Abstract

An innovative balloonborne microjoule lidar (MULID) has been developed within the framework of the HIBISCUS project to provide nighttime measurements of visible and subvisible cirrus and aerosols. MULID has been designed to be a low-cost and an ultralow consumption instrument, due to the remote possibilities of payload recovery and the necessity of a low-weight battery power supply. Ground tests have been performed at the Observatory of Haute Provence (France), and the first technical flight has been made from Trapani, Italy, on a stratospheric balloon; finally, the instrument has been scientifically deployed during the pre-HIBISCUS and HIBISCUS tropical campaigns in Bauru, Brazil, in February 2003 and February 2004, respectively. A description of the instrument is provided together with the results of the ground-based and flight tests as well as an overview and discussion of the first results.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Garrett, A. J. Heymsfield, M. J. McGill, B. A. Ridley, D. G. Baumgardner, T. P. Bui, and C. R. Webster, "Convective generation of cirrus near the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21203, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41°N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108, 4167-4171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

A. Behrendt and T. Nakamura, "Calculation of the calibration constant of polarization lidar and its dependency on atmospheric temperature," Opt. Express 10, 805-817 (2002).
[PubMed]

V. Noel, H. Chepfer, G. Ledanois, A. Delaval, and P. H. Flamant, "Classification of particle effective shape ratios in cirrus clouds based on the lidar depolarization ratio," Appl. Opt. 41, 4245-4257 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mitev, R. Matthey, and V. Makarov, "Miniature backscatter lidar for cloud and aerosol observation from high altitude aircraft, part II," Recent Res. Dev. Geophys. 4, 1-11 (2002).

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Knudsen, J. P. Pommereau, A. Garnier, M. Nunez-Pinharanda, L. Denis, P. Newman, G. Letrenne, and M. Durand, "Accuracy of analyzed stratospheric temperatures in the winter arctic vortex from infra red Montgolfier long duration balloon flights. Part II: results," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4316-4327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

F. Vial, A. Hertzog, C. R. Mechoso, C. Basdevant, P. Coquerez, V. Dubourg, and F. Nouel, "A study of the dynamics of the equatorial lower stratosphere by use of ultra long duration balloons. Part I: planetary scales," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22725-22743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Hartmann, J. R. Holton, and Q. Fu, "The heat balance of the tropical tropopause, cirrus, and stratospheric dehydration," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1969-1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, "Constraints on PSC particle microphysics derived from lidar observations," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 817-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen and S. Benson, "A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103-2112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nee, C. N. Len, W. N. Chen, and C. I. Lin, "Lidar Observation of the cirrus cloud in the tropopause at Chung-Li (25°N, 121°E)," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2249-2257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker and C. R. Trepte, "Laminar cirrus observed near the tropical tropopause by LITE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3351-3354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ancellet and F. Ravetta, "Compact airborne lidar for tropospheric ozone: description and field measurements," Appl. Opt. 37, 5509-5521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, L. Pfister, and H. B. Selkirk, "Dehydration of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by subvisible cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 825-828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

J. R. Holton, P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, "Stratosphere-troposphere exchange," Rev. Geophys. 33, 403-439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, "Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles," Opt. Lett. 20, 1356-1363 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Young, "Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optically thin clouds," Appl. Opt. 34, 7019-7031 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscatter ratio," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219-11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

M. Kästner, K. T. Kriebel, R. Meerkötter, W. Renger, G. H. Ruppersberg, and P. Wendling, "Comparison of cirrus height and optical depth derived from satellite and aircraft measurements," Mon. Weather Rev. 121, 2708-2718 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, "A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850-867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu and K. N. Liou, "Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 2008-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. D. Spinhirne and W. D. Hart, "Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study," Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329-2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. N. Liou, "Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective," Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

J. P. Pommereau, F. Dalaudier, J. Barat, J. L. Bertaux, F. Goutail, and A. Hauchecorne, "First results of a stratospheric experiment using a Montgolfiere infra-rouge (MIR)," Adv. Space Res. 5, 27-30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Klett, "Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratio," Appl. Opt. 24, 1638-1645 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1973 (1)

C. M. Platt, "Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191-1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gettelman, A.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ammerman, M.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G.

Artaxo, P.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldy, S.

B. Cadet, V. Giraud, M. Haeffelin, P. Keckhut, A. Rechou, and S. Baldy, "Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1726-1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barat, J.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Dalaudier, J. Barat, J. L. Bertaux, F. Goutail, and A. Hauchecorne, "First results of a stratospheric experiment using a Montgolfiere infra-rouge (MIR)," Adv. Space Res. 5, 27-30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Basdevant, C.

F. Vial, A. Hertzog, C. R. Mechoso, C. Basdevant, P. Coquerez, V. Dubourg, and F. Nouel, "A study of the dynamics of the equatorial lower stratosphere by use of ultra long duration balloons. Part I: planetary scales," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22725-22743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baumgardner, D. G.

T. J. Garrett, A. J. Heymsfield, M. J. McGill, B. A. Ridley, D. G. Baumgardner, T. P. Bui, and C. R. Webster, "Convective generation of cirrus near the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21203, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Behrendt, A.

Benson, S.

K. Sassen and S. Benson, "A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103-2112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bertaux, J. L.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Dalaudier, J. Barat, J. L. Bertaux, F. Goutail, and A. Hauchecorne, "First results of a stratospheric experiment using a Montgolfiere infra-rouge (MIR)," Adv. Space Res. 5, 27-30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Beuermann, J.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borrmann, S.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bui, T. P.

T. J. Garrett, A. J. Heymsfield, M. J. McGill, B. A. Ridley, D. G. Baumgardner, T. P. Bui, and C. R. Webster, "Convective generation of cirrus near the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21203, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bui, T. V.

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cadet, B.

B. Cadet, V. Giraud, M. Haeffelin, P. Keckhut, A. Rechou, and S. Baldy, "Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1726-1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carslaw, K. S.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. F.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M.-L.

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, "A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850-867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. N.

J. B. Nee, C. N. Len, W. N. Chen, and C. I. Lin, "Lidar Observation of the cirrus cloud in the tropopause at Chung-Li (25°N, 121°E)," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2249-2257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chepfer, H.

Christopher, S. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coquerez, P.

F. Vial, A. Hertzog, C. R. Mechoso, C. Basdevant, P. Coquerez, V. Dubourg, and F. Nouel, "A study of the dynamics of the equatorial lower stratosphere by use of ultra long duration balloons. Part I: planetary scales," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22725-22743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dalaudier, F.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Dalaudier, J. Barat, J. L. Bertaux, F. Goutail, and A. Hauchecorne, "First results of a stratospheric experiment using a Montgolfiere infra-rouge (MIR)," Adv. Space Res. 5, 27-30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

de F. Forster, P.M.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delaval, A.

Denis, L.

B. M. Knudsen, J. P. Pommereau, A. Garnier, M. Nunez-Pinharanda, L. Denis, P. Newman, G. Letrenne, and M. Durand, "Accuracy of analyzed stratospheric temperatures in the winter arctic vortex from infra red Montgolfier long duration balloon flights. Part II: results," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4316-4327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41°N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108, 4167-4171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Di Donfrancesco, G.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Douglass, A. R.

J. R. Holton, P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, "Stratosphere-troposphere exchange," Rev. Geophys. 33, 403-439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dubourg, V.

F. Vial, A. Hertzog, C. R. Mechoso, C. Basdevant, P. Coquerez, V. Dubourg, and F. Nouel, "A study of the dynamics of the equatorial lower stratosphere by use of ultra long duration balloons. Part I: planetary scales," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22725-22743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Durand, M.

B. M. Knudsen, J. P. Pommereau, A. Garnier, M. Nunez-Pinharanda, L. Denis, P. Newman, G. Letrenne, and M. Durand, "Accuracy of analyzed stratospheric temperatures in the winter arctic vortex from infra red Montgolfier long duration balloon flights. Part II: results," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4316-4327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faduilhe, D.

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Flamant, P. H.

Flentje, H.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Hartmann, J. R. Holton, and Q. Fu, "The heat balance of the tropical tropopause, cirrus, and stratospheric dehydration," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1969-1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu and K. N. Liou, "Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 2008-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fueglistaler, S.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, A.

B. M. Knudsen, J. P. Pommereau, A. Garnier, M. Nunez-Pinharanda, L. Denis, P. Newman, G. Letrenne, and M. Durand, "Accuracy of analyzed stratospheric temperatures in the winter arctic vortex from infra red Montgolfier long duration balloon flights. Part II: results," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4316-4327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, T. J.

T. J. Garrett, A. J. Heymsfield, M. J. McGill, B. A. Ridley, D. G. Baumgardner, T. P. Bui, and C. R. Webster, "Convective generation of cirrus near the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21203, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gary, B.

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giraud, V.

B. Cadet, V. Giraud, M. Haeffelin, P. Keckhut, A. Rechou, and S. Baldy, "Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1726-1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J. F.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscatter ratio," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219-11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gohar, L. K.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldfarb, L.

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goutail, F.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Dalaudier, J. Barat, J. L. Bertaux, F. Goutail, and A. Hauchecorne, "First results of a stratospheric experiment using a Montgolfiere infra-rouge (MIR)," Adv. Space Res. 5, 27-30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haeffelin, M.

Hart, W. D.

J. D. Spinhirne and W. D. Hart, "Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study," Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329-2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, D. L.

D. L. Hartmann, J. R. Holton, and Q. Fu, "The heat balance of the tropical tropopause, cirrus, and stratospheric dehydration," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1969-1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, "A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850-867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Pommereau, F. Dalaudier, J. Barat, J. L. Bertaux, F. Goutail, and A. Hauchecorne, "First results of a stratospheric experiment using a Montgolfiere infra-rouge (MIR)," Adv. Space Res. 5, 27-30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, P. H.

J. R. Holton, P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, "Stratosphere-troposphere exchange," Rev. Geophys. 33, 403-439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hertzog, A.

F. Vial, A. Hertzog, C. R. Mechoso, C. Basdevant, P. Coquerez, V. Dubourg, and F. Nouel, "A study of the dynamics of the equatorial lower stratosphere by use of ultra long duration balloons. Part I: planetary scales," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22725-22743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hervig, M. E.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41°N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108, 4167-4171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

T. J. Garrett, A. J. Heymsfield, M. J. McGill, B. A. Ridley, D. G. Baumgardner, T. P. Bui, and C. R. Webster, "Convective generation of cirrus near the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21203, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Higdon, N. S.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hintsa, E.

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41°N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108, 4167-4171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holton, J. R.

D. L. Hartmann, J. R. Holton, and Q. Fu, "The heat balance of the tropical tropopause, cirrus, and stratospheric dehydration," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1969-1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Holton, P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, "Stratosphere-troposphere exchange," Rev. Geophys. 33, 403-439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

Ismail, S.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, E. J.

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, L. Pfister, and H. B. Selkirk, "Dehydration of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by subvisible cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 825-828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Q.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johanson, C.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kästner, M.

M. Kästner, K. T. Kriebel, R. Meerkötter, W. Renger, G. H. Ruppersberg, and P. Wendling, "Comparison of cirrus height and optical depth derived from satellite and aircraft measurements," Mon. Weather Rev. 121, 2708-2718 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keckhut, P.

B. Cadet, V. Giraud, M. Haeffelin, P. Keckhut, A. Rechou, and S. Baldy, "Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1726-1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, "A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850-867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khattatov, V.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

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[CrossRef]

Strom, J.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, A.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toci, G.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, L. Pfister, and H. B. Selkirk, "Dehydration of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by subvisible cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 825-828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trautmann, T.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trepte, C. R.

D. M. Winker and C. R. Trepte, "Laminar cirrus observed near the tropical tropopause by LITE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3351-3354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S.-C.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vial, F.

F. Vial, A. Hertzog, C. R. Mechoso, C. Basdevant, P. Coquerez, V. Dubourg, and F. Nouel, "A study of the dynamics of the equatorial lower stratosphere by use of ultra long duration balloons. Part I: planetary scales," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22725-22743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Volk, C. M.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volk, M.

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vömel, H.

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ward, D. E.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

T. J. Garrett, A. J. Heymsfield, M. J. McGill, B. A. Ridley, D. G. Baumgardner, T. P. Bui, and C. R. Webster, "Convective generation of cirrus near the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21203, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wendling, P.

M. Kästner, K. T. Kriebel, R. Meerkötter, W. Renger, G. H. Ruppersberg, and P. Wendling, "Comparison of cirrus height and optical depth derived from satellite and aircraft measurements," Mon. Weather Rev. 121, 2708-2718 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wernli, H.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker and C. R. Trepte, "Laminar cirrus observed near the tropical tropopause by LITE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3351-3354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

Young, S. A.

Yushkov, V.

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yushkov, V. A.

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. P. Pommereau, F. Dalaudier, J. Barat, J. L. Bertaux, F. Goutail, and A. Hauchecorne, "First results of a stratospheric experiment using a Montgolfiere infra-rouge (MIR)," Adv. Space Res. 5, 27-30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

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K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

D. M. Winker and C. R. Trepte, "Laminar cirrus observed near the tropical tropopause by LITE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3351-3354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, L. Pfister, and H. B. Selkirk, "Dehydration of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by subvisible cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 825-828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Hartmann, J. R. Holton, and Q. Fu, "The heat balance of the tropical tropopause, cirrus, and stratospheric dehydration," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1969-1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Luo, T. Peter, S. Fueglistaler, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, H. Flentje, V. A. Yushkov, V. Khattatov, V. Rudakov, A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, J. Beuermann, C. Schiller, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, C. M. Volk, J. Strom, K. Noone, V. Mitev, R. A. MacKenzie, K. S. Carslaw, T. Trautmann, V. Santacesaria, and L. Stefanutti, "Dehydration potential of ultrathin clouds at the tropical tropopause," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 11-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Cadet, L. Goldfarb, D. Faduilhe, S. Baldy, V. Giraud, P. Keckhut, and A. Réchou, "A subtropical cirrus clouds climatology from Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) lidar data set," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1130-. (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. (1)

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere - Polar stratospheric clouds," Geophys. Res. Lett. Suppl. 17, 385-388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, "A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 850-867 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (4)

C. M. Platt, "Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191-1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen and S. Benson, "A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103-2112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nee, C. N. Len, W. N. Chen, and C. I. Lin, "Lidar Observation of the cirrus cloud in the tropopause at Chung-Li (25°N, 121°E)," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2249-2257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu and K. N. Liou, "Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 2008-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

T. J. Garrett, A. J. Heymsfield, M. J. McGill, B. A. Ridley, D. G. Baumgardner, T. P. Bui, and C. R. Webster, "Convective generation of cirrus near the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21203, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Knudsen, J. P. Pommereau, A. Garnier, M. Nunez-Pinharanda, L. Denis, P. Newman, G. Letrenne, and M. Durand, "Accuracy of analyzed stratospheric temperatures in the winter arctic vortex from infra red Montgolfier long duration balloon flights. Part II: results," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4316-4327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Vial, A. Hertzog, C. R. Mechoso, C. Basdevant, P. Coquerez, V. Dubourg, and F. Nouel, "A study of the dynamics of the equatorial lower stratosphere by use of ultra long duration balloons. Part I: planetary scales," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22725-22743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, E. J. Jensen, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, B. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, T. V. Bui, and E. Hintsa, "Aircraft observations of thin cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9765-9786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Thomas, S. Borrmann, C. Kiemle, F. Cairo, M. Volk, J. Beuermann, B. Lepuchov, V. Santacesarea, R. Matthey, V. Yushkov, R. MacKenzie, and L. Stefanutti, "In situ measurements of background aerosol and cirrus in the tropical tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4763, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gettelman, P. M. de F. Forster, M. Fujiwara, Q. Fu, H. Vömel, L. K. Gohar, C. Johanson, and M. Ammerman, "Radiation balance of the tropical tropopause layer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D07103, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41°N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108, 4167-4171 (2003).
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G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscatter ratio," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219-11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] (1)

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay, "Smoke, clouds and radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment," J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 103, 31783-31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, "Constraints on PSC particle microphysics derived from lidar observations," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 817-831 (2001).
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Mon. Weather Rev. (3)

J. D. Spinhirne and W. D. Hart, "Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study," Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329-2343 (1990).
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M. Kästner, K. T. Kriebel, R. Meerkötter, W. Renger, G. H. Ruppersberg, and P. Wendling, "Comparison of cirrus height and optical depth derived from satellite and aircraft measurements," Mon. Weather Rev. 121, 2708-2718 (1993).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Recent Res. Dev. Geophys. (1)

V. Mitev, R. Matthey, and V. Makarov, "Miniature backscatter lidar for cloud and aerosol observation from high altitude aircraft, part II," Recent Res. Dev. Geophys. 4, 1-11 (2002).

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J. R. Holton, P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, "Stratosphere-troposphere exchange," Rev. Geophys. 33, 403-439 (1995).
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Other (3)

Hibiscus webpage: www.aero.jussieu.fr/projet/HIBISCUS/en/many/index.html.

J. P. Pommereau, "HIBISCUS: Impact of tropical convection on the UTLS, Overview," presented at the European Geosciences Union Second General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 24-29 April 2005, Paper EGU05-A-11181; AS3.07-1MO2O-001.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 1984).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the MULID instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of MULID in the laboratory. This instrument has been designed for downward viewing. The positions of the laser head on the side of the telescope, the data acquisition box, including the PC8086 and DSP, and the optical box containing the interference filter, collimating optics, and photodetectors are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simultaneous measurements of the backscatter ratio performed by MULID and the OHP lidar on 14 December 2000 at OHP, France, are displayed in terms of photoelectron total counts versus altitude (150 s acquisition averages). The estimated errors in the MULID signal is approximately 5% at low altitudes up to 50% above 5 km due to the low photon counting rate with respect to the background. Please note the different vertical log scales for the 2 systems, with 2 orders of magnitude of difference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plot of scattering ratio profiles as measured with a MULID during the test flight above Trapani, Italy, displayed as a function of time. The plot shows the atmospheric structures seen by a MULID during the entire nighttime flight (1.5 h); a subvisible aerosol layer is detected at the tropopause level (14.5 km) at the end of the flight. The ascent rate is approximately 5–6 m∕s and the horizontal velocity approximately 50 km∕h.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Balloon flight tracks from Bauru, Brazil, for 19 February 2003 (upper) and 23 February 2003 (lower).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour plots of scattering ratio (upper panel) and depolarization ratio (lower panel) profiles as measured with the MULID during the first pre-HIBISCUS flight above Bauru, Brazil, are displayed versus time. Plot shows the atmospheric structures seen by the MULID during the nighttime flight (1.5 h); a cirrus cloud is present during most of the flight, while a subvisible cirrus (evident in the depolarization measurement) is detected just below the tropopause level (16 km) at the end of the flight. Some nondepolarizing aerosol layers were also detected in the PBL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contour plot of scattering ratio profiles obtained with MULID during the second pre-HIBISCUS flight above Bauru, Brazil, versus time. Plot shows the atmospheric structures seen by the MULID during the nighttime flight (0.75 h); no cirrus clouds were present during the entire flight, while some layered structures with aerosol were detected in the PBL at the end of the flight.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 MULID System Parameters

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( z ) = K A r Ω E [ β m ( z ) + β a ( z ) ] × exp { 2 z 0 z [ σ m ( r ) + σ a ( r ) ] d r } / [ z z 0 ] 2 ,
n B = n detector + K A r I B Ω Δ λ ,
S / N ( z ) = n ( z ) Δ t / { [ n ( z ) + n B ] Δ t } 1 / 2 ,
R = [ β a + β m ] / β m ,
β a ( z ) = k σ a ( z )
δ = C [ β s / β p ] ,

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