Abstract

The finite recovery time Ts of the bleached absorber is presented as one of the possible mechanisms accounting for the increase–maximum–decrease in pulse energy E with the pumping rate WP in cw-pumped passively Q-switched solid-state lasers, by analytically evaluating the sign of the derivative E/WP. The results show that, in the low pump regime (T>Ts, T is the interpulse period), the initial population density ni remains constant, the final population density nf decreases with WP, and this results in a monotonic increase of E with WP. In the high pump regime (T<Ts), ni decreases but nf remains the same with WP; this results in a monotonic decrease of E with WP. At the critical region (TTs), E reaches its maximum value. A cw-pumped Yb:YAG laser passively Q switched by a Cr4+:YAG absorber is demonstrated to confirm this model. The theoretical model is also applied to the analysis of three previously reported passive Q switching solid-state [Nd:GdVO4, Nd+:LaSc3(BO3)4(Nd+:LSB), and Nd:YAG] lasers experiments.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Braun, F. X. Kartner, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "56-ps passively Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 381-383 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Morris and C. R. Pollock, "Passive Q switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 15, 440-442 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890-1901 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Xiao and M. Bass, "A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1996).
  7. J. Liu, B. Ozygus, S. Yang, J. Erhard, U. Seelig, A. Ding, H. Weber, X. M. L. Zhu, L. Qin, C Du, X. Xu, and Z. Shao, "Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 652-661 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Welford, "Passively Q-switched lasers: short pulse duration, single-frequency sources," Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 121-122.
  10. J. J. Zayhowski and A. L. Wilson, "Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588-1593 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. A. Jaspan, D. Welford, and J. A. Russell, "Passively Q-switched microlaser performance in the presence of pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 43, 2555-2560 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, M. P. Sharma, and T. Erneux, "Dynamics of passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1247-1256 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, "Effect of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 887-899 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, "Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562-1566 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Herda and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Effect of amplified spontaneous emission and absorber mirror recovery time on the dynamics of mode-locked fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011113 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. J. Quarles, "Comparison of ceramic lasers with single crystal materials," presented at Photonics West on Lasers and Applications in Science and Engineering, San Jose, California, 22-27 January 2005.
  21. Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2005 (3)

S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Herda and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Effect of amplified spontaneous emission and absorber mirror recovery time on the dynamics of mode-locked fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011113 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. J. Quarles, "Comparison of ceramic lasers with single crystal materials," presented at Photonics West on Lasers and Applications in Science and Engineering, San Jose, California, 22-27 January 2005.

2004 (2)

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Jaspan, D. Welford, and J. A. Russell, "Passively Q-switched microlaser performance in the presence of pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 43, 2555-2560 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. J. Zayhowski and A. L. Wilson, "Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588-1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, B. Ozygus, S. Yang, J. Erhard, U. Seelig, A. Ding, H. Weber, X. M. L. Zhu, L. Qin, C Du, X. Xu, and Z. Shao, "Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 652-661 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, M. P. Sharma, and T. Erneux, "Dynamics of passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1247-1256 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, "Effect of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 887-899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Braun, F. X. Kartner, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "56-ps passively Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 381-383 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xiao and M. Bass, "A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890-1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, "Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562-1566 (1965).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[Crossref]

Bass, M.

G. Xiao and M. Bass, "A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Batay, L. E.

S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blau, P.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

Burshtein, Z.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Coyle, D. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, "Effect of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 887-899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Danailov, M. B.

S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
[Crossref]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, "Effect of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 887-899 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890-1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[Crossref]

Demidovich, A. A.

S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, A.

Du, C

Erhard, J.

Erneux, T.

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, M. P. Sharma, and T. Erneux, "Dynamics of passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1247-1256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gavrielides, A.

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, M. P. Sharma, and T. Erneux, "Dynamics of passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1247-1256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Herda, R.

R. Herda and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Effect of amplified spontaneous emission and absorber mirror recovery time on the dynamics of mode-locked fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, D. X.

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, W. L.

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jaspan, M. A.

Kalisky, Y.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kartner, F. X.

Kay, R. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, "Effect of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 887-899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

Kokta, M. R.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuzmin, A. N.

S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lengyel, B. A.

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. G.

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lim, G. C.

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[Crossref]

Moore, N.

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. A.

Moser, M.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

R. Herda and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Effect of amplified spontaneous emission and absorber mirror recovery time on the dynamics of mode-locked fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ozygus, B.

Peterson, P.

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, M. P. Sharma, and T. Erneux, "Dynamics of passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1247-1256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pollock, C. R.

Qin, L.

Quarles, G. J.

G. J. Quarles, "Comparison of ceramic lasers with single crystal materials," presented at Photonics West on Lasers and Applications in Science and Engineering, San Jose, California, 22-27 January 2005.

Russell, J. A.

Seelig, U.

Shao, Z.

Sharma, M. P.

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, M. P. Sharma, and T. Erneux, "Dynamics of passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1247-1256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shimony, Y.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stein, R. A.

A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, "Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562-1566 (1965).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
[Crossref]

Szabo, A.

A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, "Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562-1566 (1965).
[Crossref]

Voitikov, S. V.

S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wagner, W. G.

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[Crossref]

Weber, H.

Welford, D.

M. A. Jaspan, D. Welford, and J. A. Russell, "Passively Q-switched microlaser performance in the presence of pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 43, 2555-2560 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Welford, "Passively Q-switched lasers: short pulse duration, single-frequency sources," Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 121-122.

Wilson, A. L.

J. J. Zayhowski and A. L. Wilson, "Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588-1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao and M. Bass, "A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Z. J.

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Yang, S.

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski and A. L. Wilson, "Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588-1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, Q.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X. M. L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Herda and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Effect of amplified spontaneous emission and absorber mirror recovery time on the dynamics of mode-locked fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011113 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (9)

J. J. Zayhowski and A. L. Wilson, "Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588-1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Wang, "Optimization of dye Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 905-908 (1994).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, "Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41-44 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, M. P. Sharma, and T. Erneux, "Dynamics of passively Q-switched microchip lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1247-1256 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, "Effect of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 887-899 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, "Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890-1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Xiao and M. Bass, "A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286-2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, "Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562-1566 (1965).
[Crossref]

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

Z. G. Li, Z. J. Xiong, N. Moore, G. C. Lim, W. L. Huang, and D. X. Huang, "Amplified-spontaneous-emission effects in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 1479-1485 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. V. Voitikov, A. A. Demidovich, L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, and M. B. Danailov, "Sub-nanosecond pulse dynamics of Nd:LSB microchip laser Q-switched by Cr:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 251, 154-164 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

D. Welford, "Passively Q-switched lasers: short pulse duration, single-frequency sources," Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 121-122.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

G. J. Quarles, "Comparison of ceramic lasers with single crystal materials," presented at Photonics West on Lasers and Applications in Science and Engineering, San Jose, California, 22-27 January 2005.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental setup of passive Q-switched Yb:YAG∕Cr4+:YAG ceramics laser. OC, output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The measured pulse parameters of PQS Cr:YAG∕Yb:YAG ceramics laser as a function of absorbed pump power: (a) Average power and repetition rate, (b) pulse duration and peak power, and (c) pulse energy, when the output coupling R = 95%.

Equations (38)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

/ d t = ϕ [ 2 σ n l 2 σ s n s l s ln ( 1 / R ) L ] / t r ,
d n / d t = γ σ ncϕ n / τ 21 + W p ( N t n ) ,
d n s / d t = γ s σ s c n s ϕ + ( n s 0 n s ) / τ s .
n s i = n s 0 ( n s 0 n s f ) e T / τ s ,
n i = W P τ 21 N t 1 + W P τ 21 ( W P τ 21 N t 1 + W P τ 21 n f ) e ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) T / τ 21 .
n s i n s 0 [ 1 exp ( T / τ s ) ] ,
n f = W P τ 21 N t 1 + W P τ 21 ( W P τ 21 N t 1 + W P τ 21 n i ) × ( n s 0 n s i n s 0 n s f ) ( τ s / τ 21 ) ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) , W P τ 21 N t 1 + W P τ 21 ( W P τ 21 N t 1 + W P τ 21 n i ) × ( 1 n s i n s 0 ) ( τ s / τ 21 ) ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) .
2 σ n i l 2 σ s n s i l s ln ( 1 / R ) L = 0 ,
ln n i n f = 2 σ l ln ( 1 R ) + L { n i n f l s l γ γ s n s i [ 1 ( n f n i ) α ] } ,
E = h ν A ( 2 σ γ ) ln ( 1 / R ) ln ( n i / n f ) ,
E W P = h ν A 2 σ γ ln ( 1 R ) 1 n f ( n f n i n i W P n f W P ) ¯ .
n s i / W P = σ l / ( σ s l s ) n i / W P ,
1 n f ( n f n i n i W P n f W P ) ¯ = 2 σ l ln ( 1 / R ) + L { n i W P n f W P l s l γ γ s [ 1 ( n f n i ) α ] n s i W P l s l γ γ s n s i α ( n f n i ) α × 1 n f ( n f n i n i W P n f W P ) ¯ } .
E W P = h νA 2 σ γ ln ( 1 R ) [ 1 1 α + 1 α ( n f n i ) α ] n i W P n f W P ln ( 1 / R ) + L 2 σ l + l s γ l γ s n s i α ( n f n i ) α .
n i 2 σ g n s 0 l s + ln ( 1 / R ) + L / ( 2 σ l ) .
n s i / W P 0 ,
n i / W P 0.
n f W P = N t τ 21 ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) 2 [ 1 - ( 1 n s i n s 0 ) - ( τ s / τ 21 ) ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) ] + τ s ( W P N t τ 21 1 + W P τ 21 n i ) × ( 1 n s i n s 0 ) - ( τ s / τ 21 ) ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) ln ( 1 n s i n s 0 ) .
( 1 n s i n s 0 ) - ( τ s / τ 21 ) ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) > 1 ,
ln ( 1 n s i n s 0 ) < 0.
W P N t τ 21 / ( 1 + W P τ 21 ) n i .
n f / W P < 0 .
E W P = - h νA 2 σ γ ln ( 1 R ) 1 n f n f W P > 0 .
n f W P τ 21 N t ( W P τ 21 N t n i ) ( 1 n s i / n s 0 ) τ s / τ 21 .
n f W P N t τ 21 [ 1 ( 1 n s i / n s 0 ) τ s / τ 21 ] ,
E W P = - h νA 2 σ γ ln ( 1 R ) 1 n f n f W P - h νA 2 σ γ ln ( 1 R ) 1 n f N t τ 21 [ 1 ( 1 n s i n s 0 ) τ s / τ 21 ] ,
n s i / W P < 0 .
n i / W P < 0 .
1 1 α + 1 α ( n f n i ) α ln ( 1 / R ) + L 2 σ l + l s γ l γ s n s i α ( n f n i ) α = n f n i 1 n f .
1 ln ( 1 / R ) + L 2 σ l + l s γ l γ s n s i α ( n f n i ) α n f W P = 1 n f n f W P .
( 1 1 α ) + 1 α ( n f n i ) α > n f n i .
1 ln ( 1 / R ) + L 2 σ l + l s γ l γ s n s i α ( n f n i ) α < 1 n f .
n f / W P = 0.
E W P = h ν A 2 σ γ ln ( 1 R ) 1 n i n i W P < 0.
E / W P = 0.
n s = n s 0 ( 1 e t / τ s ) ,
W P = σ abs P in / ( h ν P A ) = 132 s 1 ,
E W P ( Cr 4+ : YAG ) 50 E W P (LiF : F 2     ) .

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