Abstract

Analysis of the first interferometric fringes recorded at Dome C, Antarctica are presented. Measurements were taken 31 January and 1 February 2005 during daytime. Our purpose in performing the analysis was to measure temporal fluctuations of the atmospheric piston, which are critical for interferometers, and determine their sensitivity. These scales are derived through the motion of the image that is formed in the focal plane of a Fizeau interferometer. We could establish a lower limit to the coherence time by studying the decay rate of correlation between successive fringes. Coherence times are measured to be larger than 10  ms, i.e., at least three times higher than the median coherence time measured at the site of Paranal (3.3  ms).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, A. Tokovinin, and T. Travouillon, "Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica," Nature 431, 278-281 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, "The ESO differential image motion monitor," Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294-300 (1990).
  5. C. Markwardt, Mpfit version 1.38, cow.physics.wisc.edu/&\sim$craigm/idl/fitting.html (2005).
  6. F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281-376 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Conan, G. Rousset, and P. Y. Madec, "Wave-front spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559-1570 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Markwardt, Mpfit version 1.38, cow.physics.wisc.edu/&\sim$craigm/idl/fitting.html (2005).

2004 (1)

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, A. Tokovinin, and T. Travouillon, "Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica," Nature 431, 278-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, "The ESO differential image motion monitor," Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294-300 (1990).

1981 (1)

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281-376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Absil, O.

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agabi, A.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aristidi, E.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, M. C. B.

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, A. Tokovinin, and T. Travouillon, "Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica," Nature 431, 278-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azouit, M.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J. M.

den Hartog, R. H.

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fabry, P.

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fossat, E.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gitton, P. B.

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gondoin, P. A.

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J. S.

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, A. Tokovinin, and T. Travouillon, "Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica," Nature 431, 278-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madec, P. Y.

Markwardt, C.

C. Markwardt, Mpfit version 1.38, cow.physics.wisc.edu/&\sim$craigm/idl/fitting.html (2005).

Martin, F.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puech, F.

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, "The ESO differential image motion monitor," Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294-300 (1990).

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281-376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

Sadibekova, T.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, "The ESO differential image motion monitor," Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294-300 (1990).

Tokovinin, A.

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, A. Tokovinin, and T. Travouillon, "Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica," Nature 431, 278-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travouillon, T.

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, A. Tokovinin, and T. Travouillon, "Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica," Nature 431, 278-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vernin, J.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelm, R. C.

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziad, A.

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

O. Absil, R. H. den Hartog, P. A. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. C. Wilhelm, P. B. Gitton, and F. Puech, "Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers. Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE," Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787-800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, "The ESO differential image motion monitor," Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294-300 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, A. Tokovinin, and T. Travouillon, "Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica," Nature 431, 278-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Opt. (1)

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281-376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

A. Agabi, E. Aristidi, M. Azouit, E. Fossat, F. Martin, T. Sadibekova, J. Vernin, and A. Ziad, "First whole-atmosphere night-time seeing measurements at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 344-348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Markwardt, Mpfit version 1.38, cow.physics.wisc.edu/&\sim$craigm/idl/fitting.html (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of an image recorded through the interferometer. The mask openings are aligned along the x axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of data points recorded along the interferometric axis. The fit (solid curve) is done on four parameters ( θ f , k , θ 0 , I 0 ) , by use of Eq. (5). The graph refers to an image of film 5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solid curve is rms deviations of the axial image motion, measured over subsets of increasing size between 100 and 723 images. Dashed line represents the rms deviations of the axial separation between the central fringe and the combined Airy disks. The graph refers to the data set of film 5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cumulative squared norm of the Fourier transform for the data set of film 5. Axial image motion (solid curve) and separation between central fringe and Airy disk (dashed).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Structure function of the separation between the central fringe and the combined Airy disks. The fits correspond to coherence times equal to 10 (upper curve), 30, and 50   ms (lower curve) [see Eq. (8)]. During films 1, 3, and 5–8 the coherence time seems to have been superior to 10   ms .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fig. 5(Continued).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Seeing angles measured by two DIMM instruments located 3.5 and 8.5 m above ground, on 31 January and 1 February 2005.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Observational Setup a

Equations (8)

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θ Airy = 2.44 λ 0 / D = 3.98  arc sec ,
θ fringe = λ 0 / B = 0.49  arc sec ,
θ coh = 2 λ 0     2 / ( B Δ λ ) = 1.86  arc sec ,
I ( θ ) = 2 I ( 0 ) [ J 1 ( 2.44 π θ θ A iry ) 2 .44 π θ θ Airy ] 2 [ 1 + sinc ( 2 π θ θ coh ) cos ( 2 π θ θ fringe ) ] .
I ( θ ) = θ θ pixel / 2 θ + θ pixel / 2 2 I 0 { J 1 [ 2.44 π ( θ θ 0 ) θ Airy ] 2 .44 π ( θ θ 0 ) θ Airy } 2 × { 1 + k   sinc [ 2 π ( θ θ f ) θ coh ] × cos [ 2 π ( θ θ f ) θ fringes ] } d θ .
σ ( θ ) = ( σ p ( θ ) 2 + σ d       2 ) 1 / 2 .
D Δ θ ( t ) = | Δ θ ( τ + t ) Δ θ ( τ ) | 2 ,
D ( t ) = D ( t t 0 ) × { 1 exp [ ( t / t 0 ) 5 / 3 ] } ,

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