Abstract

We present experimental results verifying the optical robustness of a 1×1 multimode interference (MMI) device that is directly butt coupled with optical fibers at 70°C for 1050   h and discuss the gradual increase of polarization dependent loss. Based on this structure, an electro-optic (EO) MMI waveguide device that can control the output optical power by using an electrode structure located directly on top of the multimode is presented. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate the switching operation of the EO-MMI device using commercially available chromophore as the active EO material.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Kudo and M. Yamaguchi, "Wavelength-selectable light sources with integrated microarray DFB-LDs," presented at the Workshop on Contemporary Photonic Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 15-17 January 2001.
  2. Y. Yoshikuni, "Semiconductor AWG Devices," presented at the Workshop on Contemporary Photonic Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 15-17 January 2001.
  3. D. M. Mackie and A. W. Lee, "Slotted multimode-interference devices," Appl. Opt. 43, 6609-6619 (2004).
  4. M. R. Paiam and R. I. MacDonald, "Design of phased-array wavelength division multiplexers using multimode interference couples," Appl. Opt. 36, 5097-5108 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-J. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and C.-L. Yao, "Four-channel coarse-wavelength division multiplexing demultiplexer with modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Opt. 42, 2689-2694 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Garner, J. S. Cites, M. He, and J. Wang, "Polysulfone as an electro-otpic polymer host material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1049-1051 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, L. R. Dalton, "Structural origin of the enhanced electrooptic response of dendrimeric systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 373, 207-212 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Geltzer Dinesen, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, and A. Bjarklev, "Microwave characteristics of polymer electrooptic modulator," Appl. Opt. 35, 4124-4127 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Themistos and B. M. Azizur Rahman, "Design issues of multimode interference based 3 dB splitters," Appl. Opt. 41, 7037-7044 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. O. Byryngdahl, "Image formation using self-imaging techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 416-419 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Thapliya, Y. Okano, and S. Nakamura, "Electro-optic characteristics of thin-film PLZT waveguide using ridge-type Mach-Zehnder modulator" J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1820-1827 (2003).
  20. E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. A. Soref, J. Schidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Hoehne, W. Hemminger, and H. J. Flammersheim, Differential Scanning Calorimetry: An Introduction for Practitioners (Springer, 2003).

2005 (1)

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. M. Mackie and A. W. Lee, "Slotted multimode-interference devices," Appl. Opt. 43, 6609-6619 (2004).

S. M. Garner, J. S. Cites, M. He, and J. Wang, "Polysulfone as an electro-otpic polymer host material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1049-1051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Thapliya, Y. Okano, and S. Nakamura, "Electro-optic characteristics of thin-film PLZT waveguide using ridge-type Mach-Zehnder modulator" J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1820-1827 (2003).

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, L. R. Dalton, "Structural origin of the enhanced electrooptic response of dendrimeric systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 373, 207-212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and C.-L. Yao, "Four-channel coarse-wavelength division multiplexing demultiplexer with modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Opt. 42, 2689-2694 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Themistos and B. M. Azizur Rahman, "Design issues of multimode interference based 3 dB splitters," Appl. Opt. 41, 7037-7044 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, J. J. M.

E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

Byryngdahl, O.

Chang, D.

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. H.

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cites, J. S.

S. M. Garner, J. S. Cites, M. He, and J. Wang, "Polysulfone as an electro-otpic polymer host material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1049-1051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, L. R. Dalton, "Structural origin of the enhanced electrooptic response of dendrimeric systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 373, 207-212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dinesen, P. Geltzer

Dubost, A. H.

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eckner, J.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erlig, H.

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flammersheim, H. J.

G. Hoehne, W. Hemminger, and H. J. Flammersheim, Differential Scanning Calorimetry: An Introduction for Practitioners (Springer, 2003).

Gamper, E.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S. M.

S. M. Garner, J. S. Cites, M. He, and J. Wang, "Polysulfone as an electro-otpic polymer host material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1049-1051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

S. M. Garner, J. S. Cites, M. He, and J. Wang, "Polysulfone as an electro-otpic polymer host material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1049-1051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hemminger, W.

G. Hoehne, W. Hemminger, and H. J. Flammersheim, Differential Scanning Calorimetry: An Introduction for Practitioners (Springer, 2003).

Hoehne, G.

G. Hoehne, W. Hemminger, and H. J. Flammersheim, Differential Scanning Calorimetry: An Introduction for Practitioners (Springer, 2003).

Ishikawa, S.

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, K.

K. Kudo and M. Yamaguchi, "Wavelength-selectable light sources with integrated microarray DFB-LDs," presented at the Workshop on Contemporary Photonic Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 15-17 January 2001.

Lee, A. W.

D. M. Mackie and A. W. Lee, "Slotted multimode-interference devices," Appl. Opt. 43, 6609-6619 (2004).

Lee, S.-L.

Leslie, T. M.

M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lester, C.

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-J.

MacDonald, R. I.

Mackie, D. M.

D. M. Mackie and A. W. Lee, "Slotted multimode-interference devices," Appl. Opt. 43, 6609-6619 (2004).

Melchior, H.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. Thapliya, Y. Okano, and S. Nakamura, "Electro-optic characteristics of thin-film PLZT waveguide using ridge-type Mach-Zehnder modulator" J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1820-1827 (2003).

Oh, Min-Cheol

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okano, Y.

R. Thapliya, Y. Okano, and S. Nakamura, "Electro-optic characteristics of thin-film PLZT waveguide using ridge-type Mach-Zehnder modulator" J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1820-1827 (2003).

Paiam, M. R.

Patent, E. A.

E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pereverzev, Y. V.

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, L. R. Dalton, "Structural origin of the enhanced electrooptic response of dendrimeric systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 373, 207-212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. A. Soref, J. Schidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prezhdo, O. V.

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, L. R. Dalton, "Structural origin of the enhanced electrooptic response of dendrimeric systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 373, 207-212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. Azizur

Rasmussen, T.

Reed, L. D.

M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schidtchen, J.

R. A. Soref, J. Schidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinicropi, J. A.

M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, J. Schidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Szep, A.

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thapliya, R.

R. Thapliya, Y. Okano, and S. Nakamura, "Electro-optic characteristics of thin-film PLZT waveguide using ridge-type Mach-Zehnder modulator" J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1820-1827 (2003).

Themistos, C.

Tsap, B.

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van der Tol, J. J. G. M.

E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veerman, F. B.

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

S. M. Garner, J. S. Cites, M. He, and J. Wang, "Polysulfone as an electro-otpic polymer host material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1049-1051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Kudo and M. Yamaguchi, "Wavelength-selectable light sources with integrated microarray DFB-LDs," presented at the Workshop on Contemporary Photonic Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 15-17 January 2001.

Yang, J.

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, C.-L.

Yoshikuni, Y.

Y. Yoshikuni, "Semiconductor AWG Devices," presented at the Workshop on Contemporary Photonic Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 15-17 January 2001.

Zhang, C.

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. Li. H.

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, Min-Cheol Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 3136-3138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. M. Garner, J. S. Cites, M. He, and J. Wang, "Polysulfone as an electro-otpic polymer host material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1049-1051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. He, T. M. Leslie, J. A. Sinicropi, S. M. Garner, and L. D. Reed, "Synthesis of chromophores with extremely high electro-optic activities 2. Isophorone- and combined isophorone-thiophene-based chromophores," Chem. Mater. 14, 4669-4675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, L. R. Dalton, "Structural origin of the enhanced electrooptic response of dendrimeric systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 373, 207-212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Min-Cheol Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electro-optic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

X. Jiang, X. Li. H. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, and S. Ishikawa, "Compact variable optical attenuator based on multimode interference couple," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2361-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. A. Patent, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, J. J. M. Binsma, and M. K. Smit, "Effect of the first-order mode in access waveguides on the performance of unbalanced MMI couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planer monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843-1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1228-1238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Science (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

K. Kudo and M. Yamaguchi, "Wavelength-selectable light sources with integrated microarray DFB-LDs," presented at the Workshop on Contemporary Photonic Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 15-17 January 2001.

Y. Yoshikuni, "Semiconductor AWG Devices," presented at the Workshop on Contemporary Photonic Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 15-17 January 2001.

D. M. Mackie and A. W. Lee, "Slotted multimode-interference devices," Appl. Opt. 43, 6609-6619 (2004).

R. Thapliya, Y. Okano, and S. Nakamura, "Electro-optic characteristics of thin-film PLZT waveguide using ridge-type Mach-Zehnder modulator" J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1820-1827 (2003).

G. Hoehne, W. Hemminger, and H. J. Flammersheim, Differential Scanning Calorimetry: An Introduction for Practitioners (Springer, 2003).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Types of MMI devices fabricated: (a) passive 1 × 1 MMI device used for thermal stability investigation (MMI#1), (b) passive 1 × 2 MMI device used to verify symmetrical 3 dB power splitting (MMI#2), and (c) EO 1 × 1 EO-MMI device used to demonstrate optical switching (MMI#3). Note: the S bends that are attached to the actual MMI#2 are omitted in (b) for the sake of clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Structural view of the EO-MMI device describing the cross section as well as the planer configuration, (b) calculated outcome when no voltage is applied to the 1 × 1 MMI device, (c) the case when a voltage is applied on the electrode to block the optical power from flowing out of the device, (d) the calculated 3 dB power splitting achieved using MMI#2 with the dimensions defining the S bends attached to the output access waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of the output side of the fabricated EO-MMI and passive 1 × 1 MMI, and (b) a 5× magnification of the junction between the multimode and single-mode waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power fluctuation of the TE and TM modes due to change in ambient temperature of a butt-coupled 1 × 1 MMI device (MMI#1). Note the drastic change of the TE mode while the power of the TM mode remains relatively unchanged.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of the optical robustness test for 1 × 1 MMI device (MMI#1) for TE and TM modes taken for 1050 h at 70 °C. Note that the PDL is small and the fluctuation is comparable to the reference fiber-to-fiber results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near field profiles for TE and TM modes when scanned (a) vertically and (b) laterally, with respect to the access channel of MMI#3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for switching verification.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Experimental and (b) theoretical responses of MMI#3 using r 33 = 5.1 pm∕V.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical beam profiles for TE and TM modes with (a) perfect alignment with butt-coupled fiber, (b) lateral shift of 2.0 μm, and (c) a horizontal tilt angle of 1°.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Indices of the Materials Used to Investigate the Performance of the MMI Devices at the Wavelength Equal to 1.55 μm a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of Fabricated Passive 1 × 1 MMI, 1 × 2 MMI, and EO-MMI devices, Named as MMI#1, MMI#2 and MMI#3

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V core = R core ( 2 R clad + R core ) V 0 ,
V core = d core ( 2 d clad × ρ clad ρ core + d core ) V 0 .
Δ n = n 3 r 33 E core 2 ,
Δ n = n 3 r 33 2 ( 2 d clad   ρ clad ρ core + d core ) V 0 .

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