassmann, H.

Rich, C. E.

Shestakov, A. V.

Song, P.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spariosu, K.

Stultz, R.

Sun, L.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166-1175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166-1175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Z.

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K. S.

Yang, K.

K. YangS. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Compression of pulse duration in a laser-diode, end-pumped, double Q-switched laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 271-277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, "Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs," Opt. Express 13, 1178-1187 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 927-942 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, "Pulse symmetry and pulse duration compression in a diode-pumped doubly passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 lasers with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 633-636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of peak power of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski, and P. L. Kelley, "Optimization of Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220-2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166-1175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, S.

K. YangS. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Compression of pulse duration in a laser-diode, end-pumped, double Q-switched laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 271-277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, "Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs," Opt. Express 13, 1178-1187 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, "Pulse symmetry and pulse duration compression in a diode-pumped doubly passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 lasers with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 633-636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 927-942 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166-1175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of peak power of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, "Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs," Opt. Express 13, 1178-1187 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, "Pulse symmetry and pulse duration compression in a diode-pumped doubly passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 lasers with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 633-636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 214-220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1890-1901 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Lukac, "Output energy characteristics of optimally pumped rotating mirror Q-switch laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2094-2097 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zayhowski, and P. L. Kelley, "Optimization of Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220-2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Bimbaum, "Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657-663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, "Modeling of diode-pumping actively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912-1918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Z. Li, Z. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Pulse width reduction in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with GaAs coupler," Opt. Commun. 237, 411-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of peak power of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

D. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers by taking into account intracavity laser spatial distribution," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 927-942 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of x opt on z for different Δ a in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, Δ a = 0; b, Δ a = 0.1; c, Δ a = 0.2; d, Δ a = 0.5.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of y opt on z for different Δ a in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, Δ a = 0; b, Δ a = 0.1; c, Δ a = 0.2; d, Δ a = 0.5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of p opt on z for different Δ a in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, Δ a = 0; b, Δ a = 0.1; c, Δ a = 0.2; d. Δ a = 0.5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of e on z for different Δ a in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, Δ a = 0; b, Δ a = 0.1; c, Δ a = 0.2; d, Δ a = 0.5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of w on z for different Δ a in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, Δ a = 0; b, Δ a = 0.1; c, Δ a = 0.2; d, Δ a = 0.5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of x opt on z for different τ s in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and Δ a = 0.1 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, τ s = 5; b, τ s = 50; c, τ s = 80; d, τ s = 100.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of p opt on z for different τ s in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and Δ a = 0.1 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, τ s = 5; b, τ s = 50; c, τ s = 80; d, τ s = 100.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of e on z for different τ s in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and Δ a = 0.1 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, τ s = 5; b, τ s = 50; c, τ s = 80; d, τ s = 100.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of w on z for different τ s in the case of ω L ∕ω p = 1, α = 7, and Δ a = 0.1 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, τ s = 5; b, τ s = 50; c, τ s = 80; d, τ s = 100.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of x opt on z for different α in the case of Δ a = 0.1, ω L ∕ω p = 1, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, α = 5; b, α = 7; c, α = 10; d, α = 20.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dependence of p opt on z for different α in the case of Δ a = 0.1, ω L ∕ω p = 1, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, α = 5; b, α = 7; c, α = 10; d, α = 20.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of e on z for different α in the case of Δ a = 0.1, ω L ∕ω p = 1, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, α = 5; b, α = 7; c, α = 10; d, α = 20.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dependence of w on z for different α in the case of Δ a = 0.1, ω L ∕ω p = 1, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, α = 5; b, α = 7; c, α = 10; d, α = 20.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dependence of x opt on z for different ω p ∕ω L in the case of Δ a = 0.1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, ω L ∕ω p = 0.125; b, ω L ∕ω p = 0.25; c, ω L p = 0.5; d, ω L ∕ω p = 1; e, ω L ∕ω p = 2; f, ω L ∕ω p = 4; g, ω L ∕ω p = 8.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Dependence of p opt on z for different ω p ∕ω L in the case of Δ a = 0.1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, ω L ∕ω p = 0.125; b, ω L ∕ω p = 0.25; c, ω L ∕ω p = 0.5; d, ω L ∕ω p = 1; e, ω L ∕ω p = 2; f, ω L ∕ω p = 4; g, ω L ∕ω p = 8.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Dependence of e on z for different ω p ∕ω L in the case of Δ a = 0.1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, ω L ∕ω p = 0.125; b, ω L ∕ω p = 0.25; c, ω L ∕ω p = 0.5; d, ω L ∕ω p = 1; e, ω L ∕ω p = 2; f, ω L ∕ω p = 4; g, ω L ∕ω p = 8.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Dependence of w on z for different ω p ∕ω L in the case of Δ a = 0.1, α = 7, and τ s = 5 when the laser is a peak-power-maximized doubly Q-switched laser. a, ω L ∕ω p = 0.125; b, ω L ∕ω p = 0.25; c, ω L ∕ω p = 0.5; d, ω L ∕ω p = 1; e, ω L ∕ω p = 2; f, ω L ∕ω p = 4; g, ω L ∕ω p = 8.

Equations (36)

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0 d ϕ ( r , t ) d t 2 π r d r = 0 ϕ ( r , t ) t r { 2 σ n ( r , t ) l 2 σ gsa n sg ( r , t ) l s 2 σ esa × [ n s 0 n sg ( r , t ) ] l s ln ( 1 R ) L δ a ( t ) } 2 π r d r ,
d n ( r , t ) d t = γ σ c ϕ ( r , t ) n ( r , t ) ,
d n sg ( r , t ) d t = S g S s σ gsa c ϕ ( r , t ) n sg ( r , t ) .
ϕ ( r , t ) = ϕ ( 0 , t ) exp ( 2 r 2 ω L 2 ) ,
δ a ( t ) = δ a   exp [ ( t t s ) 2 ] ,
ϕ ( r , 0 ) = 10 4 ϕ m ( r , t ) ,
n sg ( r , 0 ) = n s 0 ,
n ( r , 0 ) = n ( 0 , 0 ) exp ( 2 r 2 ω p     2 ) ,
n ( r , t ) = n ( 0 , 0 ) exp ( 2 r 2 ω p     2 ) × exp [ - γσ c  exp ( 2 r 2 ω L     2 ) 0 t ϕ ( 0 , t ) d t ] ,
n sg ( r , t ) = n s 0  exp [ S g S s c σ gsa  exp ( 2 r 2 ω L 2 ) × 0 t ϕ ( 0 , t ) d t ] .
d ϕ ( 0 , t ) d t = 4 σ n ( 0 , 0 ) l ϕ ( 0 , t ) ω L 2 t r 0 exp [ γ c σ  exp ( 2 r 2 ω L 2 ) 0 t ϕ ( 0 , t ) d t ] exp [ 2 r 2 ( 1 ω p 2 + 1 ω L 2 ) ] 2 r dr 4 ( σ gsa σ esa ) n s 0 l s ϕ ( 0 , t ) ω L 2 t r 0 exp [ S g S s c σ gsa   exp ( 2 r 2 ω L 2 ) 0 t ϕ ( 0 , t ) d t ] exp ( 2 r 2 ω L 2 ) 2 r d r ϕ ( 0 , t ) t r [ ln ( 1 R ) + σ esa σ gsa   ln ( 1 T 0 2 ) + L ] ϕ ( 0 , t ) t r δ a   exp ( t 2 t s 2 ) ,
T 0 = exp ( σ gsa n s 0 l s ) .
n ( 0 , 0 ) = ln ( 1 / R ) + ln ( 1 / T 0 2 ) + L + δ a 2 σ l ( 1 + ω L 2 ω p 2 ) .
τ = t t r [ 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ] ,
τ s = t s t r [ 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ] ,
Φ ( r , τ ) = ϕ ( r , τ ) 2 γ σ l 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ,
x = ( 1 δ ) ln ( 1 / R ) 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ,
y = ( 1 δ ) ln ( 1 / T 0 2 ) 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ,
z = ( 1 δ ) L 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a + δ ,
Δ a = δ a 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ,
x + y + z = 1.
d Φ ( 0 , τ ) d τ = Φ ( 0 , τ ) ( 1 + Δ a ) 0 1 exp { A ( τ ) u β } d u [ 1 ( x + z ) ] Φ ( 0 , τ ) 1 exp [ α A ( τ ) ] α A ( τ ) ( x + z ) Φ ( 0 , τ ) Δ a Φ ( 0 , τ ) × exp ( τ 2 / τ s     2 ) ,
u = exp [ 2 r 2 ( 1 ω L     2 + 1 ω p     2 ) ] ,
A ( τ ) = 0 τ Φ ( 0 , τ ) d τ ,
α = σ gsa S g γ σ S s .
P m = h ν A l ln ( 1 / R ) t ϕ m = π ω L     2 h ν 4 σ γ t r [ 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ] ln ( 1 / R ) Φ m ,
E = h ν A l l n ( 1 / R ) t r 0 ϕ ( t ) d t
= π ω L     2 h ν 4 σ γ   ln ( 1 / R ) Φ int ,
W E P m ,
Φ int = 0 Φ ( 0 , τ ) d τ .
e = 4 σ γ π ω L 2 h ν 1 δ 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a E ,
p = 4 σ γ t r π ω L 2 h ν 1 δ [ 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a ] 2 P m ,
w = 2 β n ( 0 , 0 ) σ l δ a t r W .
e = x Φ int ,
p = x Φ m ,
w e p .

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