Abstract

The polarization discrimination technique we recently developed, shows that it is possible to separate the elastic scattering and the chlorophyll fluorescence signal from the water-leaving radiance by making use of the fact that the elastically scattered components are partially polarized, while the fluorescence signal is unpolarized. The technique has been shown to be applicable to a wide range of water conditions. We present an extension of experimental and analytical results, which serve to define the scope of this technique and its range of applicability. A new analysis, based on vector radiative transfer computations, and on laboratory and field measurements on eastern Long Island and in the Chesapeake Bay, shows that the technique is generally effective for both open ocean and coastal waters, but that it is limited if the ocean bottom albedo and∕or multiple scattering due to very high mineral particle concentrations result in depolarizing the water-leaving radiance. In addition, we show that in contrast with the polarization-based retrieval, the traditional method of extracting fluorescence height using the baseline method can give significant errors, particularly for coastal waters where it strongly overestimates the fluorescence values.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (1)

2005 (5)

H. R. Gordon, "Normalized water-leaving radiance revisiting the influence of surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 44, 241-248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dall'Olmo and A. A. Gitelson, "Effect of bio-optical parameter variability on the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters: experimental results," Appl. Opt. 44, 412-422 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Laney, R. M. Letelier, and M. R. Abbott, "Parameterizing the natural fluorescence kinetics of Thalassiosira weissflogii," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1499-1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Wozniak and D. Stramski, "Modeling of the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. H. Szekielda, C. Gobler, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Spectral reflectance measurements of estuarine waters," Ocean Dyn. 53, 98-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Pozdnyakov, A. Lyaskovsky, H. Grassl, and L. Petterson, "Numerical modeling of transspectral processes in natural waters: implications for remote sensing," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 1581-1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

1999 (2)

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurement of diffuse marine reflectance," Appl. Opt. 38, 3844-3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. R. Gower, R. Doerffer, and G. A. Borstad, "Interpretation of the 685 nm peak in water-leaving radiance spectra in terms of fluorescence, absorption and scattering, and its observation by MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1771-1786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Hu and K. J. Voss, "Measurements of solar-stimulated fluorescence in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1198-1206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

M. Babin, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, "Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence," Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417-2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Letelier and M. R. Abbott, "An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 215-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. Han, D. C. Rundquist, L. L. Liu, R. N. Fraser, and J. F. Schalles, "The spectral responses of algal chlorophyll in water with varying levels of suspended sediment," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3707-3718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Green and N. V. Blough, "Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903-1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Morel, "Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications," Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263-306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Fischer and U. Kronfeld, "Sun-stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. 1. Influence of oceanic properties," Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 2125-2147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenuous matter content (Case 1 waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, "The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light," Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-397 (1987).

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea-surface derived from sun-glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

Abbott, M. R.

S. R. Laney, R. M. Letelier, and M. R. Abbott, "Parameterizing the natural fluorescence kinetics of Thalassiosira weissflogii," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1499-1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Letelier and M. R. Abbott, "An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 215-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S.

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Szekielda, C. Gobler, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Spectral reflectance measurements of estuarine waters," Ocean Dyn. 53, 98-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, B. Elmaanaoui, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Separation of fluorescence and scattering from algae and suspended solids in seawater through polarization: modeling and experiments," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005).

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Polarization technique for separating overlapping fluorescence and reflectance spectra applied to algae in seawater in the presence of suspended matter," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004).

Ahmed, S. A.

A. Gilerson, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, "Polarization characteristics of water-leaving radiance: application to separation of fluorescence and scattering components in coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of the Coastal Oceanic Environment, R. J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath, eds., Proc. SPIE 5885,95-105 (2005).

Amone, R.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, "Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence," Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417-2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blough, N. V.

S. A. Green and N. V. Blough, "Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903-1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Borstad, G. A.

J. F. R. Gower, R. Doerffer, and G. A. Borstad, "Interpretation of the 685 nm peak in water-leaving radiance spectra in terms of fluorescence, absorption and scattering, and its observation by MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1771-1786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bosma, P. B.

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, "The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light," Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-397 (1987).

Boss, E.

Bricaud, A.

Cairns, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "The contribution of the water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case I waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Castaing, P.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2938-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "The contribution of the water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case I waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, "Polarization characteristics of water-leaving radiance: application to separation of fluorescence and scattering components in coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of the Coastal Oceanic Environment, R. J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath, eds., Proc. SPIE 5885,95-105 (2005).

Cota, G. F.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea-surface derived from sun-glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

Dall'Olmo, G.

De Haan, J. F.

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, "The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light," Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-397 (1987).

Deschamps, P. Y.

Dilligeard, E.

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2938-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doerffer, R.

J. F. R. Gower, R. Doerffer, and G. A. Borstad, "Interpretation of the 685 nm peak in water-leaving radiance spectra in terms of fluorescence, absorption and scattering, and its observation by MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1771-1786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doxaran, D.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elmaanaoui, B.

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, B. Elmaanaoui, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Separation of fluorescence and scattering from algae and suspended solids in seawater through polarization: modeling and experiments," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005).

Etzion, D.

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Z. Yacobi, D. C. Rundquist, R. Stark, L. Han, and D. Etzion, "Remote estimation of chlorophyll concentration in productive waters: principals, algorithm development, and validation," in Proceedings of NWQMC, National Monitoring Conference (Austin, Texas, 2000), pp. 149-160.

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer and U. Kronfeld, "Sun-stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. 1. Influence of oceanic properties," Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 2125-2147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fougnie, B.

Fraser, R. N.

L. Han, D. C. Rundquist, L. L. Liu, R. N. Fraser, and J. F. Schalles, "The spectral responses of algal chlorophyll in water with varying levels of suspended sediment," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3707-3718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Froidefond, J. M.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Fry, E. S.

Fuchs, E.

Gentili, B.

M. Babin, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, "Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence," Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417-2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gilerson, A.

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, B. Elmaanaoui, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Separation of fluorescence and scattering from algae and suspended solids in seawater through polarization: modeling and experiments," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005).

A. Gilerson, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, "Polarization characteristics of water-leaving radiance: application to separation of fluorescence and scattering components in coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of the Coastal Oceanic Environment, R. J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath, eds., Proc. SPIE 5885,95-105 (2005).

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Polarization technique for separating overlapping fluorescence and reflectance spectra applied to algae in seawater in the presence of suspended matter," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004).

Gill, A.

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Polarization technique for separating overlapping fluorescence and reflectance spectra applied to algae in seawater in the presence of suspended matter," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004).

Gitelson, A. A.

G. Dall'Olmo and A. A. Gitelson, "Effect of bio-optical parameter variability on the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters: experimental results," Appl. Opt. 44, 412-422 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Z. Yacobi, D. C. Rundquist, R. Stark, L. Han, and D. Etzion, "Remote estimation of chlorophyll concentration in productive waters: principals, algorithm development, and validation," in Proceedings of NWQMC, National Monitoring Conference (Austin, Texas, 2000), pp. 149-160.

Gobler, C.

K. H. Szekielda, C. Gobler, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Spectral reflectance measurements of estuarine waters," Ocean Dyn. 53, 98-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Gower, J. F. R.

J. F. R. Gower, R. Doerffer, and G. A. Borstad, "Interpretation of the 685 nm peak in water-leaving radiance spectra in terms of fluorescence, absorption and scattering, and its observation by MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1771-1786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H.

D. Pozdnyakov, A. Lyaskovsky, H. Grassl, and L. Petterson, "Numerical modeling of transspectral processes in natural waters: implications for remote sensing," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 1581-1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Green, S. A.

S. A. Green and N. V. Blough, "Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903-1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

K. H. Szekielda, C. Gobler, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Spectral reflectance measurements of estuarine waters," Ocean Dyn. 53, 98-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, B. Elmaanaoui, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Separation of fluorescence and scattering from algae and suspended solids in seawater through polarization: modeling and experiments," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005).

Gross, B. M.

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, "Polarization characteristics of water-leaving radiance: application to separation of fluorescence and scattering components in coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of the Coastal Oceanic Environment, R. J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath, eds., Proc. SPIE 5885,95-105 (2005).

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Polarization technique for separating overlapping fluorescence and reflectance spectra applied to algae in seawater in the presence of suspended matter," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004).

Grum, F.

F. Grum, "Colorimetry of fluorescent materials," in Optical Radiation Measurements (Academic, 1980), Vol. 2, Chap. 6.

Han, L.

L. Han, D. C. Rundquist, L. L. Liu, R. N. Fraser, and J. F. Schalles, "The spectral responses of algal chlorophyll in water with varying levels of suspended sediment," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3707-3718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Z. Yacobi, D. C. Rundquist, R. Stark, L. Han, and D. Etzion, "Remote estimation of chlorophyll concentration in productive waters: principals, algorithm development, and validation," in Proceedings of NWQMC, National Monitoring Conference (Austin, Texas, 2000), pp. 149-160.

Heil, C. A.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hladik, C. M.

J. F. Schalles and C. M. Hladik, "Remote chlorophyll estimation in coastal waters with tripton and CDOM interferences," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, 2004).

Hobbs, P. V.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, "The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light," Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-397 (1987).

Hu, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu and K. J. Voss, "Measurements of solar-stimulated fluorescence in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1198-1206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Hwang, P. A.

Johns, E.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelble, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kronfeld, U.

J. Fischer and U. Kronfeld, "Sun-stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. 1. Influence of oceanic properties," Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 2125-2147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laney, S. R.

S. R. Laney, R. M. Letelier, and M. R. Abbott, "Parameterizing the natural fluorescence kinetics of Thalassiosira weissflogii," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1499-1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

Letelier, R. M.

S. R. Laney, R. M. Letelier, and M. R. Abbott, "Parameterizing the natural fluorescence kinetics of Thalassiosira weissflogii," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1499-1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Letelier and M. R. Abbott, "An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 215-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. L.

L. Han, D. C. Rundquist, L. L. Liu, R. N. Fraser, and J. F. Schalles, "The spectral responses of algal chlorophyll in water with varying levels of suspended sediment," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3707-3718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lyaskovsky, A.

D. Pozdnyakov, A. Lyaskovsky, H. Grassl, and L. Petterson, "Numerical modeling of transspectral processes in natural waters: implications for remote sensing," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 1581-1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

Morel, A.

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planctonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, "Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence," Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417-2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications," Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263-306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenuous matter content (Case 1 waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Moshary, F.

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Szekielda, C. Gobler, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Spectral reflectance measurements of estuarine waters," Ocean Dyn. 53, 98-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, B. Elmaanaoui, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Separation of fluorescence and scattering from algae and suspended solids in seawater through polarization: modeling and experiments," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005).

A. Gilerson, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, "Polarization characteristics of water-leaving radiance: application to separation of fluorescence and scattering components in coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of the Coastal Oceanic Environment, R. J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath, eds., Proc. SPIE 5885,95-105 (2005).

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Polarization technique for separating overlapping fluorescence and reflectance spectra applied to algae in seawater in the presence of suspended matter," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004).

Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea-surface derived from sun-glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

Oo, M.

A. Gilerson, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, "Polarization characteristics of water-leaving radiance: application to separation of fluorescence and scattering components in coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of the Coastal Oceanic Environment, R. J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath, eds., Proc. SPIE 5885,95-105 (2005).

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petterson, L.

D. Pozdnyakov, A. Lyaskovsky, H. Grassl, and L. Petterson, "Numerical modeling of transspectral processes in natural waters: implications for remote sensing," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 1581-1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pozdnyakov, D.

D. Pozdnyakov, A. Lyaskovsky, H. Grassl, and L. Petterson, "Numerical modeling of transspectral processes in natural waters: implications for remote sensing," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 1581-1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Redemann, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, D. C.

L. Han, D. C. Rundquist, L. L. Liu, R. N. Fraser, and J. F. Schalles, "The spectral responses of algal chlorophyll in water with varying levels of suspended sediment," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3707-3718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Z. Yacobi, D. C. Rundquist, R. Stark, L. Han, and D. Etzion, "Remote estimation of chlorophyll concentration in productive waters: principals, algorithm development, and validation," in Proceedings of NWQMC, National Monitoring Conference (Austin, Texas, 2000), pp. 149-160.

Russell, E.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rutledge, K.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2938-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schalles, J. F.

L. Han, D. C. Rundquist, L. L. Liu, R. N. Fraser, and J. F. Schalles, "The spectral responses of algal chlorophyll in water with varying levels of suspended sediment," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3707-3718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Schalles and C. M. Hladik, "Remote chlorophyll estimation in coastal waters with tripton and CDOM interferences," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, 2004).

Stark, R.

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Z. Yacobi, D. C. Rundquist, R. Stark, L. Han, and D. Etzion, "Remote estimation of chlorophyll concentration in productive waters: principals, algorithm development, and validation," in Proceedings of NWQMC, National Monitoring Conference (Austin, Texas, 2000), pp. 149-160.

Stramski, D.

Sydor, M.

Szekielda, K. H.

K. H. Szekielda, C. Gobler, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Spectral reflectance measurements of estuarine waters," Ocean Dyn. 53, 98-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C. J.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

Voss, K. J.

C. Hu and K. J. Voss, "Measurements of solar-stimulated fluorescence in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1198-1206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, "Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water," Appl. Opt. 23, 4427-4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wozniak, S. B.

Yacobi, Y. Z.

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Z. Yacobi, D. C. Rundquist, R. Stark, L. Han, and D. Etzion, "Remote estimation of chlorophyll concentration in productive waters: principals, algorithm development, and validation," in Proceedings of NWQMC, National Monitoring Conference (Austin, Texas, 2000), pp. 149-160.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Zhou, J.

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, B. Elmaanaoui, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Separation of fluorescence and scattering from algae and suspended solids in seawater through polarization: modeling and experiments," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005).

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Polarization technique for separating overlapping fluorescence and reflectance spectra applied to algae in seawater in the presence of suspended matter," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004).

Appl. Opt. (10)

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2938-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, "Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water," Appl. Opt. 23, 4427-4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sydor and R. Amone, "Effect of suspended particulate and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters," Appl. Opt. 36, 6905-6912 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurement of diffuse marine reflectance," Appl. Opt. 38, 3844-3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planctonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Fuchs, "Separating the fluorescence and reflectance components of coral spectra," Appl. Opt. 40, 3614-3621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Wozniak and D. Stramski, "Modeling of the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, "Normalized water-leaving radiance revisiting the influence of surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 44, 241-248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dall'Olmo and A. A. Gitelson, "Effect of bio-optical parameter variability on the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters: experimental results," Appl. Opt. 44, 412-422 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "The contribution of the water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case I waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, "The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light," Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-397 (1987).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (5)

L. Han, D. C. Rundquist, L. L. Liu, R. N. Fraser, and J. F. Schalles, "The spectral responses of algal chlorophyll in water with varying levels of suspended sediment," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3707-3718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, "Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence," Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417-2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Pozdnyakov, A. Lyaskovsky, H. Grassl, and L. Petterson, "Numerical modeling of transspectral processes in natural waters: implications for remote sensing," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 1581-1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. R. Gower, R. Doerffer, and G. A. Borstad, "Interpretation of the 685 nm peak in water-leaving radiance spectra in terms of fluorescence, absorption and scattering, and its observation by MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1771-1786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer and U. Kronfeld, "Sun-stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. 1. Influence of oceanic properties," Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 2125-2147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. N. Holben, and E. Russell, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the CLAMS experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenuous matter content (Case 1 waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea-surface derived from sun-glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

S. A. Green and N. V. Blough, "Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903-1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu and K. J. Voss, "Measurements of solar-stimulated fluorescence in natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1198-1206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Laney, R. M. Letelier, and M. R. Abbott, "Parameterizing the natural fluorescence kinetics of Thalassiosira weissflogii," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1499-1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ocean Dyn. (1)

K. H. Szekielda, C. Gobler, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Spectral reflectance measurements of estuarine waters," Ocean Dyn. 53, 98-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

A. Morel, "Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications," Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263-306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

R. M. Letelier and M. R. Abbott, "An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 215-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, "Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: a regional example in SW Florida coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 311-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

F. Grum, "Colorimetry of fluorescent materials," in Optical Radiation Measurements (Academic, 1980), Vol. 2, Chap. 6.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Polarization technique for separating overlapping fluorescence and reflectance spectra applied to algae in seawater in the presence of suspended matter," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004).

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, B. Elmaanaoui, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Separation of fluorescence and scattering from algae and suspended solids in seawater through polarization: modeling and experiments," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005).

A. Gilerson, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, "Polarization characteristics of water-leaving radiance: application to separation of fluorescence and scattering components in coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of the Coastal Oceanic Environment, R. J. Frouin, M. Babin, and S. Sathyendranath, eds., Proc. SPIE 5885,95-105 (2005).

J. F. Schalles and C. M. Hladik, "Remote chlorophyll estimation in coastal waters with tripton and CDOM interferences," in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVII Conference (Fremantle, Australia, 2004).

A. A. Gitelson, Y. Z. Yacobi, D. C. Rundquist, R. Stark, L. Han, and D. Etzion, "Remote estimation of chlorophyll concentration in productive waters: principals, algorithm development, and validation," in Proceedings of NWQMC, National Monitoring Conference (Austin, Texas, 2000), pp. 149-160.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. (a) Detector perpendicular to the axis of illumination, (b) general case of illumination and detection. L, lens; FP, fiber probe; A, aperture; P1, P2, polarizer and analyzer; C, cuvette with algae; WL, water level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detected and processed spectra for the experiments with the algae Thalassiosira weissflogii. (a) Polarized light source and (b) unpolarized light source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence extracted in the unpolarized illumination setup for different concentrations of algae Pavlova. Numbers on the graph are relative concentrations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of different methods of Chl fluorescence extraction from reflectance spectra for various [Chl]: algae Tetraselmis striata: (a) unpolarized light and (b) polarized light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of different methods of Chl fluorescence extraction from reflectance spectra for various [Chl]: algae Isochrysis sp.; unpolarized light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of the wind on the extraction of fluorescence with polarized light source (probe vertical, 50 mm above water surface): (a) no wind and (b) wind speed near water surface ∼9.5 m∕s.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance curves for algae with clay, C s = 0     to 200 mg / l .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fluorescence retrieval from algae with clay, C s = 100 mg / l .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fluorescence magnitude retrieved from algae with different concentrations of clay.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Detected and processed spectra for the measurements in the field. (a) Shinnecock Bay, Long Island, Sun zenith angle of 61°, probe above water in vertical position, [ Chl ] = 8 mg / m 3 ; (b) Chesapeake Bay, Sun zenith angle of 20°, probe just below water at 45°, [ Chl ] = 41 mg / m 3 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Irradiance ratio spectra calculated by bio-optical model and the vector radiative transfer code for waters with [ Chl ] = 20 mg / m 3 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Spectra of reflectance, (b) degree of polarization for [ Chl ] = 5 , 20 , 40 , and     80 mg / m 3 .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Spectra of R ( λ ) , of R ( λ ) , and of the fit of R ( λ ) onto R ( λ ) . (b) Results of fluorescence retrieval for [ Chl ] = 20   mg / m 3 .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison between the input fluorescence value and the corresponding polarization-retrieved and baseline-retrieved values.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Polarized total reflectance spectra and (b) degree of polarization for [ Chl ] = 20 mg / m 3 , and ocean surface wind speeds ranging from 1.37 to 18.9 m / s (surface roughness parameter S = 0.01 0.1 ; S = 2s2, where s is the surface slope variance for a Gaussian surface slope distribution).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Reflectance for an ocean layer with [ Chl ] = 20 mg / m 3 as a function of depths. The ocean bottom albedo and surface wind speed for these cases are 0.5 and 7.2 m∕s, respectively. Fluorescence component is not included.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(a) Reflectance with (solid curves) and without (dotted curves) superimposed fluorescence. (b) The corresponding degree of polarization for [ Chl ] = 20 mg / m 3 and concentration of minerals [ C s ] = 10 , 40 , and 100 mg / l .

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Comparison between the input fluorescence value and the corresponding polarization-retrieved and baseline-retrieved values for coastal waters.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Number of Phytoplankton, Detritus, and Mineral Particles∕m3 Used in RT Simulations for Different [Chl] Concentrations

Equations (14)

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R max ( λ ) = R ( λ ) + 0.5 Fl ( λ ) ,
R min ( λ ) = R ( λ ) + 0.5 Fl ( λ ) ,
R ( λ ) = R max ( λ ) + R min ( λ ) = R ( λ ) + R ( λ ) + Fl ( λ ) ,
R s ( λ ) = R ( λ ) + R ( λ ) .
Fl ( λ ) 2 R min ( λ ) .
R d ( λ ) = R max ( λ ) R min ( λ ) = R ( λ ) R ( λ ) .
Fl ( λ ) = R ( λ ) R s ( λ ) .
    R max ( λ ) 0.5 Fl ( λ ) = [ R min ( λ ) 0.5 Fl ( λ ) ] A + B ,
Fl ( λ ) = 2 [ A R min ( λ ) + B R max ( λ ) ] / ( A 1 ) .
E Fl = η [ Chl ] 400 675 [ E d ( λ ) a p h ( λ ) / a ( λ ) ] d λ ,
A ( λ ) = 0.33 b b / a ,
b b ( λ ) = 0.5 b w ( λ ) + { 0.002 + 0.02 ( 0.5 0.25 *   ln [ Chl ] ) × ( 550 / λ ) } { 0.30 [ Chl ] 0.62 b w ( 550 ) }
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + 0.06 a c * ( λ ) [ Chl ] 0.65 .
      a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a ph ( λ ) + N min σ a , min ( λ ) + a y ( λ ) ,

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