Abstract

We applied two numerical methods to in situ hyperspectral measurements of remote sensing reflectance R rs to assess the feasibility of remote detection and monitoring of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, which has been shown to exhibit unique absorption properties. First, an existing quasi-analytical algorithm was used to invert remote sensing reflectance spectra, Rrs(λ), to derive phytoplankton absorption spectra, aφ   Rrs(λ). Second, the fourth derivatives of the aφ   Rrs(λ) spectra were compared to the fourth derivative of a reference K. brevis absorption spectrum by means of a similarity index (SI) analysis. Comparison of reflectance-derived aφ with filter pad measured aφ found them to agree well (R2=0.891; average percentage difference, 22.8%). A strong correlation (R2=0.743) between surface cell concentration and the SI was observed, showing the potential utility of SI magnitude as an indicator of bloom strength. A sensitivity analysis conducted to investigate the effects of varying levels of cell concentrations and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on the efficacy of the quasi-analytical algorithm and SI found that aφ   Rrs(λ) could not be derived for very low cell concentrations and that, although it is possible to derive aφ   Rrs(λ) in the presence of high CDOM concentrations, CDOM levels influence the aφ   Rrs(λ) amplitude and shape. Results suggest that detection and mapping of K. brevis blooms based on hyperspectral measurements of Rrs are feasible.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. Orrico, M. A. Moline, M. Oliver, and O. M. Schofield, "Continuous hyperspectral absorption measurements of colored dissolved organic material in aquatic systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 6564-6568 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Stær and J. J. Cullen, "Detection of Karenia mikimotoi by spectral absorption signatures," J. Plank. Res. 25, 1237-1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Örnólfsdóttir, J. L. Pinckney, and P. A. Tester, "Quantification of the relative abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate, Kareia brevis (Dinophyta), using unique photopigments," J. Phycol. 39, 449-457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T. J. Evens, "Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae," Eur. J. Phycol. 37, 313-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. P. Stumpf, "Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for monitoring and predicting harmful algal blooms," Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 7, 1363-1368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. E. Lohrenz, "A novel theoretical approach to correct for pathlength amplification and variable sample loading in measurements of particulate spectral absorption by the quantitative filter technique," J. Plank. Res. 22, 639-657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, O. M. Schofield, D. F. Millie, and M. Moline, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. A. Tester and R. P. Stumpf, "Phytoplankton blooms and remote sensing: what is the potential for early warning?" J. Shellfish Res. 17, 1469-1471 (1998).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

1997 (3)

J. J. Cullen, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and M. R. Lewis, "Optical detection and assessment of algal blooms," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1223-1239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tester and K. A. Steidinger, "Gymnodinium breve red tide blooms: initiation, transport and consequences of surface circulation," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1039-1051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoglagellate, Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium an application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

W. L. Butler and D. W. Hopkins, "An analysis of fourth derivative spectra," Photochem. Photobiol. 12, 451-456 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. M.

D. M. Anderson, P. Hoagland, Y. Kaoru, and A. W. White (2000), "Economic impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States," Tech. Rep. WHOI-2000-11 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000).

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bissett, W. P.

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boyes, C.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, J. Hillier, and C. Boyes, "BreveBuster results from the channel marker at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor," http://isurus.mote.org/∼jhillier/Phytoplankton Ecology/WebDisplay/Display.html.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium an application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Butler, W. L.

W. L. Butler and D. W. Hopkins, "An analysis of fourth derivative spectra," Photochem. Photobiol. 12, 451-456 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cannizzaro, J. P.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. J. Walsh, Z. Lee, C. Heil, and T. Villareal, "A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: application to the 2001-2002 bloom event," in Proceedings of Xth Annual Conference on Harmful Algae (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission of UNESCO, 2002), p. 43.

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, "Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 35, 453-462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. J. Walsh, Z. Lee, C. Heil, and T. Villareal, "A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: application to the 2001-2002 bloom event," in Proceedings of Xth Annual Conference on Harmful Algae (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission of UNESCO, 2002), p. 43.

Chant, R.

O. Schofield, R. Chant, J. Kohut, and S. Glenn, "The growth of the New Jersey Shelf Observing System for monitoring plumes and blooms on the Mid-Atlantic continental shelf," presented at OCEANS 2004, Kobe, Japan, 9-12 November 2004.

Chen, F. R.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. J. Walsh, Z. Lee, C. Heil, and T. Villareal, "A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: application to the 2001-2002 bloom event," in Proceedings of Xth Annual Conference on Harmful Algae (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission of UNESCO, 2002), p. 43.

Chen, P.

K. P. Du, M. X. He, Z. P. Lee, and P. Chen, "A new data processing method for the Satlantic hyper-TSRB," presented at Ocean Optics XVI (Santa Fe, N. Mex., November 18-222002), available on CD-ROM from Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Ciotti, A. M.

J. J. Cullen, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and M. R. Lewis, "Optical detection and assessment of algal blooms," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1223-1239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, J. J.

P. A. Stær and J. J. Cullen, "Detection of Karenia mikimotoi by spectral absorption signatures," J. Plank. Res. 25, 1237-1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cullen, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and M. R. Lewis, "Optical detection and assessment of algal blooms," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1223-1239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Culver, M. E.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, "Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 35, 453-462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, R. F.

J. J. Cullen, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and M. R. Lewis, "Optical detection and assessment of algal blooms," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1223-1239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, K. P.

K. P. Du, M. X. He, Z. P. Lee, and P. Chen, "A new data processing method for the Satlantic hyper-TSRB," presented at Ocean Optics XVI (Santa Fe, N. Mex., November 18-222002), available on CD-ROM from Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Evens, T. J.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T. J. Evens, "Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae," Eur. J. Phycol. 37, 313-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fahnenstiel, G. L.

G. L. Fahnenstiel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (NOAA/GLERL), Lake Michigan Field Station, 1431 Beach Streets Muskegon, Michigan 49441 (personal communication, 2001).

Glenn, S.

O. Schofield, R. Chant, J. Kohut, and S. Glenn, "The growth of the New Jersey Shelf Observing System for monitoring plumes and blooms on the Mid-Atlantic continental shelf," presented at OCEANS 2004, Kobe, Japan, 9-12 November 2004.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grzymski, J.

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, M. X.

K. P. Du, M. X. He, Z. P. Lee, and P. Chen, "A new data processing method for the Satlantic hyper-TSRB," presented at Ocean Optics XVI (Santa Fe, N. Mex., November 18-222002), available on CD-ROM from Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Heil, C.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. J. Walsh, Z. Lee, C. Heil, and T. Villareal, "A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: application to the 2001-2002 bloom event," in Proceedings of Xth Annual Conference on Harmful Algae (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission of UNESCO, 2002), p. 43.

Heil, C. A.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hillier, J.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, J. Hillier, and C. Boyes, "BreveBuster results from the channel marker at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor," http://isurus.mote.org/∼jhillier/Phytoplankton Ecology/WebDisplay/Display.html.

Hoagland, P.

D. M. Anderson, P. Hoagland, Y. Kaoru, and A. W. White (2000), "Economic impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States," Tech. Rep. WHOI-2000-11 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000).

Hopkins, D. W.

W. L. Butler and D. W. Hopkins, "An analysis of fourth derivative spectra," Photochem. Photobiol. 12, 451-456 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Johnsen, G.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T. J. Evens, "Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae," Eur. J. Phycol. 37, 313-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoglagellate, Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaoru, Y.

D. M. Anderson, P. Hoagland, Y. Kaoru, and A. W. White (2000), "Economic impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States," Tech. Rep. WHOI-2000-11 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000).

Kirkpatrick, G. J.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. Orrico, M. A. Moline, M. Oliver, and O. M. Schofield, "Continuous hyperspectral absorption measurements of colored dissolved organic material in aquatic systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 6564-6568 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T. J. Evens, "Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae," Eur. J. Phycol. 37, 313-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, O. M. Schofield, D. F. Millie, and M. Moline, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoglagellate, Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, J. Hillier, and C. Boyes, "BreveBuster results from the channel marker at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor," http://isurus.mote.org/∼jhillier/Phytoplankton Ecology/WebDisplay/Display.html.

Kohut, J.

O. Schofield, R. Chant, J. Kohut, and S. Glenn, "The growth of the New Jersey Shelf Observing System for monitoring plumes and blooms on the Mid-Atlantic continental shelf," presented at OCEANS 2004, Kobe, Japan, 9-12 November 2004.

Lee, Z.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. J. Walsh, Z. Lee, C. Heil, and T. Villareal, "A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: application to the 2001-2002 bloom event," in Proceedings of Xth Annual Conference on Harmful Algae (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission of UNESCO, 2002), p. 43.

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, "Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 35, 453-462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 (personal communication, 2006).

K. P. Du, M. X. He, Z. P. Lee, and P. Chen, "A new data processing method for the Satlantic hyper-TSRB," presented at Ocean Optics XVI (Santa Fe, N. Mex., November 18-222002), available on CD-ROM from Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Lewis, M. R.

J. J. Cullen, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and M. R. Lewis, "Optical detection and assessment of algal blooms," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1223-1239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lohrenz, S. E.

S. E. Lohrenz, "A novel theoretical approach to correct for pathlength amplification and variable sample loading in measurements of particulate spectral absorption by the quantitative filter technique," J. Plank. Res. 22, 639-657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, K. L.

K. L. Mahoney, "Backscattering of light by Karenia brevis and implications for optical detection and monitoring," Ph.D. dissertation(University of Southern Mississippi, 2003).

Millie, D. F.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T. J. Evens, "Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae," Eur. J. Phycol. 37, 313-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, O. M. Schofield, D. F. Millie, and M. Moline, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoglagellate, Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley and L. K. Sundman, "Hydrolight 4.1 technical documentation," Sequoia Scientific Bellevue, WA (2000).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

Moline, M.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, O. M. Schofield, D. F. Millie, and M. Moline, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moline, M. A.

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium an application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

Oliver, M.

Örnólfsdóttir, E. B.

E. B. Örnólfsdóttir, J. L. Pinckney, and P. A. Tester, "Quantification of the relative abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate, Kareia brevis (Dinophyta), using unique photopigments," J. Phycol. 39, 449-457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orrico, C.

Patch, J. S.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

Peacock, P. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

Peacock, T. G.

Pederson, B. A.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pinckney, J. L.

E. B. Örnólfsdóttir, J. L. Pinckney, and P. A. Tester, "Quantification of the relative abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate, Kareia brevis (Dinophyta), using unique photopigments," J. Phycol. 39, 449-457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O.

O. Schofield, R. Chant, J. Kohut, and S. Glenn, "The growth of the New Jersey Shelf Observing System for monitoring plumes and blooms on the Mid-Atlantic continental shelf," presented at OCEANS 2004, Kobe, Japan, 9-12 November 2004.

Schofield, O. M.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. Orrico, M. A. Moline, M. Oliver, and O. M. Schofield, "Continuous hyperspectral absorption measurements of colored dissolved organic material in aquatic systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 6564-6568 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T. J. Evens, "Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae," Eur. J. Phycol. 37, 313-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, O. M. Schofield, D. F. Millie, and M. Moline, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoglagellate, Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Soracco, M.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stær, P. A.

P. A. Stær and J. J. Cullen, "Detection of Karenia mikimotoi by spectral absorption signatures," J. Plank. Res. 25, 1237-1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steidinger, K. A.

P. A. Tester and K. A. Steidinger, "Gymnodinium breve red tide blooms: initiation, transport and consequences of surface circulation," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1039-1051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

Stumpf, R. P.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, "Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for monitoring and predicting harmful algal blooms," Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 7, 1363-1368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tester and R. P. Stumpf, "Phytoplankton blooms and remote sensing: what is the potential for early warning?" J. Shellfish Res. 17, 1469-1471 (1998).

Sundman, L. K.

C. D. Mobley and L. K. Sundman, "Hydrolight 4.1 technical documentation," Sequoia Scientific Bellevue, WA (2000).

Tester, P. A.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Örnólfsdóttir, J. L. Pinckney, and P. A. Tester, "Quantification of the relative abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate, Kareia brevis (Dinophyta), using unique photopigments," J. Phycol. 39, 449-457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tester and R. P. Stumpf, "Phytoplankton blooms and remote sensing: what is the potential for early warning?" J. Shellfish Res. 17, 1469-1471 (1998).

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoglagellate, Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tester and K. A. Steidinger, "Gymnodinium breve red tide blooms: initiation, transport and consequences of surface circulation," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1039-1051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D. G.

D. G. Thomas, "The use of SeaWiFS-derived bio-optical properties to characterize harmful algal blooms," M.Sc. thesis (University of Southern Mississippi, 2000).

Tomlinson, M.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, M. C.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Truby, E.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Truby, E. W.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

Vargo, G. A.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, "Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico," Remote Sens. Env. 91, 293-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villareal, T.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. J. Walsh, Z. Lee, C. Heil, and T. Villareal, "A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: application to the 2001-2002 bloom event," in Proceedings of Xth Annual Conference on Harmful Algae (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission of UNESCO, 2002), p. 43.

Vinyard, B. T.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoglagellate, Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. J.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. J. Walsh, Z. Lee, C. Heil, and T. Villareal, "A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: application to the 2001-2002 bloom event," in Proceedings of Xth Annual Conference on Harmful Algae (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission of UNESCO, 2002), p. 43.

White, A. W.

D. M. Anderson, P. Hoagland, Y. Kaoru, and A. W. White (2000), "Economic impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States," Tech. Rep. WHOI-2000-11 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Deep Sea Res. (1)

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium an application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phycol. (1)

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T. J. Evens, "Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae," Eur. J. Phycol. 37, 313-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harmful Algae (1)

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, "Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data," Harmful Algae 2, 147-160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Human Ecol. Risk Assess. (1)

R. P. Stumpf, "Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for monitoring and predicting harmful algal blooms," Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 7, 1363-1368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophy. Res. (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytical radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophy. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, P. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. S. Patch, "An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color," J. Geophys. Res. 130, 27,976-27,978 (1998).

J. Phycol. (2)

O. M. Schofield, J. Grzymski, W. P. Bissett, G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. Moline, and C. S. Roesler, "Optical monitoring and forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms: possibility or pipe dream?" J. Phycol. 35, 1477-1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Örnólfsdóttir, J. L. Pinckney, and P. A. Tester, "Quantification of the relative abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate, Kareia brevis (Dinophyta), using unique photopigments," J. Phycol. 39, 449-457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Plank. Res. (2)

S. E. Lohrenz, "A novel theoretical approach to correct for pathlength amplification and variable sample loading in measurements of particulate spectral absorption by the quantitative filter technique," J. Plank. Res. 22, 639-657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Stær and J. J. Cullen, "Detection of Karenia mikimotoi by spectral absorption signatures," J. Plank. Res. 25, 1237-1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shellfish Res. (1)

P. A. Tester and R. P. Stumpf, "Phytoplankton blooms and remote sensing: what is the potential for early warning?" J. Shellfish Res. 17, 1469-1471 (1998).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cullen, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and M. R. Lewis, "Optical detection and assessment of algal blooms," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1223-1239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, O. M. Schofield, D. F. Millie, and M. Moline, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tester and K. A. Steidinger, "Gymnodinium breve red tide blooms: initiation, transport and consequences of surface circulation," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1039-1051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ECOHAB area of study. Circles show surface cell densities of K. brevis for 9–14 September 1999, 20–25 October 2001, and 3–7 November 2003.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In situ hyperspectral measurements of remote sensing reflectance, R rs(λ), for 9–14 September 1999, 20–25 October 2001, and 3–7 November 2003.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Phytoplankton absorption spectra measured from filter pads, a φ pad(λ), for a subset of ECOHAB stations. (b) Reflectance-derived phytoplankton absorption spectra, a φ     R rs ( λ ) , for 9–14 September 1999, 20–25 October 2001, and 3–7 November 2003. The reference, a φ ref(λ), is an absorption spectrum determined from filter pad measurements of a monospecific culture of K. brevis. (c) Filter pad measured phytoplankton absorption, a φ pad, compared with reflectance-derived phytoplankton absorption a φ     R rs , at selected wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface K. brevis cell concentration versus SI magnitude.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mie modeled (a) absorption spectra, a φ Mie(λ), and (b) backscattering spectra, b b Mie(λ), for cell concentrations in the range 75–6190 cells ml−1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Scenario I Hydrolight simulation of remote sensing reflectance, R rs HLI(λ). CDOM absorption is held constant at 0.25 m−1, and input IOPs, calculated from a range of cell concentrations from 75 to 6190 cells ml−1, are varied. (b) Scenario I reflectance-derived phytoplankton absorption, R rs HLI(λ), for cell concentrations ranging from 75 to 6190 cells ml−1. (c) Mie modeled phytoplankton absorption, a φ Mie, compared with reflectance-derived phytoplankton absorption, a φ HLI R rs , at selected wavelengths for scenario I simulations. (d) K. brevis cell concentration versus similarity index magnitude for scenario I simulations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Scenario II Hydrolight simulation of remote sensing reflectance, R rs HLII(λ). The CDOM absorption is varied from 0 to 3.0 m−1, and IOPs corresponding to a cell concentration of 6190 cells ml−1 are held constant. (b) Scenario II reflectance-derived phytoplankton absorption, a φ HLII R rs , for CDOM absorption ranging from 0 to 3.0 m−1 and a constant cell concentration of 6190 cells ml−1. (c) CDOM absorption at 440 nm, a CDOM(440), versus similarity index magnitude.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of Symbols Used in This Paper

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cell Concentrations and Percentage Difference between a φ Mie Values and a φ R rs HLII Values in the Range 400–560 nm a

Equations (24)

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T rs = L u L G R G π , S rs = L sky L G R G π ,
R rs ( λ ) = T rs ( λ ) F S rs ( λ ) Δ ,
S I = A ref A R rs | A ref | × | A R rs | ,
Q a ( λ ) = 1 + { 2   exp [ ρ ( λ ) ] } ρ ( λ ) + 2 { exp [ ρ ( λ ) ] 1 } ρ ( λ ) .
a CDOM = a CDOM ( λ 0 ) exp [ γ ( λ λ 0 ) ] ,
b b = b bp + 0.5 b w ,
[ Chl ] = a 675 / a 675 * ,
%   difference = { mean [ a φ     pad ( λ ) a φ     R rs ( λ ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 mean [ a φ ( λ ) pad ] × 100 % .
r rs = R rs 0.52 + 1.7 R rs .
u = b b a + b b .
r rs ( λ ) = g 0 u ( λ ) + g 1 [ u ( λ ) ] 2 .
u ( λ ) = g 0 + [ ( g 0 ) 2 + 4 g 1 r rs ( λ ) ] 1 / 2 2 g 1 .
a ( λ 0 ) = 0.0596 + 0.2 [ a ( 440 ) i 0.01 ] ,
a ( 440 ) i = exp ( 0.62 1.97 ρ + 0.79 ρ 2 ) ,
ρ = ln   r rs ( 440 ) r rs ( 555 ) .
b bp ( λ 0 ) = u ( λ 0 ) a ( λ 0 ) 1 u ( λ 0 ) b bw ( λ 0 ) .
Y = 2.2 { 1 1.2   exp [ 0.9 r rs ( 440 ) r rs ( 555 ) ] }
b bp ( λ ) = b bp ( λ 0 ) ( λ 0 / λ ) Y .
a ( λ ) = [ 1 u ( λ ) ] b bw ( λ ) + b bp ( λ ) u ( λ ) .
a g ( 440 ) = [ a ( 410 ) ζ a ( 440 ) ] ξ ζ [ a w ( 410 ) ζ a w ( 440 ) ] ξ ζ ,
a g ( λ ) = a ( 440 ) exp [ S QAA ( λ 440 ) ] ,
ζ = a φ ( 410 ) a φ ( 440 ) = 0.71 + 0.06 0.8 + r rs ( 440 ) / r rs ( 555 ) ,
ξ = a g ( 410 ) a g ( 440 ) = exp [ S ( 440 410 ) ] .
a φ     R rs = a a g a w .

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